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The Stepwise Tutorial to Us Doc Form Doc Pto 1595

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Tutorial as toUs Doc Form Doc Pto 1595

I would like to present examples and approaches.for designing polycultures with nut tree crops.from the academic publications available in.English and from several specialized books..I hope that these data will demonstrate you.some possible directions for designing your.polycultures, which you may test and adapt.to your local conditions.As you can see from.this table, nut trees are N demanding crops..Orchards with very large pecan trees may require.up to 145 kg N/ha. Yet this high N demand.can be at least partly met by legumes. If.cool-season legumes are grown throughout the.orchard and incorporated as green manure,.they can contribute between 100 and 250 kg.N/ha (and less if they grow only in alleys)..Winter cover crops can be profitable for Californian.almond growers who have flexible contractual.obligations, can wait for the long-term return.on investment and manage cover crops as closely.as cash crops. The average benefit-cost ration.equated to 1.2, and economic benefits will.be experienced between 14 and 19 years of.this conservation practice.For this const-benefit.analysis it was assumed that for the the first.three years green manure clover mix will be.used to add biomass, and in subsequent 26.years an annual reseeding plants will be utilized.to mimic native vegetation and minimize management..Harvest complication from summer cover crops.for sweeping almond hulls from the orchard.floor in August were valued as infrequent.revenue losses..In addition to harvest complications another.study in Mediterranean conditions emphasized.the importance of tradeoff for water consumption.between cover crop and almond, thus cover.crops should be selected to develop during.rainy winter season and don’t compete with.almond in summer..The study in semiarid conditions which compared.oat and oat-vetch cover crops under either.sheep grazing in mid May, or hay in early.June, or grain-straw management in mid July.revealed improvement of soil quality compared.to tillage, an increase in organic matter.content, improvement of soil chemical and.physical fertility and enhancing biological.activity. Early removal of cover crop would.minimize competition for water and nutrients.and prevent possible almond yield losses..Grazing had the greatest positive effect since.it can be applied earlier than the other harvesting.regimes..In another experiment in SE Spain CC mixture.composed of legumes and crucifers with moderate.sheep grazing had also demonstrated positive.effect on soil properties by increasing water.content in soil and boosting most enzyme activities,.while preserving soil structure..Short-term sudangrass rotation have been tested.in California as a nonfumigant approach to.manage prunus replant disease on peach trees.that lead to suppression of early growth and.yield. Thee growth was improved comparing.to fallow but the degree of benefit was less.that that achieved by fumigation. Yet 2 month.sudangrass cultivation under sprinkler irrigation.has improved cumulative fruit yield over 4.years period..As almond has high N demand, nitrogen-fixing.cover crops such as white or subterranean.clover are recommended as ground cover. They.should be kept 2 m away from trees..There is an ongoing research on cover crops.for almond orchard by the Amélie Gaudin lab.in the University of California. You can participate.in the survey and read more details in the.publication that you see on the slide..In terms of increasing pollination service,.which might be of a particular interest for.almond crop, a study from South Sinai in Egypt.concluded that enhancing of on-farm floral.abundance and diversity, in particular with.simultaneously flowering crops, is more efficient.strategy to improve almond pollination in.arid regions where the natural pollinator.habitat is relatively resource poor comparing.to temperate regions, where set-aside semi-natural.habitats are used to attract pollinators..Another conclusion was that wild insects,.in particular Osmia bees, are more efficient.almond pollinators that honey bees. In addition,.presence of wild bees encourage honey bee.movement between almond rows that additionally.increases pollination..There are several reports on intercropping.cash crops in almond orchards. In terms of.almond allelopathy, leaf and bark extracts.inhibited the seed germination and root elongation.of cress and fenugreek. However, leaf residues.stimulated the growth of cress plants.It is.not recommended to intercrop almonds with.peaches, as these trees can hybridize and.almond will produce bitter nuts.There are.several overyielding polycultures with almond..For example, in semiarid conditions wheat.and barley intercropped at the distance of.2.5 m from the trees demonstrated on average.37% higher yield than in monocultures, as.well as higher soil organic matter, total.nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content.in the soil. Competition for light between.intercrops should be reduced by almond pruning,.and fertilizer management should be based.on consideration, that higher amount of nutrients.is observed closer to tree row.In India saffron.was successfully intercropped with almond,.apple and pear.Mixed orchards with scattered.carob, fig, almond and olive trees are traditional.in Mediterranean region for part-time dry.farming, and in Portugal this cultivation.system is called ‘Barrocal’. Trees are.more productive than in monocrop orchards,.crop diversity compensate for production irregularity,.and C sequestration benefit from such cultivation.may represent 125–300 % of income which.may overcome the lack of fruit production.during off-years. Deciduous trees fig and.almond contribute to improvement of nutrient.cycling, and shrubs can additionally increase.soil organic carbon content. Such orchards.are often cultivated on slopes where they.provide good erosion control and minimize.nutrient losses.In arid climate of Morocco.fig, olive, and date palm are sparsely planted.with multiple medicinal plants in the understory,.which are listed on the slide. This system.can be enhanced with seasonal crops such as.cereals and legumes..There is a number of commercial species of.chestnut, and this starchy tree crop was a.traditional staple food in many areas of Asia,.Southern Europe and in Mediterranean countries..C. dentata (Borkh.), was a dominating broadleaf.forest canopy species in North America until.it was devastated by chestnut blight. Along.with edible nuts chestnuts provide a number.of agro-forestry co-productions, such as honey,.edible mushrooms, forage and wildlife habitat..Both resident and seeded ground cover vegetation.improves the productivity and sustainability.of chestnut orchards. It increases soil organic.matter content, reduces erosion on steep slopes,.makes mechanical transit easier after long.rainy periods and improves the distribution.and availability of less mobile elements such.as phosphorus and potassium..In Northern Portugal no-tillage systems with.natural vegetation (NV) or irrigated seeded.pastures (NIP) enhanced fruit production and.fruit quality parameters, and significantly.increased productivity of Boletus edible mushrooms..No-till system with natural vegetation had.the highest net income, and seeded pasture.showed higher forage production..Chestnut has been traditionally intercropped.with winter cereals, such as oat and rye in.soutos – traditional orchards in Southeastern.Galicia in Spain. Such high yielding low input.intercropping system increased fertility of.upper soil horizons, and due to reduced leaching.and better nutrient cycling provided better.Ca status, which in turn alleviate aluminum.toxicity problem..In temperate region of China shading by Chinese.chestnut enhanced soil nutrient availability,.augmented activity of soil enzymes, and facilitated.the increase of quantity and quality of intercropped.tea. And in Hubei low hill agroforestry sweet.chestnut was successfully intercropped with.wolfberry or goji berries..Sweet chestnut might be a good candidate as.host for edible truffle species in multi-.cropping plantations in Europe due to tree.adaptability to different environments and.its multiple uses. It was possible to obtain.mycorrhizal chestnut seedlings inoculated.with several truffle species in calcium-reach.substrate with high pH which are optimum conditions.for truffle growth. Other truffle hosts include.some oak, hazelnut, linden and pine species.which might be possible chestnut intercrops.for truffle production. Such mycorrhization.of chestnut, in particular with Tuber brumale,.was also beneficial for trees as it stimulates.development of the root system, enhances water.and nutrient uptake and increases total plant.biomass..Interplanting chestnuts with good nitrogen.fixers (e.g. alders or silverberry) at the.rate of 20 per cent nitrogen fixers to 80.per cent chestnuts (by canopy area) will supply.all nitrogen demand for chestnut trees. Potassium.accumulators like comfrey or sorrels can be.used to increase potassium availability. Trees.with good mycorrhizal associations will require.fewer nutrient additions and are also more.resistant to diseases..Different chestnut species are often grown.in pannage system for fattening pigs. Running.poultry beneath the trees before and after.nut harvesting can provide pest control..Stands of chestnut trees in North-west Spain.can provide feed for pigs when the fruit falls.in November and provide an excellent habitat.for the commercial production of edible mushrooms..In Spain, in the production of high quality.walnut trees using rotations of up to 50–60.years, there are options to establish a legume-based.mixed pasture understorey and to introduce.sheep to provide financial and environmental.benefits. Chestnut groves are also very popular.in most continental areas in Greece.with grazing by sheep and goats being the.most common traditional use..Biodiverse Galician chestnut system belongs.to the Natura 2000 network. It is a priority.area for birds and is part of the recovery.plan for the local bear population..Research in Netherlands proved feasibility.of integration of multipurpose timber trees.(chestnut, walnut and cherry) with pasture..During the 4 years of tree cultivation there.was no negative influence on composition and.production of the grass vegetation..The rotational grazing system, using a chicory.pasture established in a chestnut forest in.northeast Beijing, China, promoted better.live performance, carcass yield, and meat.and egg quality of Beijing-you chickens compared.with the free-range system herding on bare.land, in addition of allowing saving 15% of.supplemental feed..In terms of chestnut allelopathy, American.chestnut leaves produce allelopathic chemicals.that inhibit the germination of lettuce, rosebay.rhododendron, and eastern hemlock seeds. Allelopathy.is a presumed mechanism to control by American.Chestnut the competition from both tree and.shrub species in pre-blight southern Appalachian.forests, and chestnut elimination might be.responsible for rapid expansion of rosebay.rhododendron during the 20th century..European chestnut and Douglas fir are compatible.intercrop for mixed timber plantation as demonstrated.in Northern Portugal, where chestnut trees.have bigger diameter and height, soil demonstrates.higher fertility, and leaves – higher nutrient.content..However, fir and beech showed a better competitive.potential in comparison with chestnut trees.in northwest Italy. These species outcompete.an over-aged chestnut coppice on suboptimal.or marginal sites, and regular coppicing is.needed to keep the chestnut components of.the stand..In order to preserve tree composition and.improve stand biodiversity, tree-oriented.silviculture approach of forest management.can be applied. It is based on early selection.of tree crops whose growth will be favored.and applying frequent thinning in their neighborhood..In temperate climate of Appalachia, USA Chinese.chestnut (Castanea mollissima) demonstrated.the higher survival rate in the mixed stand.with red oak (Quercus rubra) – a desired.mature forest species, pawpaw (Asimina triloba),.hazelnut (Corylus americana), and white pine.(Pinus strobus). Chestnut and hazelnut were.negatively impacted by forest edge more than.oak or pawpaw. Authors conclude that shade.tolerant trees such as pawpaw should be planted.on the southern row end and sun loving species.such as chestnut or hazelnut on the northern.as these 2 species demonstrated decreased.growth that might be attributed to shading..Oak and chestnut required protection from.deer..Oak density was positively correlated to the.density of generalist native parasitoids of.Asian chestnut gall wasp, one of the most.serious pests of chestnuts. Being a keystone.taxa across the Western Palearctic, oaks support.more associated insects than any other forest.tree, and native parasitoids can switch between.oak and chestnut pests..Chestnut has positive effect on soil organic.matter content and microclimate. Study in.Crete demonstrated that chestnut stands moderate.the extreme temperatures which are characteristic.of Mediterranean summers and create unique.microclimatic and soil conditions for specific.biomes..Iberian chestnut soutos also contribute to.groundwater recharge and improve regulating.ecosystems services, including reduction of.nitrate and soil losses, higher carbon sequestration,.higher functional biodiversity focused on.pollination, and greater habitat diversity..A number of cover crops have been tested for.weed control in hazelnut orchards. Mixture.of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), hairy.vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), and red clover.(Trifolium pratense L.) has reduced weed density,.biomass, and diversity in Northern Turkey,.and hairy vetch has demonstrated the best.weed suppression among several clover and.fescue species tested in another experiment..Clover increased soil microbial biomass in.the study performed in Italy..Brassica cover crops, in particular oriental.mustard, were efficient smother or weed suppression.crops due to their rapid fall growth, high.biomass production and hence good competitiveness.with other plants. Yet it is recommended to.combine brassica crops with herbicide applications.for postemergence control of weeds..Another studies revealed that double harvest.technique combined with a permanent ground.cover enhanced the quality at harvest and.the preservation of hazelnuts..Cocksfoot has competed with trees for water.and nitrogen..In Netherlands hazelnut was intercropped with.walnut and sea buckthorn. This polyculture.was designed to combine walnut with earlier.yielding crops to generate income before walnut.start to produce. With tree grows Sea Buckthorn.was heavily pruned to prevent competition.with the walnuts and hazelnuts, and later.it was completely removed.Hazelnut is frequently.intercropped with alder, ash, birch and oak..Hazel leaf litter is rich in nitrogen and.potassium to benefit nearby crops. Traditional.European systems include interplanted systems.of hazels and vines. In Kentish orchards,.gooseberries and currants were traditionally.interplanted with young hazels.Sheep can be.pastured in walnut orchard with an added benefit.of controlling unwanted sucker growth. Running.chickens below trees that eat overwintering.pupae of Hazelnut weevil aid in pest control..Badgersett Research Corporation in Minnesota.designed staple crop carbon- sequestering.system with neohybrid hazelnuts, hazelnuts,.and hickory-pecans grown in double rows and.coppiced to the ground on roughly 10-year.rotations. This kind of coppicing is an alternative.to pruning for rejuvenation and for removal.of diseased or unproductive wood; the coppiced.material is available as biomass feedstock..Sheep and horses graze the grass between rows,.poultry are used for insect control, and hogs.are introduced after harvest to clean up fallen.nuts and convert them to pork..Hazelnut support many types of wildlife, including.insects, birds and mammals. Bees (particularly.bumblebees) are attracted by the early pollen..52% of Kentish farmers noticed wildlife benefits.from cobnut plots, and hazel as a native species.should have more species of wildlife associated.with it than introduced species..Hedgerow with timber trees: walnut, ash, sycamore.and cherry interplanted with hazel bushes.attracted larger numbers of natural enemies.THAN crop pests in Northern England. Moreover,.the number of arthropods found in this hedge.were significantly higher compared to both.the forest plots and woodlots..Essential oils from two species of pistachio.can inhibit or reduce the growth of weed species,.with dicots weeds being significantly more.sensitive than monocots. And saponin from.chinese pistache was a promising compound.for controlling snail..Ginkgo in traditional agroforestry systems.in subtropical China had better kernel quality.indicator than pure Ginkgo stand, and Ginkgo.kernel quality in Ginkgo- Broadbean-Peanut.system was the best, followed by Ginkgo-Wheat-Peanut., Ginkgo- Mulberry, Ginkgo-Cole-Peanut, and.Ginkgo-Cole-Corn..Agroforestry systems shown on the slide had.higher structural diversity, increased leaf.area and enhanced total production providing.also soil erosion control and buffering of.microclimate changes, and improved nutrient.cycling compared to monoculture systems..In Southeastern China Ginkgo - wheat and Ginkgo.- broad bean intercrops competed for N. Since.crops were more competitive that ginkgo the.rate of ginkgo in mixture had to be increased.up to 5:1 in order to have an overyielding.intercrop. Ginkgo: wheat mixture had the maximum.economic yield, Ginkgo/broad bean mixture.demonstrated the most beneficial effects,.while Ginkgo/rapeseed mixture exhibited an.antagonistic interaction and is not suitable.for intercropping..Considering soil fertility maintenance, multiannual.soil organic carbon deposition, and fungal.community survival and stability, the agroforestry.systems achieved better results, and the ginkgo.- wheat system was the best among the studied.intercropping systems..Ginkgo leaf extract has anti-fungal property.to brown rot of pome fruit (Monilinia fructicola),.verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahlia), and.root extracts act as an antifeedant and insecticide.to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis),.and as an antiviral to the southern mosaic.bean virus..Gingko also produce allelopathic compound,.and leaf litter inhibited the growth of ryegrass.(Lolium multiflorum L.), garden cress (Lepidium.sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), and timothy.(Phleum pratense)..An interesting agroforestry design approach.“learning from nature and back to nature’’.was implemented to develop viable agroforestry.scenarios for yellowhorn (a Chinese endemic.oil woody plants). 18 species combinations.were designed based on plant positive associations.with yellowhorn in natural communities and.anticipated economic benefit. These are medicinal.plants, and 2 of them which are marked with.arrows has an additional benefit on N fixation..Self-reseeding annual leguminous plants, such.as, blackpod vetch, arrowleaf clover, crimson.clover, or spotted medic are recommended as.winter cover crops, in particular in pecan.orchards with sprinkler irrigation. An appropriate.selection allows to minimize excessive mowing.and supply N in the most suitable time for.trees..Application of nitrogen fertilizers and spring.moving before seed maturation lead to limination.of many desired cool season leguminous plants.while favoring perennial grasses such as bahia.grass, Bermuda grass, or centipede grass in.the resident understory vegetation. Therefore.supplemental N fertilizer if required should.be restricted to narrow, usually 3m wide bands.beneath the trees and not broadcasted onto.alleys with legumes. Immature legumes, usually.at the early bloom stage, are normally moved.or ploughed, when they have the best N/C ratio.in their biomass. If MATURE legumes are terminated.this allows reseeding, however their residues.will have more lignin and less N what slows.down their decomposition. Most N will be relocated.to seeds, an in case of small copious seeds.it well be soon converted to inorganic form..However, in case of hard seeds, such as arrowleaf.clover (cv 'Yuchi') and some varieties of.crimson clover (e.g., cv 'Flame) N contained.therein could be tied up for several years..An alternative approach would be to use indeterminate.legumes which retain substantial N in roots.and shoots AFTER producing seed. After maturation.of approximately 20% of seeds they can be.disked (or better incorporated with rolling.cultivators to minimize soil compaction)..In cool temperate climate of Georgia, USA,.an alternating 2-m wide strips of cool- season.cover crops could be tilled in mid to late.April or allowed to mature. The tilled strips.would supply N to pecan trees immediately,.while the adjoining untilled (or reseeding).strips could be mowed after seed is mature,.to ensure dispersal of seed and reestablishment.of cover crops over the entire alley. Rotary.mowing of remnant strips could disperse seeds.to tilled areas. Same strategy could be used.with summer cover crops. Mowing of alternate.strips may ensure continuity of arthropod.habitat through time..Some legumes discharge seed to a distance.of 2 m or more, and they does not require.MOWING of seeding strips for seed dispersal.across alley. With such crops reseeding strips.might only be required in alternate years..Width and distribution of remnant strips should.be based on seed production per unit area,.the amount of seed required to sow the cover.cropped area, and the seed dispersal with.various mowers. About 10 percent of the cover.crop (by area) should be allowed to mature.for adequate reseeding of the entire orchard.understory..Cool season cover crops can be planted throughout.pecan orchard. Tree-rows could be devoted.to early maturing winter cover which have.mature seed by the time pecan is in full leaf.and compete little with the trees. Mixed winter-annual.cover crops, including later-maturing could.be grown in the alleys..Note that late-maturing cool-season legumes.can suppress the yields of associated perennial.warm-season grasses, such as Bermuda grass..Many cool-season legumes produce without tillage.a good number of volunteer stands among warm-season.perennial cover crop..Warm-season cover crops should be restricted.to alleys to reduce possible competition for.water with pecan, when they will also receive.better illumination when trees are in leaf..Seeds of warm-season legumes may be broadcast.or drilled, but most of them require disking.for better establishment, except of showy.partridge pea and hairy indigo..Summer cover crops can include vining species.which will run into the tree-row strips, over.the dead mulch provided by winter cover crops.to limit weed growth..[]Sod-forming, warm-season grasses should.be combined with summer annual legumes to.establish grass carpet after moving cover.crop for easy nut harvesting..Cover crops residue can be moved from alleys.into tree-row strips, for example using side-discharge.mowers to provide weed-suppressive mulch and.encourage decomposer organisms. Mulching can.be also attained without mowing. For example,.unmoved stand of mature hairy vetch with rye.can suppress warm-season weeds, including.perennial grasses, for several weeks into.the summer..The perennial warm season grasses are mowed.closely during autumn. Under these conditions,.most of the cool-season cover crops of interest.can be seeded by no-till drills or by broadcasting.seed and following superficial tillage..Since leguminous residues degrade more rapidly.than grass residues, the warm- season understory.vegetation which is rich in legumes, should.be mown when at least some seeds will mature,.to combine aims of reseeding with the preparation.of clean orchard floor before nut harvesting..Several approaches may assist warm-season.legumes in competing C-4 weeds, such as Bermuda.grass and redroot pigweed. It is important.to establish summer legumes soon after the.last threat of frost and before hot, dry weather..Shallow cultivation could temporarily reduce.perennial grasses before the legumes are sown..Also, because drought might be expected to.harm non-C-4 plants' abilities to compete,.irrigation could be used when dry conditions.prevail. Legumes with ability to withstand.competition from C-4 plants can be used or.combined with grasses that are less competitive.with desirable legumes. If warm-season perennial.legumes are used, they should be mowed periodically.for green leaf manure or mulch. With cover.crops of high biomass, mowing also may be.advisable prior to tillage. Some cover crops,.such as soft chess does not require additional.irrigation and can improve water infiltration..Cool season cover crops can provide alternative.prey, such as aphids and thrips that are not.themselves pests of pecan and ensure reproduction.and retention of lady beetles and other aphids.predators in orchard until pecan aphids emerge.in early May. At this time winter cover crops.usually senescence, and pest predators can.disperse to pecan. An example is hairy vetch.and crimson clover with rye. In this mixture.rye provides structural support to vining.hairy vetch helping to establish dense ground.cover which is efficient in weed suppression..In addition, dense fibrous root mass or rye.can scavenge N and thus decrease N losses.and environment contamination..If cover crops are grown to provide mulch.for suppression the warm season weeds and.for water conservation is Spring and Summer,.some investment in autumn irrigation to help.crop establishment might be feasible. However,.sprinkler irrigation of legumes can promote.fungal epizootics and reduce populations of.pea aphids, which in turn could lead to reduced.densities of lady beetles in the legumes..Warm-season legumes can also sustain aphidophagous.insects. For example, sesbania often harbors.cowpea aphid and bandedwinged whitefly (Trialeurodes.abutilonea) and can sustain lady beetles when.pecan aphids are scarce..Unfortunately, sesbania has the disadvantage.of harboring high densities of various stink.bugs. Mowing or tillage of warm-season cover.crops may be needed to divert aphid predators.from cover crops to pecan trees, at the prospective.time of pest outbreak on pecan.Yet both cool.season hairy vetch – rye cover crop and.warm season sesbania cover crop have not reduced.significantly the number of pecan aphids,.at least when the aphid number on pecan was.low.As for warm season understory legumes,.supplemental P can increase their shade tolerance..Several winter-annual weeds that are common.in pecan orchards can also harbor aphids and.aphidophagous insects..Use of potent insectary cover crops could.be restricted to relatively few alleys..Here is the summary of some annual leguminous.cover crops that can be used in pecan orchards..Crops can perform complementary roles and.should be combined to optimize resource partitioning,.for example in terms of moisture, soil, and.shade optima or tolerances. An example is.multilayered composition of warm-season legumes,.where relatively shade-tolerant hairy indigo.and showy partridge pea occupy the lowest.level, overtopped by the tall, erect sesbania.plants, which in turn support the vining Florida.velvetbean and hyacinth bean. The first 4.plants are also drought tolerant..As for other hickories, they ultimately need.about 12-15m spacing between trees which opens.possibility of interplanting one or two fruit.trees between pecan trees, which will have.15-25 years to grow and crop before the hickories.will need the space. Hickories are late to.leaf out in spring and relatively early to.drop their leaves in mid-autumn. Thus there.is good potential for growing an undercrop,.particularly one that is cropped in late spring..Study in Eastern China showed that grass cultivation.under Chinese hickory stand can effectively.improve the soil organic carbon content, soil.NPK content, and microbial functional diversity,.decrease soil acidification and erosion..Allelopathic effect of walnuts, with the black.and Manchurian walnut being the most suppressive,.had been continuously reported in the academic.publications since 19 century, and allelopathic.compound juglone was isolated and characterized.in the second half of 19 century. Juglone.may enter the soil preliminary through root.exudation, but also via leaf and male catkins.litter decay, and via throughfall (or being.washed from the leaves). Volatiles from walnut.leavers are also slightly inhibitory..Walnut chips however does not pose strong.inhibitory effect. Juglone effect is exacerbated.in drought conditions under competition between.plants for water and on poorly drained soil..Suppressive effect is less pronounced when.trees are grown on deep fertile soil and under.sufficient N application. Juglone concentration.decrease by 80% at a distance of 4.25 m from.a row of 10 year old black walnut trees..Yet results have often been contradictory,.in particular between greenhouse and field.trial, and depend on the age and cultivar.of walnut tree, and on soil characteristics..Nowadays intercropping is mainly practiced.in the young walnut orchards, as well as with.the installation of root barrier, root trenching.or disking..Juglones inhibit not only plant growth, but.also the nutrient uptake, as it was demonstrated.for example for strawberry. Researchers observe.narrowing of xylem vessel radius in stems.which might be a possible defense mechanism.to limit juglone translocation, but what also.negatively affect water and nutrient translocation.and thus decreasing plant growth (latter is.also linked to reduction of H+-ATPase activity.in root cells that limits solute uptake)..Juglones also cause respiratory inhibition.of mitochondria, reduction of plastoquinone.synthesis and photosynthesis, and increase.of lignin content in cell walls..At the same time walnut has a number of traits.beneficial for intercropping. In the spring,.black walnut is one of the last species to.leaf out, and in the fall one of the first.to drop its leaves, reducing competition for.sunlight with the winter crops. It also produces.a large taproot and has a deep rooting system,.leaving the top 10 cm of the soil horizon.available for root growth of companion species..Yet competition for water with Summer crops.is often reported. Juglones are not very mobile.is soil; they are absorbed by organic matter.and rapidly decomposed by bacteria..Soil under walnut trees usually have grater.amount of organic matter due to slower decomposition.process, and decomposer guild is dominated.by arthropods while earthworms are scarce..Juglone has been shown to play a role in resistance.towards fungal diseases..In North America, black walnut is most commonly.intercropped with corn and soybeans, and often.with winter wheat, barely and milo. Yield.reduction if often observed, 39% for corn.and more for soybeans. Corn produces flavoreductase.that potentially detoxifies juglone. As for.the vegetables pronounced growth reduction.is observed for tomato, cucumber, and alfalfa,.and less for potato and pepper. Walnut can.affect the taste of beets, but not the yield..As for leaf vegetables, the order of sensitivity.to black walnut intercropping increases as.it is written on the slide. The most sensitive.groups are also listed..Livestock is feasible to introduce after 15.years, when trees are large enough to withstand.damage and does not need fencing. Heifers.and hens benefit from partial shade under.adolescent walnut stands..Forage crops, such as red and white clover,.orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), and.red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) can also be.planted in alleyways of young and adolescent.walnut orchard to be harvested as a hay crop.in silvopastoral systems. It was demonstrated,.that oats/red clover/red fescue intercrop.does not suppress the growth of black walnut.seedlings, and that red fescue better produced.in medium density stands (7.3 m between rows).versus low or high density stands (14.6 m.and.1.8 m between rows, respectively). In another.publication Kentucky blue grass was reported.as less competitive to walnut than tall fescue..Alfalfa is reported as not compatible with.black walnuts..A pine-walnut plantation with annual ryegrass.(Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and cereal rye (Secale.cereale L.) between the rows as heifer pasture,.produced approximately 80% of the forage produced.in a control plot without trees, but beef.heifer average daily weight gain was EQUAL.for both treatments..Black walnut may establish poorly on sites.which lack tree cover and may grow better.if interplanted with so-called \"nurse species“.which protect the young walnut trees from.mechanical damage and enhance the soil conditions..Walnut does not suppress endo- and ectomycorrhiza.development presuming that plant fungal associates.might be involved in juglone detoxication.As.for the timber tree species, red oak is not.suppressed by black walnut while many tree.species, including a white and red pine, white.birch, American elm, sugar maple and ash are.suppressed by walnut. But this suppression.occurs over time, and sensitive trees can.be used as temporary intercrop and nurse species..Autumn olive and black locust both improve.black walnut growth, and autumn olive may.reduce leaf spot and anthracnose because of.associated microarthropods which consume the.leaf litter carrying the disease. In addition,.autumn olive is shorter than black walnut.and it prevents deer from damaging walnut.trunks without over topping and competing.for sunlight with the walnut. Black locust,.however, quickly grows tall and potentially.compete with black walnut trees via shading..Black locust can be cropped for bolewood and.the resultant nitrogen release in the root.zone could benefit adolescent walnut trees,.whereas autumn olive would die off due to.shade in the medium term and release N without.providing a wood crop..Because significant level of juglone is released.during tree and root damage, it is better.to harvest interplanted walnut for timber.later in the year, when juglone concentration.is lower. Juglone can persist in soil for.more than 1 year after tree removal, particularly.if the stump has not been killed..In the next few slides I have included compatibility.tables of different plants with black walnut.(and you can extrapolate these data to other.walnut species). Please note, that walnut.can be intercropped also with incompatible.species while trees are young presuming a.sufficient distance between tree rows and.no direct root contact. You can find the link.to slide under video description below to.study these tables, or you can pause video.when I will briefly display all the spreadsheets..Another article provide report on of valuable.black walnut plant and animal companion crops.which may be grown in the short term (up to.15 years after planting walnut trees), medium.term (15–30 years), and long term (more.than 30 years after planting walnut), reflecting.gradual juglone accumulation in soil. Companion.crops can provide nitrogen fixation, added.yields, aid in development of straight walnut.stems for timber production or provide protection.from deer..During the first years walnut grow deep taproot.while shoot growth is slow. Thus full sun.is available during the first 5 – 7 years,.and fast growing juglone-sensitive plants.can be interplanted. For example alder may.be planted for timber, nitrogen fixation,.and for helping walnut to develop straight.trunk. Alder will be gradually thinned between.4 years and 19 years after stand establishment.to pay for the cost of establishing the black.walnut stand. Soybean and wheat could be cultivated.between tree rows without yield decrease for.the first 7 years, and corn – for the first.10 years..Black walnut can produce both nuts and valuable.timber, and it is often planted as “retirement.crop”. Species that produce economic value.during the first 20 years afterwalnut stand.establishment are needed to make this system.more profitable. Onions, parsnips, Jerusalem.artichokes, sugar beet and certain species.of bean are tolerant to juglones..Between 15 and 30 years of walnut establishments.shade- and juglone-tolerant crops can be grown..Black raspberry, currants, elderberry, and.wild grapes can be grown under walnut canopy.whereas blackberry - outside the crown area;.Mulberry, pawpaw and American Persimmons are.tolerant to black walnut..After 30 years, when walnut becomes shady.and allelopathic, few ephemerals and late.ripening fruits may be interplanted to utilize.sunny periods in walnut orchard in spring.and fall. As well American ginseng, Shiitake.and Oyster mushroom which benefit from shady.and moist conditions in Summer..In video description below you will find the.links to slides as well as references and.highlights to publications cited in this video.lecture. As for pecan and walnut I have presented.only data from review articles, but there.is a number of publications which useful information.for designing polycultures with these nut.crops..Finally, I invite growers of tree nut and.fruit crops, all growers with experience in.crop diversification, researchers and agriculture.extension specialists to participate in one.of the surveys listed on the slide (the links.are also provided in description to this video)..With your help we will be able to develop.free software to help farmers to design crop.polycultures..We also invite you to subscribe to our Facebook.page Polycultures and Permaculture where we.share useful information on crop polycultures.from the academic publications and directly.from growers. And we invite you to share your.practical experience on this page.On our web-site.you will find recorded conference presentations,.proceedings and resolution of the research.and practice conference “Polucultures and.Permaculture” which was organized in January.– February 2020. Thank you very much for.your attention!.

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Us Doc Form Doc Pto 1595 FAQs

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Does a NAFTA TN Management consultant in the U.S. still need to fill out an i-9 form even though they are an independent contractor?

Yes. You must still prove work authorization even though you are a contractor. You will fill out the I9 and indicate that you are an alien authorized to work, and provide the relevant details of your TN visa in support of your application. Hope this helps.

Is it normal nowadays for U.S. physicians to charge $100+ to fill out a 2-page form for a patient?

I don't know about normal but it's not unusual for doctors to charge for a number of things that used to be free. This includes things like filling out time-consuming forms. This is a task that is taking time that the physician could instead use to see a paying patient. I’m sorry but I doubt that you have any recourse.

For the new 2016 W8-BEN-E form to be filled out by companies doing business as a seller on the Amazon USA website, do I fill out a U.S. TIN, a GIIN, or a foreign TIN?

You will need to obtain an EIN for the BC corporation; however, I would imagine a W8-BEN is not appropriate for you, if you are selling through Amazon FBA. The FBA program generally makes Amazon your agent in the US, which means any of your US source income, ie anything sold to a US customer is taxable in the US. W8-BEN is asserting that you either have no US sourced income or that income is exempt under the US/Canadian tax treaty. Based on the limited knowledge I have of your situation, but if you are selling through the FBA program, I would say you don’t qualify to file a W8-BEN, but rather should be completing a W8-ECI and your BC corporation should be filing an 1120F to report your US effectively connected income.

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