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it's our immense pleasure today to.welcome dr. Morgan Google Owen Morgan.hello hi I can you hear me hello yeah my.lovely to have you onboard the ice and.Sheedy connect series Morgan you've.recently published a paper that you will.and some research that you will be.speaking to us about and this work.actually has been really fascinating.unfortunately rabies continues to be.prevalent in a lot of very impoverished.regions around the world we're looking.at about 150 countries worldwide and.despite a lot of preventive measures.we're still looking at about nine deaths.a minute so quite a dramatic state of.affairs and your research has been a.really beautiful example of not only.trying to push the boundaries in terms.of diagnosis of the disease in animals.but also a great example of.international collaboration and.capacity-building so that's really what.inspired us to wanting to have you today.as part of this series and to speak to.our international network so again.without any further ado I'll hand over.to you to describe a little bit this.fascinating work and collaboration.between the Institute owes of.prophylactic experimental either live in.Asia in Italy the FAO and 14.collaborating centers and laboratories.across sub-saharan Africa so Morgan a.very warm welcome to you and I'll hand.over thank you so much Ryan thank you.very much for this very lovely.introduction.it's a real pleasure to be here with you.and although all of you connected to.follow this presentation today thank you.for taking the time and we know that.this this is a very very particular.situation that we are all facing but I.think it's still very important to to to.carry on our effort.and and to keep working on the old.neglected disease and in our case we are.talking about rabies so as you said I.work for the Institute also prophylactic.with 1180 we are based in Padova which.is very close to our two veneers for.those who may not not know very well so.if you followed you the arrow you can.see our building which is actually brand.new so we can't wait to get back to.normal to enjoy this very nice.facilities but I hope that you will.probably enjoy the picture below which.is the main square in in Padua called.para toda la vallee it's a beautiful.place and for those who have never been.yet this part of Italy I I strongly.encourage once it will be safe to travel.again but of course we're not here to.speak about tourism we are here to speak.about rabies today so as you said the.the the burden of rabies is is is huge.we count about 60,000 death per year and.the tour in Africa is around 20 to.25,000 however I like for all neglected.disease this is known to be.underestimated this number is not is not.correct and it is a preventable disease.so there is the existence of the vaccine.for post exposure prophylaxis called.pepper so unfortunately and I can see on.on the map it is poor and low resource.countries which are badly affected also.notably because the access to the - to.the vaccine is is very limited and.sometimes not even available so.regarding the disease it can affect all.mammals but we know that dogs are.contributing to about 99% of all rabies.transmission to - to human so oops.yeah so basically what's important too.remember about rabies is that upon the.on onset of clinical symptoms it is.nearly 100% fatal and this is terrible.because it is actually 100% preventable.given the the availability of of the.vaccine so regarding the pathogen rabies.is a virus which belongs to the genus of.the Lisa virus it has this very nasty.bullet-shaped future it is a non.segmented RNA negative strand and the.genome codes for five proteins the.pathology in dogs which is also similar.to humans present two different forms.one of them is the various form which is.the one that most people are aware of.and there is also the parallel paralytic.form and I made here a list of various.symptoms but I'm not going to go too.much in in details you can you can.easily read them but what I want to say.is that those symptoms can be also.affiliated to other pathology to other.diseases and in in dogs for example.distemper or infectious Chi 9 hepatitis.have similar symptoms and this is very.important because it shows that there is.an absolute necessity for laboratory.confirmation of suspected rabies cases.so shock is initiated basically I've.shown that the elimination of the.disease in dogs is epidemiology.epidemiologically sorry and and and it's.also feasible basically so this can be.achieved through enhanced laboratory.capabilities improved access to vaccines.of course enforcement of responsible dog.ownership and also enhanced public.education and awareness which have to be.basically worked on together this is a.crabber.and all the stakeholders basically.involved in the fight against rabies we.need to all work on those points of.course as as laboratory Reference Center.for FAO and also for national in the.sense for the year Italian authorities.we concentrate on the enhanced.laboratory capabilities this goes.basically by working on the introduction.of adapted protocols and if they are.already in place working on the.immunization of the of the techniques.very importantly training of the staff.this is a big part of our of our job and.also the participation of proficiency.test which was basically the the subject.of the of the the paper we we published.recently and all this is extremely all.those points are very very important if.we want to get out of the the scheme.that you can see here which is the.scheme of the the vicious cycle this.game is very often seen in various.publication of articles about about.rabies but this applies to all neglected.diseases unfortunately and it means that.basically because we have very little.data on the actual burden or the cost of.the disease means that we have no.fundings and because there's no fundings.there is no control and no surveillance.and all of them basically lead to.another and it's very difficult to get.out of that of that cycle and as Megan.pointed out we work hard to try to get.out to get out of the of this cycle so I.would like to quickly speak about the.the trainings on rabies diagnosis that.we've been doing over the years across.I Africa but actually across the across.the the world so this we've been working.on trainings for more than 10 years.before actually here was introduced to.the team there and we've been working.with 46 countries Africa we can count 30.countries.as you can see more than 260.participants people came to Italy to be.trained in at our facilities more than.250 participants from Africa more than.1320 trainings and I would like to.quickly speak about what we've done.recently because we've been working from.from remotes of course so we've been.working with the CDL in in Tohoku the.serial in viña they had already in place.the drift technique I will I will come.back on that a bit later but I wanted to.introduce the molecular techniques so.they got in touch in touch with us and.we basically held them supported them in.implementing the molecular detection.they were already applying molecular.detection for Asian influenza for.example so they had the equipment and.they had the knowledge and the skills so.it was just a matter of implementing the.actual protocol and it was a real.success because we managed to confirm by.receiving ten samples from them that.they were properly applying both.technique Street and Asia and we also.got a chance to sequence the virus that.were circular circulating in in viña and.very soon those sequence will be.available on on gene bank it is very.important when we set up collaboration.like this with with CBL across the world.to publicly to run the public the data.that is produced so sequences and also.notification international notification.which is extremely valuable if we want.to increase the the data and also the.fact that the disease is present in.order to get out of the of the cycle and.then regarding the severely.we basically help them supplying.reagents so they were struggling with.the the the fact that it could not find.a provider for some of the reagent for.the immunofluorescence so we simply.worked with them to to allow them to get.the the products just to say that all.those intervation in into intervention.and supports are just very essential and.and needs to be carried on of course we.work and you will Shield's from the.proficiency test we focused principally.my laboratory focus principally on the.immunofluorescence so the direct.fluorescence antibody test which is.called the DFA and the molecular.detection by rt-pcr but the another test.is the drit I will speak about it just.just just now and these treats basically.is basically implemented in laboratory.bar by another NGO called a Global.Alliance for rabies control so gark.they are based in South Africa and they.are also very present in the field they.do a fantastic work and as much as.possible we collaborate with them so we.can bring as many detection techniques.possible to to the to the laboratories.so since 2018 the Y manual of diagnostic.tests and vaccines for terrestrial.animals included the drip and the rt-pcr.as gold standard so before that so until.three years ago.ximena fluorescence which you can see.this is the picture on the left was the.only gold standard but so it is not the.case anymore.and now the Dritz which is the picture.on the middle and also molecular.detection the picture on the on the.right are now recognized it can be a.safely applied basically by by by the.laboratories the work.in the detection of rabies virus of.course but the defender tricked work in.detecting the viral antigens whilst the.RNA the viral RNA is detected when you.use the deity PCR so someone could ask.why would you want to implement.different techniques because of course.this is more work but actually by having.more than one technique it means that.you also increase the chance to detect.the virus so it is actually quite.important to have the DFA or the treat.they work the same way and also on top.of that access to a molecular detection.this also means that you can adapt based.on the genetic resources which can be of.course human expertise the type of.trainings that people have received.basically all the equipment which is.available and very importantly we have.seen over the years with the the.collaboration of the robot the.laboratories that we have that.unfortunately failure of equipment can.happen and if you have another technique.available this means that for example if.your microscope breaks down you can rely.on another protocol and there is there.won't be any any break in routine.diagnostic which is unacceptable in.countries where rabies especially in.countries where we're really busy is.endemic so I hope that you you will you.will understand that our aim is very.much to implement and support rabies.diagnostic to as many endemic countries.as possible and we do so by.collaborating with as many laboratories.of course and also with other.organization it an international.international organization to to reach.this goal so a proficiency test.basically in general but for the for the.diagnosis of rabies aims firstly to test.for the diagnostic capabilities.and you will see our study focused on.the immunofluorescence and on the rt-pcr.but then this proficiency tests was also.an opportunity to update the vaccination.status of laboratory staff it was also a.way to harmonize the techniques adopted.by the laboratories it was also a way to.speak and remind people about safety and.biosecurity rules related to the.diagnostic of the of rabies and it was.also an opportunity to collect.information related to the laboratory.practice and activities and we also were.able to bring technical assistance of.course when it was required and very.importantly very importantly to.introduce a molecular protocol for the.the genesis of of rabies indeed we were.able to implement that protocol in eight.out of the 14 participating laboratories.and just to say the laboratories that.were already applying this protocol were.applying the same protocol that we were.recommending recommending basically so.the general organization was that.originally 15 15 laboratories were.involved in the project you can see here.that Sierra Leone is also colored in red.but unfortunately they were not able to.receive or perform the proficiency test.because the laboratory is still under.renovation so we are very very much.hoping that they will be able to.participate to the next PT but it was.basically cert in central veterinary.laboratory and one Public Health.Institute that took a - - - this program.so we basically sent.the invitation letter to all the.directors laboratory directors and we.did so on the 28th of September so for.those who are part of the radius.community.this basically celebrates the world.rabies day so it's very important day.for us this was in 2017 also and those.emails and all communication were also.closely followed by all the country team.leaders from a fellow and the regional.lab experts from a fella as well from.western central Africa so we provided.instruction for rabies sample adding we.also provided of course the protocol for.the conventional rt-pcr and we also gave.a list of reagents and we did so because.it was important that laboratories in in.countries basically where shortage of.reagent can happen we'd have the time to.prepare and make sure that it had.everything to perform the exercise so we.then verified as I mentioned before the.vaccination status and it was quite.important because we realized that five.out of 14 laboratories actually did not.present satisfactory vaccine coverage so.that's almost 36 percent and of course.we encouraged those laboratories to.vaccinate the laboratory members and.this was absolutely done it was for us.impossible to ship material which is.susceptible to be contaminated from.contaminated positive for rabies to be.shipped laboratories where staff may not.be fully protected and then we also.organized a webinar this was organized.basically co-organized with a phaona.lab unit in rome and in fact in.particular with anjali convo and we.basically during this webinar we.explained why.it was important to participate.proficiency test how also and it was.this this way was also possibility for.us to remain on biosafety biosecurity.which is which is essential so.laboratories basically were invited to.perform the proficiency test to test the.PT samples using the test routine II.applied all of them except for one.basically applied already the.fluorescent antibody test and of course.for those laboratories who did not yet.performed the protocol for the the RTP.CR this was for us a great way to test.whether the implementation was done was.the was correctly achieved so each.participant received the same panel of.blind coded sample to basically be.tested and I would like to quickly say.that if you follow basically the ISO.17025.which is the accreditation for.diagnostic testing laboratories it is.mandatory to participate to proficiency.testing programs just to highlight how.important it is to have a regular.exercise such as the one I'm talking.about so the samples were shipped.basically according to very strict.regulation because they have to be.shipped on as dangerous good on dry ice.and we also included in the the pass all.this little strict as you can see here.time time stream plus which helped us to.control that the temperature basically.temperature was maintained during the.the shipment on average was 11 days and.you can see here Ghana was actually 50.days we had a problem that the passage.was blocked at the boiler for.basically almost two months but.fortunately there was regular dry ice.refill and we know also because we.perform a frequent stability test and in.our hands we know that up to one year.after preparation of the samples.stability still integrate and basically.samples are fits for for purpose and.then finally upon reception of samples.laboratory is at four weeks to perform.the the PT so the panel composition was.basically five positive example for of.rabies virus and one African bat.lyssavirus and five Nega negative virus.including one sample which we had.decided to spike with a synthetic RNA.the reason why we did that was basically.to mimic what happened in a caucus in.decomposition or petrified brain sample.that's often can reach the laboratory.and so for those who may not be too.familiar what happened is that in a.compromised sample the virus is not.alive anymore.and because the treats and the DFA.detect the antigens the detection of.antigens in those samples becomes very.difficult however it is still possible.to test for the present for the presence.of the viral RNA and therefore the.protocol for rt-pcr can still detect.whether the samples were positive for.for rabies so this is the reason why we.which shows to to to set up such such a.such a sample so regarding the the.results the performance of the African.laboratory for the the DFA was actually.in agreement with other studies that.were published notably by our answers of.proficiency does that took place in in.Europe and North Africa.and as you can see the sensitivity of.the fluorescent work was 90% in the.specific specificity with 86% so I.invite you to consult the last nice.plain of the of the table it is quite.important to say that is in agreement.with with other other studies because.for many years this this the sensitivity.and and specially in specificity and.stillness tilted nowadays is considered.as very satisfactory however we know.that sometimes people that may be out of.the field of rabies may consider that.maybe this is not high enough but.however it is it is considered as a.satisfactory the first sentence a body.test is a is a is a is a very very good.performing detection text test so the.result for the conventional rt-pcr here.I I wrote was excellent because it was.really excellent compared to other.studies we were thrilled when we.analyzed the results because we reached.100% specificity and the sensitivity was.of of 96% so this really showed that.basically the laboratories already.applying the test applied it well but.very importantly the laboratories.implementing the test were able to.implement it very well so this was X.this is extremely encouraging of course.and regarding the performance of the.diagnostic test applied above the.immunofluorescence and the rt-pcr here.the rt-pcr shows higher arguments than.the DFA tests however I really wanted to.to say that this is not an advocacy for.one technique of another they complement.each other.alopecia is not there to replace.immunofluorescence or it they have to be.used together in in in parallel when.possible of course and also this is in.agreements with other published studies.so there is there is nothing new here.and then I would like to quickly speak.about the information that we were able.to collect on the sample analyzed by.African laboratories and as you can see.here we basically asked them to give us.the amount of samples that they receive.over the year of the 2016 and 2017 and.together to give us also the proportion.of positive samples and as you can see.here at least 60% of the samples that.those laboratory receive a tested.positive for rabies.it is huge it's it's very high and this.is a very important because this shows.that the vaccination status of staffs of.staff must be regularly updated because.given the proportion of positive sample.the day the test so the conclusion and.achievement and also way forward but I.hope you can take out of this work and.his presentation is that of course a.vaccination status is pre model in in in.this work that 12 out of 14 central.veterinarian laboratories succeeded this.proficiency test this is very high this.is very very good there was a successful.introduction of molecular testing and.also that the samples that were provided.now can now be used basically either for.routine diagnostic as positive a.negative control but they can also be.very useful for the validation process.and you can also appreciate that there.is a need for an Indian's enhanced.application of Quality Assurance.protocols and also participation to.basically yearly exercise early.proficiency tests and finally last but.not least is that the do trainings and.collaborative efforts that were done.over the year by the different.organization working in the.against rabies basically our proven.extremely successful and that African.operator is basically given the fact.that they do not have a lot of mean.still apply very well the protocols and.detect correctly the samples that that.that they receive and this is probably.the most important point so I will.finish because I can see that I'm.already running out of time I would like.just to to to thank all the collaborator.and lab members our colleagues from FAO.without whom did this work would not be.possible on CD Congo and fits on the.majesty hold the team basically US ID.for the funding the people at my.Institute of course follow with my my my.supervisor.Francesca Stefani I know so Barbara did.fantastic work and all the person.participating laboratory across across.sub-saharan Africa thank you very much.you've had a lot of questions on the.chat.in the meantime on all sorts of levels.first and foremost I'd like to just.point out that completely coincidentally.Morgan and myself we are both French we.have a lot of francophone francophone.attendees you know across your partners.and as well as outside of that circle so.I think for for the rest of the.discussion we may have to have a bit of.a bilingual thing going so first and.foremost I'll soap over to French for a.few seconds and say merci beaucoup at.2:30 so so Joanna newald we keep RTC the.zoo lakin kunu never perfume zone we're.having sales Belanger of Jose Ian.Anglais mill they see you do have a year.letters to me sorry testament merci.beaucoup they join you again you've got.a really international audience we've.got I just thought I'd say a quick hello.to some familiar names who connected.during here Dora Johnson's tuning in.from Bangkok hello door.garma we Liberia you mentioned you.mentioned as a leak from FAO.headquarters I'm assuming in revenue.Gabriel Gabriel Lange and Brunei morale.from London hello and we've got as well.as Salvi's sir Manny I'm saying.greetings from Kuala Lumpur Jacqueline.Lee chhoti hi everyone from Sierra Leone.people shall have Omid I'm a de jakke.takumu to belated yeah so hello to all.of you and I'm sorry I couldn't mention.everybody we were really pleased you're.here and thanks for connecting so moving.on to some of the questions that you've.had Morgan let's start perhaps this one.is going back a bit back to this towards.the start of your presentation we've got.a great question here from Olivia's face.olivia is speaking from Steve Asante an.email public health public affairs sorry.director and asking and commenting move.again I agree that the lack of credible.burden data is a huge obstacle to.funding and I could touch this problem.for example in our dealings with funders.such as the Gates Foundation and what.are your thoughts on this okay it's a.very very good very vast great question.also well on this we believe that even.though the the amount of of data is.still quite limited it is very important.and for it to be transparent and this is.why we strongly encourage for.notification we strongly encourage for.publication so for example I'm I'm.thinking about the liability for rabies.built-in for rabies which.he shows countries the country's data.that was accumulating within the the.resin ab of the the amount of positive.samples of sample received first and.positive sample that that were analyzed.per country per for persevere but very.basically to get out of the limited.amount we need to increase the the the.testing and increase the transparency.and communication of data and amenities.as what I believe fantastic.jacqueline literati from sierra leone.was just commenting that sierra leone.started testing for rabies using f80 are.you in a position to supply positive.control and also with sierra leone be.included in the next proficiency testing.cycle I think Angelique replied part of.the way on the chat about this point but.Morgan perhaps you have some thoughts on.expanding the the network and maybe what.your next steps might be absolutely so.of course I mean unfortunately like I.said because there were some renovation.it was difficult for us to ship material.including positive control to to Sierra.Leone but this is absolutely something.that should be including in the the.activities that we will have in the.future and our silica colleagues in FL.winner will confirm that but I believe.that yes Sierra Leone should be included.also in the the the next proficiency.test exercise brilliant that's great.news and there was a couple other.comments which are sort of around the.same topic and theme Frances una galleta.Lackey a veterinarian in Uganda was.asking dr. Morgan you first of all your.presentation is really excellent.providing me with great insights however.the lack of laboratory capacity for.rabies diagnosis and poor exchange of.information across veterinarian medical.experts is evident what is your opinion.on how.combined human and animal rabies.Diagnostics facility and kind of a on.the same theme.Gabrielle Lane was asking where the.laboratory is offering rabies testing.for both human and animal samples and if.so was this a new change or are most.laboratories already offering services.for both humans and animals okay so I.guess this question also of course is in.there is in in Africa so that's two.different there's two different parts.here I guess of course the first one is.that the the one health approach which.have been developed over the past few.years aims to improve introducin and.improve if it's not yet introduced a.better communication between the.difference the different services or the.different actors in the the rabies.fights given the veterinarian part and.also the human part as well of of course.of all the the the actors regarding.vaccination campaigns all those people.have to work in any interact together.and I believe that this is what one.health program is is really really.trying to do and doing actually as a.matter of fact then regarding the.detection of human of rabies in in.trivita III imagine in human it is very.complex it is very complex question.because as as we know it is actually.quite difficult to to do so so far I.believe that in many laboratories with.whom we've collaborate they work on.animal rabies detection of of rabies in.in animals we have to work very hard so.that more samples which the laboratory.this is the this is the first point and.unfortunately because many human rabies.cases.undetected in in in many many countries.not just in Africa but in in in.countries whether the disease is endemic.this is still I agree a very limited.this is still very limited basically but.absolutely I mean laboratories that.perform the detection of rabies in.animals are absolutely able to if they.receive the appropriate samples they.should be able to perform and I think.not a bit of the the PCR the molecular.molecular detection they should also be.able to perform a detection of rabies in.human brilliant and this sort of ties.into a question by Louisa Hal mayor.Walker and please don't hesitate.attendees asking questions to just let.us know where your what your.organization is or where you're you're.tuning in from she's just saying first.of all thank you for the interesting.presentation and also if you could.elaborate a little bit more on it's.accurate ample collection and.appropriate storage and issue well.within certain settings can you please.repeat it sorry a curator accurate.sample collection and appropriate.storage an issue okay whether it's an.issue or not exactly yeah sorry I did.not get it yeah sorry Megan and.apologies to everyone I've had a few.comments that I'm breaking up today so.yeah sorry guys thank you well I will I.mean I will not go in in in too much.detail because at the end regarding the.sample collection and and sample storage.for more detailed information because.this this could be actually a whole.training session there is I invited.people basically to to consult the.manual of you know exact Gnostic test.and vaccine for terrestrial animals if.also necessary I can forward the PDF to.to this person I can't remember the name.but if we are talking about animal its.do ie man manual for the human sampling.the WH shown manual there is a recent WH.show manual that was released I believe.last year or 2018 or 2019 so we have.I've got a doubt now which is absolutely.fantastic and details detail is very.very well of course regarding the.storage of sample it is recommended to.keep sample in in the freezer so - - 80.to go in a bit more detail if sample.cannot be detected straight away of.course if laboratories only have access.to a minus 20 then it will be it will be.minus 20 we had a question here from.Varna kumara from the University of.Hawaii diagnostic of rabies is usually.done at post-mortem are you working on a.diagnostic method that can be used on.live animals my answer my answer will be.no no we are not like the the idea is.this is that of course the detection of.rabies before the onset of symptoms is.not not applicable is it it's not done.and and it's true that in animal we.speak about post-mortem analyzes so at.this moment in time I don't want to go.too much into that I know that some.people try to do it on the saliva of.some animal for example of dogs using.rapid tests but I actually believe that.the results have not been have not not.been acceptable let's say so at this.moment in time no we we concentrate on.implementing the gold standards.and this is this is our main main focus.really thank you for that.a question from Frederick Lord from.Mission rabies hello and thank you for.the great presentation and hello back.Frederick nice to see you again on the.notes on increasing data from the field.what are your feelings about lateral.flow devices thank you when I was just.talking about lateral flow devices when.I was talking about the the rapid test.it is well at this time we agree this is.not a recommended test so we we do not.we we work on the test recommended by.the OIE of course we've done different.studies using the lateral flow device.and recently very soon they should be.available on the Journal of video.experimentation a visual sorry.experimentation job a studied which we.participated describing a basically.updated protocol for the use of lfts we.believe that using this protocol the.detection is actually much better than.the one that is used by the.manufacturers instruction I I believe.that people familiar with dilatory.device we don't understand what I mean.but cool of course very importantly and.I really want to insist on that is that.this looks like a very promising tools.the field the sciences everybody will.know that is constantly constantly.growing updating the idea to to bring to.the people the best test possible but at.this moment is still not a recommended.way so we believe it's promising and.and we would not get out but we do it.also very carefully.brilliant Morgana.we're kind of 45 minutes into the.discussion I was just wondering whether.you would have a few more minutes for a.couple more questions.you've really elicited a lot of.questions and comments there so.definitely a good discussion going on.it's finally up to you if you've got a.few more minutes to know it's a it's a.pleasure to be here and to to interact.with you know with the participants earn.on oh yeah I'm good have a good time.brilliant okay then I'll move ahead with.Doris question Durov Oh Johnson do you.think that the rabies vaccine.characteristics might be also a cause of.limitation for the rabies disease.elimination because if my memory is good.the vaccine requires three doses three.injections in which the last injection.has to be repeated every five years and.also if it is not that affordable for.all the population that's also a problem.for example in my country Madagascar and.that's also a point which has been.raised by Winnie freedom palsy from the.if acara Health Institute in Tanzania.why what are some of the reasons for.which rabies vaccines are very expensive.I noticed some of the people especially.in rural settings cannot afford it.absolutely absolutely it's it's very.true this also explain of course why you.know poor and low resources in in.countries you know in with porn no.resources settings access to vaccines is.is difficult given the fact that you.know even if you can afford one dose.maybe you cannot afford the second or.third dose although of course I'm not.I'm not an expert on the on the on the.vaccination I don't have the potentially.I don't I'm not an expert on that but I.believe that w-which show did some.revision of the of the the vaccination.for for rabies with in information.precise information are available.nine so I would invite that person to.concert to consult this nevertheless of.course like I said in the beginning of.the presentation because we know that.access to vaccine can be limited it is.death therefore important to prevent.human-dog mediated sorry human death is.to basically increase dog ownership in.basically increasing the vaccination of.dogs access to dogs vaccine campaign.because the idea is that if more of.course we reach this 70 percent coverage.of vaccination in in animals then we we.can basically stop we can basically stop.dogs in in in human of course then the.fact that the human vaccine is not.always available the fact that he has it.cannot be it has to be a refrigerated.and not for more than 40 more than 40 a.24 hour story basically can can lead to.loss of batches of vaccines so yes all.those reason means that we have to work.also on the limitation of rabies in dogs.by vaccination plans of course in in.dogs increasing of increasing of.diagnosis in the animal when they start.presenting symptoms of course and in.order to to work basically as much as.possible in limiting the disease it's.really interesting so we take a question.in French Morgan yeah of course Jose in.kitchen do Co have we do Barrett surgery.dr. Bergin escola tested Rita there hit.a mountain oaxaca monte merciful said.presentation and just it was quite a.straightforward question which is.translating in English.dr. Cuomo to beretti's asking is the.treat do IT treat test now recommended.desirability is back up is ellipse up.when I found I was found hanging on.sampler yeah yeah KQ obesity lemme Donna.we ever commanded only D'Souza with the.heat elitist this yeah Molecular son.gokû Monty from party do you manually do.Lou you it don't confess her poverty.disease who manage it Carew tested.immunofluorescence it's good physical.strongly even okay no sir I was I was.just answering that like the present it.like I was trying on the presentation.that since 2008 here it's test has been.recognized by the UI as a valid as a.gold standard for the for the detection.of rabies in in animals of course yeah I.think we've got time for one last.question and perhaps after that a few of.your thoughts on where you would like to.see this research and this network.moving towards any future.are there certain partnerships that.you're looking for you know or funding.up further funding opportunities etc but.first I'll share a question by turbines.Iowa kissa.Morgan is it possible to have the PT's.programmed for example on a biennial.base once every two years once every two.years.okay so I believe I believe that this is.that that this is possible yes.absolutely.I'm solutely absolutely in the sense.that if I mean if our laboratory shows.for example that it can only participate.to a proficiency test once every two.years instead of once once every year.this is still a very good effort this is.still very good access.and and I I believe it is it is it is.possible absolutely brilliant since.since the last question.you've had again more questions.so perhaps we'll take this really the.very last one from Helena Arthur.Ministry of Health Indonesia hello Elena.nice to see you again thanks for joining.us I think on every session.Hellena was asking I just missed that.did you experience using the mouse.inoculation test and what is the most.urgent effort to deal with elimination.yes so year Saudi MIT so mouse mouse.inoculation SD MIT is actually not.recommended anymore by D by D or IE so.it should be replaced basically by one.of the the gold standard so did he have.a treat aadhi aadhi rt-pcr also given.the fact that we have to live in order.to to ethically limit the use of.laboratory animals but also because it's.a very long test so the the mouse.inoculation test is of course we have to.say it used for research programs or if.for example some viruses needs to be.replicated and this is the only option.but in terms of diagnostic these.techniques should not be used anymore.and then what was the the second part of.the question sorry in your opinion what.are the what's the most urgent efforts.to deal with elimination yeah okay I.guess I mean this seems a bit easy to.answer but all the efforts have to be to.be put I mean all the efforts have to be.done together if you want to achieve the.elimination of of you know human deaths.caused by the rabies in in 2030 so.increasing the laboratories capabilities.increasing the awareness increasing.basic.the access to vaccinations dog.vaccinations all those actions have to.be taken all together I believe if we.want to reach that goal in in about 10.years now and I guess that also echoes.very much the messages that underpin the.wh O's new roadmap for neglected.tropical diseases in general to 2030.which is really looking at reinforcing.and strengthening those health systems.as a whole so kind of a very joint.approach to any form of.absolutely I'm sorry when I guess what.if it is this goes with the one health.approach I mean at the end he's very.very very centrally important and effort.efforts needs to be to be done jointly.all together absolutely I agree on that.does it well no again yourself and your.team of collaborators have I think shown.us the way forward definitely you're a.great ambassador for this kind of.approach and so very grateful learned a.lot from you and so just kind of as.concluding words having worked on this.project for quite some time what would.be your ideal next steps or any.partnerships you're looking for how.would you like to see this evolve over.the net over the sort of short and.medium term well it's a it's a very very.vast question when our aim is basically.for the for the future of course to to.carry on what we are doing in the sense.training's improving the access to.diagnostic techniques to the.laboratories based on on what they can.we are a few reference centers so we.work closely of course with them the the.the project that are basically developed.and funded with with a fellow FAO.colleagues which are basically mostly.based in in in Africa and and yeah we.basically of course.our main aim is that we want to render.the helping and reinforcing laboratories.is very important but it's also.important that this becomes sustainable.and that rabies diagnostic facilities.basically have the the similar rhythm to.learn that for example my laboratory can.have so I guess this is the effort that.we we want to we want to put into the.into the following years that's.brilliant and we'll be there to watch.this space and also you know share and.echo all the messages on world rabies.day that mentioned and you know let's.definitely keep in touch Morgan I think.you you've had a lot of it's pretty.evident from the chat you've elicited a.great discussion and I'm sure a lot of.people would like to get in touch you.know this Morgan and I kind of came in.touch because recently there was paper.you were the lead author on this that.was published for centuries so if you.would like to to read that or find out a.little bit more detail about what was.discussed today I'm just going to share.the PDF so you should now appear.hopefully on your screens please feel.free to download that and also to.contact Morgan for any more information.or details one of the things we.discussed with Morgan along the way was.that given this current situation with.the lockdowns that we are facing it is.sometimes a little bit difficult at the.moment to share any new research so.again I would like to repeat you know we.would love to have any of you on board.if you are thinking of publishing.anything or there's a project you'd like.to share with our network please please.don't hesitate to get in touch would be.lovely to have you on board as as a.speaker so I think you know it was great.to get to know you more Morgan and I.hope that you will inspire lots of other.researchers to step forward and join the.I century connect series and all that's.left for me to do is to thank you once.again.and lots of people thanking you again.also on the chat.Steven mode saying great chat really.enjoyed that and thank you for your.great efforts we've had another Thank.You Jaclyn Shorty thanks for the.presentation.Terrence Scott well done not again great.presentation veronique Amara's leaving.us with the thought that there are lots.of questions to answer so overall a very.big thank you.nice presentation merci beaucoup well.thank you so much thank you friends for.therefore following in and being a being.there we were stink you very much well.thank you too and thanks to everyone for.joining us we'll be in touch soon we've.got lots of exciting things lined up for.you in the next few days and weeks so by.all means we'll be in touch we'll share.the login details and we hope to see you.all very very soon in the meantime take.care good luck with everything and hope.to see you very soon again and thank you.mum again and let's keep in touch yes.absolutely.bye bye everybody bye - thanks.

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Rabies Form Axiom Veterinary Laboratories Ltd FAQs

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For how many marks will I get a seat in veterinary?

well according to the vci counselling of last year i.e. 2019, the cutoff was around 36k rank(about 520 marks). But this is the cutoff for VCI quota seats. Aspirants should check their respective states’ mode of admission for state quota seats . Some are considering NEET and some are conducting their own entrance tests

How can I fill out Google's intern host matching form to optimize my chances of receiving a match?

I was selected for a summer internship 2016. I tried to be very open while filling the preference form: I choose many products as my favorite products and I said I'm open about the team I want to join. I even was very open in the location and start date to get host matching interviews (I negotiated the start date in the interview until both me and my host were happy.) You could ask your recruiter to review your form (there are very cool and could help you a lot since they have a bigger experience). Do a search on the potential team. Before the interviews, try to find smart question that you are Continue Reading

How do I fill out the form of DU CIC? I couldn't find the link to fill out the form.

Just register on the admission portal and during registration you will get an option for the entrance based course. Just register there. There is no separate form for DU CIC.

How do you know if you need to fill out a 1099 form?

It can also be that he used the wrong form and will still be deducting taxes as he should be. Using the wrong form and doing the right thing isnt exactly a federal offense

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Make it fast. Ask them as few questions as possible (don't collect unnecessary information) and pre-populate as many fields as possible. Don't ask offputting questions where the respondent might have to enter sensitive personal information. If some users see you collecting sensitive information, they might not be ready to share that with you yet based on what you are offering, and they will think twice about completing the form.

What are the first symptoms of rabies in humans?

First symptoms is prickling or itching around the bite wound with flu-like symptoms. Later, irritability, aggression, agitation, confusion, spasms, etc. If there is a reasonable doubt you were bitten by a rabid animal, GO IMMEDIATELY to the ER and tell them what type of animal and suspect it was rabid. If you are in first stages of the disease, you must start the series of injections ASAP!

Is there a blood test for rabies in humans?

It is due to the particularities of the rabies virus pathogenesis. Unlike many other viral infection. Rabies once deposited via wound, usually through a bite, infect the local muscular tissue. At this stage their replication escapes host immune detection and they do not tend to circulate systemically via the cardiovascular system. Given their neurotropic nature, they migrate from the skeletal muscule up via neurons and exploit the retrograde transport system and ascend along the peripheral nervous system towards the central nervous system (spine and brain). Given the usual immuno-previliged status of the nervous system, you host surviellance have a hard time catching its presence early enough. By the time the body could mount detectable antibody response, the diagnosis would be far too delayed to be meaningful clinically. As the virus doesnt like to circulate, antigen detection from the blood is not sufficiently reliable. So we resort to antibody fluorescence direct microscopy of neural tissue of suspect animals to confirm exposure.

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