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[Music].it was a road less traveled.an offshoot of the more heavily used.oregon trail.a route that stretched from near.present-day casper wyoming.past the eastern flank of the bighorn.mountain then westward to the.yellowstone river.and onto the gold fields of montana.territory.the bozeman trail started in the midst.of the civil war.and ended in 1868 just one year before.the completion of the transcontinental.railroad.it was the last of the great gold rush.trails a shortcut to dreams of.fame and fortune the allure of the most.recent gold strike and being.there at the beginning hopefully being.able to find a good.claim was a strong incentive for these.people to move.west and to move relatively quickly you.always will have entrepreneurs and.people interested.in figuring out ways to get there faster.and i think.gold rushes in themselves have a nature.of.speed it was a landscape.traversed by a cast of characters that.are western legend.some of the most diverse peoples.of our western history were here or came.through or.lived here it was a terrain rich in.grassland and teeming with wildlife.tribal land so this was prime.prime habitat for game for.living and it was worth fighting for.and dying for the buffalo was our.whole livelihood i mean without our home.our clothes our.our shields these competing aspirations.traditions and expectations would lead.to a clash of cultures.the perspective of the lakota is this is.our home.and we want to protect it and the.perspective of.the people on the bozeman trail are we.just want to get to the gold fields.and then the attitude of the federal.government.will maybe we need to protect these.people as a result.military forts were built treaties were.broken.i have said three or four times that the.document that you have before you is not.the document that i agreed to.i did not agree to this treaty and war.erupted it was the beginning of the.indian wars here.and the beginning of the real heavy.bloodshed they had no.idea there were 1500.indians waiting in a well-staged ambush.there's multiple year-long.investigations from the army.and from congress and from the office of.indian affairs.trying to figure out what happened it.was the beginning.for some of a bright new future.and for others the end of a traditional.way of life.this road less traveled this rush to the.gold fields of montana.and the indian wars that followed is the.story.of the bozeman trail.production of the bozeman trail of rush.to montana's gold.was made possible in part by the big sky.film grant.a grant from humanities montana an.affiliate of the national endowment for.the humanities.and funding from the wyoming humanities.council helping wyoming take a closer.look at life.through the humanities this project was.also made possible with the support of.the gilhausen.family foundation the rocky mountain.power foundation.a division of pacific corps and grants.from the wyoming cultural trust fund.a program of the department of state.parks and cultural resources.the greater montana foundation.encouraging communication on issues.trends and values of importance to.montanans.and the wyoming community foundation.connecting people who care with causes.that matter.to build a better wyoming.on a warm july day in 1862.john white leads a ragtag group of.colorado prospectors.up a creek teeming with grasshoppers in.the vast idaho territory.the lewis and clark expedition had named.the waterway.willard creek more than 50 years earlier.cursing the hordes of insects they.rename it.grasshopper creek but curses soon turn.to jupilation.washing the creek back gravels in their.tin pans.they immediately see color pay dirt.news of the strike and outrageous rumors.travel fast.people say you can pull up some.sagebrush shake out the roots.and collect a pans worth of gold by fall.more than 400 fortune seekers descend on.the place now called bannock.among them is a tall 26 year old.georgian.named john bozeman john mariam bozeman.had left his wife and three small.children in pickens county georgia.two years earlier unable to strike it.rich.at the pikes peak gold rush he journeyed.further west.it was not uncommon for the head of a.family.to leave the family and go west.to seek opportunity with the goal of.ultimately relocating.either coming back with wealth to the.family.back east or having the whole family.eventually relocate.but bozeman would never see his family.again.bannock quickly becomes the epitome of a.wild west mining boom town.a volatile mix of rough dirty work.free-flowing liquor.guns gambling and lawlessness.i don't know how many deaths have.occurred this winter but that there have.not been twice as many is entirely owing.to the fact.that drunken men do not shoot well.emily meredith.by january 1863 bitter temperatures and.30 inches of snow.blanket the fledgling gold fields and.all mining comes to a standstill.as john bozeman huddles close to the.fire he lays out an idea for a shortcut.to the gold fields.a bulky mountain man sitting across from.him listens intently.bozeman envisions a new route that will.help gold seeking immigrants.reach the mines faster than by taking.the longer.oregon trail then northward passport.hall.[Music].bozeman believes immigrants will pay.hard cash to be led up this golden trail.certainly it has to be more lucrative.than their unproductive claims in the.numbing drudgery.of placer mining john jacobs slowly nods.his head in agreement.they will start out as soon as the snows.begin to diminish in the spring.1500 miles away at a union army prisoner.of war camp in indiana.henry b b carrington stacks the.paperwork at his desk.as the civil war rages on the army.colonel calculates his next move.up the military hierarchy once this.awful carnage is over.opportunities look ripe for advancement.in the western frontier.in a tepee on the western plains a.lakota warrior bites off a piece of.pemmican.and slowly chews deep in thought.red cloud worries about more white.skinned people rolling.across the land again when the spring.grasses begin to grow.he remembers the damage that they had.done in previous years.and praised the great spirit will keep.out the invaders.heal the land and favor his people with.abundant buffalo.in time the plans thoughts and prayers.of these three men will intersect.and the consequences of their actions.will have surprising outcomes.over the next five years one of these.men will fall into disgrace.another will reign triumphant the third.will be dead.and this part of the american west will.change forever.in the spring of 1863 as john bozeman.and john jacobs.set out east on their journey to.discover a new route to the gold fields.another trail worn group of prospectors.head west towards bannock.among them are bill fairweather and.henry edgar.they have been traveling for nearly.three months and after many mishaps and.no luck in their search for gold.just want to get back to some form of.civilization.camping alongside a small alder choke.stream some 60 miles east of bannock.bill fairweather shovels some dirt into.edgar's pan and says.now go wash that pan and see if you can.get enough to buy some tobacco when we.get to town.edgar's eyes widen as he looks at the.bottom of his pan.the contents shimmer back at him as in a.dream.returning to bannock a few days later.the group try their best to keep their.discovery secret.but their gold doesn't look like.grasshopper creek cold.after filing their claims huge numbers.of miners follow them back to their site.soon a string of nine mining camps erupt.along alder gulch.it becomes known as 14 mile city with.virginia city being the largest.we're at the discovery monument this is.the spot.the exact spot where fair weather.discovered.gold in 18 may 26 1863.this find it of golden alder gulch has.been claimed by some to be the richest.that was ever found in the world.regarding the size.and value of the gold found in.such a small space as the find at alder.gulch unfolded.bozeman and jacobs were struggling to.find a pathway.indians approached them took most of.their supplies.took their horses left them with nothing.basically.jacobs and bozeman kept going south and.finally made it to the platte road.they stumbled into deer creek station at.the end of may.half starved and exhausted deer creek.station.at present-day glenrock wyoming.consisted of a trading post.a detachment of calvary and a telegraph.station.ironically if bozeman had never left.bannock that spring.he could have been among the first to.strike it rich at alder gulch.luck seemed to elude him time and time.again.after recuperating boseman and jacobs by.mid-june.of 1863 were recruiting wagons along the.oregon trail.persuading them to take this new shorter.route to the gold fields.claiming it would shave hundreds of.miles off the trip.some of us are thinking of taking this.new cutoff to bannock city.it is a new route part of which has.never been traveled over in wagons.but it is from 300 to 500 miles nearer.than.any other route it is however.attended with some disadvantages in the.opening of the road etc.it is also more or less dangerous being.through the heart of.indian country at least a month or six.weeks of travel saved by going through.same word in early july bozeman and.jacobs put together a wagon train.consisting of about 46.wagons and 90 people it left for the.gold fields on july 6.1863.by july 20th the group had traveled.about 140 miles to rock creek.just north of present-day buffalo.wyoming.this is rock creek we believe it's the.rock creek crossing of the bozeman trail.and it is marked that way john bozeman's.first trip in 1863.which stopped here and gathered here.with his.wagon train large group of native.americans came to him.and said you need to stop here they come.they said to warn us not to proceed.further through their country.that they were combined to prevent a.road being open through here.that if we went on we would be destroyed.that they would be our enemies that if.we turn back.they would not disturb us same word.that evening the train held a meeting to.decide what to do.john jacobs and the other guys lobbied.to turn back.believing the small train would be.vulnerable bozeman wanted to go.forward in the end most of the.immigrants voted to return to the safety.of the oregon trail but before they.broke camp the next day.there was trouble a grizzly bear.appeared in the brush.and some of the men took up their guns.and went after him.in the four noon a large grizzly bear.approached our camp.15 to 20 went out to give him a fight.they wounded him.he charged upon the nearest of them from.the bushes and hurt two men.badly knocked them both down dashed once.head to the skull badly.and tore off the underlip and part of.the jaw of one man.same word but it wasn't just a bear that.provided trouble in bozeman's 1863 train.two of the immigrants were challenging.the morality of a few of the women in.the group.there being a couple in the train who.according to some of the matrons should.long since have been in wedlock's bonds.bozeman kindly consented to mitigate the.scandal by tying the nuptial.knot one bright evening at the head of.the corral.james kirkpatrick as the immigrants.headed back south.their camaraderie began to evaporate.our train is getting more and more split.up i look forward to divide soon.looks like they cannot agree and work.together.i wish ty were back on the plat same.word.adding to the discord bozeman and nine.others from the group.chose to continue to the gold field.riding by night.to avoid detection by the indians.instead of skirting the flank of the.mountains.they traveled through the rugged.bighorns to further conceal themselves.along the way they lost a pack horse and.much of their provisions.after 21 arduous days half starving.they finally reached a mountain pass.overlooking a fertile valley.the weary travelers were so happy to.have made it out alive.they named it bozeman pass and rode.triumphant.into the gallatin valley.the rest of the wagon train took a.circuitous route southwest.back to the oregon trail emerging near.red buttes wyoming.disgruntled and angry the gold seekers.continued their journey.now even longer than if they had avoided.the cut off.it makes me sick to think of it.lose a month and travel 300 miles for.nothing.same word they finally made it to alder.gulch.and newly sprouted virginia city on.september 27.some 50 days later the bozeman trail it.seemed.was a failure the route over which john.bozeman attempted to lead that first.wagon train.followed ancient indian pathways from.thousands of years of habitation.rock cairns still exist today marking.this great north-south.passage the old north-south indian trail.it was it was a trail that actually came.around.the head of the rocky mountains up in.alaska.canada and then came around and got on.the east side.of the rocky mountains they went through.canada montana wyoming.new mexico probably back as far as 11.000.years you'll find evidence of continuous.inhabitation.along particularly the rocky mountain.regions and the bighorn regions.pictograph cave is right here they have.documented human occupation.at that cave 9 000 years old.this is a transportation hub this is the.super highway of ancient days.eastern montana and northeastern.wyoming's powder river basin.was the home and hunting grounds of the.crow indians for many generations.they were driven out to the northwest in.a war with the lakota sioux.in 1857 who along with the cheyenne.and arapaho established themselves as.the dominant powers in the region.the tribes traveled in unison with the.vast bison hurt.the buffalo with our whole livelihood i.mean i mean.that was our home our clothes our.our fields the buffalo was very much.revered.but he but it was also hundreds for food.but by the mid-1860s these hunting and.cultural traditions of countless.generations.were about to collide with a powerful.industrial force.representing a very different vision and.value system.when the lakota come into powder river.and the northern cheyenne and the.arapaho.they feel like they have fought.honorably for that land.and that is their land they don't want.any more intrusion because they're very.aware.of what wagon trains and the military.do when they come into.a country.by the 1860s the oregon trail had been.established for more than 20 years.hundreds of thousands of immigrants had.journeyed west.wagons oxen mules and horses.grinding down the land the lush grasses.grazed down to stubble rivers and.strains.fouled and trampled trees and shrubs cut.and stripped for fires.the once abundant game hunted for food.and sometimes.left to rot just for sport.on several occasions our wagons had to.stop in order for the buffalo to pass.their low rumbling [ __ ] and peculiar.bellowing.could be heard at a distance as the.advance of a herd approached.this afforded sport for the hunters who.slew them in abundance.more than we actually need it no wonder.the indian opposed any encroachment of.whites into this great game country.his by right of discovery the buffalo.supplied.all his wants mary foreman kelly.the indian just saw the natural animal.population.really deteriorating uh the poisoning of.water.holes that bring the dysentery typhoid.diseases the perspective of the lakota.is this is our home.and we want to protect it and the.perspective of.the people on the bozeman trail are we.just want to get to the gold fields.and then the attitude of the federal.government.well maybe we need to protect these.people this volatile mix of competing.motives.would come to a head during the next.five years in the powder river country.the bozeman trail became the epicenter.of a cultural clash.that reverberated through the entire.region.a flashpoint that set the stage for.direct conflict.resulting in startling victories and.crushing defeats.besides the oregon trail there were a.number of routes and transportation.options already in place.to get to the new gold fields of what.would become montana territory.but none of them were particularly fast.or cheap.there were stage coaches that ran.through salt lake and then north to.virginia city.there were steamboats from missouri.river up to fort benton.and then stagecoach south to helena and.virginia city.there was the mullen road from the.northwest from the pacific.so there were several routes and ways to.get there.but of all the ways to get to the gold.fields the cheapest and most popular by.far.was by wagon buying a wagon and.outfitting it for a family of four.cost about 600 to 800.wagons were loaded with food and.supplies for the trip.nellie fletcher an 1866 traveler.described her mobile pantry.we have plenty of everything good in our.large wagon.we have dried apples peaches prunes and.currants.canned peaches canned green corn oysters.steamed i believe we have 16 quarts of.tomato catsup.we have 500 pound sacks of flour.bacon ham and cod fish potatoes and.butter.plenty of tea coffee sugar and molasses.vinegar not left out.we have a little keg of golden syrup.which is very nice.other supplies included candles cooking.utensils.dishes pots and pans even sheet iron.cook stoves tools were also a necessity.axes saws spare wagon parts.and of course firearms all the men were.well armed with revolvers.rifles in the front seats of the wagons.easily got at in case of use.plenty of provisions in each wagon.sufficient to last for six months.water kegs and some extra jugs some of.which i was told contained.snake bite medicine i made no further.inquiry.or investigation mary foreman county.in the spring of 1864 undaunted by the.previous year's failure.john bozeman readied for another attempt.along his shortcut trail.he set out from richard's bridge near.present-day evansville wyoming.on june 18 1864.but his train of about 80 wagons wasn't.the first.prospector alan hurlbut claiming to have.knowledge of secret gold fields left two.days earlier.with an even larger train of 124 wagons.abraham voorhees a farmer from michigan.was one of the travelers who believed in.hurlbutt's golden promises.hurlbut is a man of considerable.experience.as an explorer and ex-prospector.having been several times over the.mountains and being familiar with the.gold region.famed guide trapper and mountain man jim.bridger.was also in the wagon train to the gold.fields business.by the 1860s bridger had been roaming.the rocky mountain region for more than.40 years he was among the first white.men to see the wonders of yellowstone.and the great salt lake and his tall.tales of their marvels.were laughed at by fellow trappers.friendly with many tribes he spoke.several native american dialects.and took indian wives who bore him.children.he knew every inch of the intermountain.west and carried a mental map of it.in his head later he drew that map.on an animal skin that was copied onto.paper by an army officer.jim bridger had mapped five states with.about four degree accuracy with no.instruments no training.from what the professionals later.surveyed.bridger departed for the gold fields on.may 20.with about 100 wagons from a point west.of red views.blazing a trail to virginia city on the.other side of the bighorn mountains.bridges is much more popular probably.from the fact that bridger.is an old and well-known mountaineer.having spent his whole life among the.mountains.and the indians and having the.reputation of being a reliable man.franklin kirkaldi while not quite a race.these shortcuts to the montana gold.fields were in full swing that spring.and summer.of 1864..on july 2nd bozeman caught up with the.hurlbut train.which had stopped to prospect for goal.he had been following the path blazed by.earl but for some time.and now as he passed he was on his own.to discover the best way forward.bozeman's trained within six miles of us.and passed by good many are wanting to.go on.and others want to stay and prospect.meanwhile bridger's train was struggling.through difficult terrain.feed and water were most fearfully.scarce that we crossed what was almost a.desert 70 miles in width on which we had.a tight pinch to get grass for our stock.howard stanfield on the other side of.the bighorns.bozeman's wagon train grew even larger.at the bighorn river.with some of captain hurlbut's train.joining.an estimated 150 wagons now comprise the.train.the captain told a number of us that he.knew where there was plenty of gold but.now we begin to think he has.fooled us some and there are a number.that will leave the train tomorrow.morning without.doubt.[Music].the bighorn river crossing could be.difficult especially early in the season.sometimes the wagons were caulked and.floated across.other times days were spent building.crude rafts.later in the year the flow was lower.making for an easier.crossing after the bighorn crossing.bozeman was unsure of the route mountain.man john jacobs didn't accompany him.this time.and he simply didn't have the knowledge.or skills of a jim bridger.or even alan horbot so he traced a route.northwest.over numerous creeks and rough terrain.we're just about halfway between the.town of pryor.and fort smith montana right in here is.where bozeman got lost.he lost track of it and then he went off.over here towards billings.he wandered around for two or three days.over here.bozeman finally made it to some bluffs.above the yellowstone river across from.present day billings montana.but he couldn't get his wagon train down.to the river.right now i'm standing above the.yellowstone river.what we call the south hills it's really.rough country.bozeman was over on what we now call.prior creek and they took the.11 mile trip over the top of this hilly.country the dyrus.were remarking a lot about this country.they said this is the roughest country.we think a wagon train can go through.it's a it's this country behind me.it's tough tough.we have been following bozeman's road.and.here he took a wrong course and went out.of his way for nearly 15 miles.over the worst kind of roads.while bozeman was struggling on the east.side of the bighorns.bridger finally let his train out of the.arid west side.environment and into lusher country.now the immigrants had plenty of water.and grass for their stock.plus fish and game to supplement their.diet.the boys fetch in a camp from 6 to 10.antelope a day.caught a lot of trout have got a half.barrel salted down.it would surprise the nation to see the.amount of trout brought into camp every.day.william haskell over the next few weeks.the bridger train crossed the bighorn.grey bull.shushani and clark's fork rivers before.emerging close to the yellowstone near.present-day.joliet montana at night bridger regaled.his fellow travelers.with tall tales of his adventures in the.rocky mountains.one of his favorites was about the time.he was chased for miles.by a hundred cheyenne warriors he made a.wrong turn and found himself in a box.canyon with no escape.as the indians bore down on him bridger.would pause his story.finally his listeners could not contain.themselves.what happened next they would ask he'd.look at them with a sparkle in his eye.and reply.well they killed me.the situation was not so jovial in the.huroba expedition.there is not much good feeling towards.the captain at this time.his conduct towards the company has been.in the highest degree.central and he has few if any friends.among those who at first so.readily listened to and so imperfectly.believed his stories and.golden promises that he will probably.never lead another train through the.mountains.bozeman meanwhile was trying to figure.out where to go next.to cross the yellowstone he finally.encountered bridger's trail.from a few weeks earlier at rock creek.crossing.now all he had to do was follow.bridger's tracks.onward to the yellowstone but there were.still.more obstacles to overcome one was.sanborn hill.he ended up on the top of this hill the.whole wagon train.and that hill is as steep as a cow's.face.you know what they did they planted a.post in the ground.and they cut all their ropes together.and they hand.let those wagons down one at a time led.the horses down.off this hill here.bozeman finally descended to the south.side of the yellowstone river.and followed it west where he reached.bridger's crossing.a diagonal four across the river nearly.a half a mile long.while bozeman crossed the yellowstone.the remaining members of hurlbut's train.elected abraham vorhees as their new.captain.they then continued following bozeman's.trail leaving harlbot behind.but another problem soon erupted just as.we were eating our breakfast.the indians about 20 or 25 of them.were seen among the horses that were a.mile away from the camp.men with their rifles were after them.horses running in every direction.trying to get to camp and some were.lucky enough to reach it.one mule came in with an arrow sticking.in its side while.six horses and six mules were driven off.by them before our men could get near to.them.there were a good many shots fired at.them.but none were killed.on the north side of the yellowstone.first bridger then bozeman headed west.until they reached the shields river.northeast of present-day.livingston montana here bridger turned.north and followed the shield's river.before turning south again alongside.today's bridger mountains.and into the gallatin valley bozeman.left bridger's route at the shields.and headed west to the pass that was.named for him the year before.from there he descended into the.gallatin valley and then took.existing roads to virginia city arriving.at the end of july.the portion of hurlbug's train now.commanded by abraham voorhees.arrived in virginia city around august.10th.his view of the mining enterprise there.was cynical.not one miner of a thousand gets rich.the trader and speculator and those who.have money to work upon.profit by the excitement.as the people in the former herbert.wagon train dispersed.vorhees sold his oxen said his goodbyes.and within a week booked passage back.home with another wagon.his four-month 1700 mile journey to the.gold fields.seemed to be little more than a.sightseeing adventure.with his earlier start and more westward.route bridger beat everyone.arriving in early july he would lead yet.another train in the fall.and again in subsequent years yet.since bozeman's train was the first to.arrive by traveling along the east side.of the bighorn mountains.the shortcut to virginia city bears his.name.to this day after guiding his wagon.train to virginia city.bozeman turned around and traveled 60.miles northeast.to settle he arrived at a fledgling.community.at the east end of the gallatin valley.it was inhabited by daniel.ralph william beal and william.alderson among others on august 9.1864 these men began the process.of formally organizing a town they named.it after their friend.bozeman montana bozeman and the others.recognized it as an.ideal spot for wagons to lay over upon.entering the gallatin valley.via the bozeman trail they hoped to make.some money.in the process one immigrant who camped.there.later in 1864 was visited by bozeman and.rouse.who tried to persuade him to settle.there.they spoke eloquently of its many.advantages.its water privileges and its standing.right in the gate of the mountains.ready to swallow up all the tender feet.that would reach the territory from the.east.with their golden fleeces to be taken.care of.w.j davies bozeman was elected recorder.of the district.and eventually became probate judge.he would lead no more wagon trains into.montana.1864 was a big migration year.about 40 000 immigrants traveled the.oregon and california trails to western.destinations.including to what had become montana.territory.by contrast after the initial forays of.bridger hurlbut.and bozeman only some 1500 people.attempted the bozeman trail later that.year.fearing indians many people thought it.was just too dangerous.it was here that our train divided half.of the wagons going on by the way of.south pass.green river soda springs to montana.while the rest.going north by what was called the.bozeman cutoff.it was considered a dangerous road to.travel it ran.over through and across the hunting.grounds of the sioux.who had no love for the pale faces.mary foreman kelly the attitude of the.immigrants towards the indians.varied from aggressive hatred and fear.to interested fascination.and even admiration this day there was.motion put.forward and carried in the morning for.the indiscriminate slaughter of all.indians but was reconsidered and acted.upon in the evening.and resulted in favor of letting them.alone so long as they did not intrude on.us.richard owens there are a great.many indian lodges or teepees as they.call them.all around we saw a good many indians.some of them hurt in their stock and.some around their lodges.they have a great many ponies we saw.some of the squaws riding horseback.sitting on the horse man fashion.with their blankets all around them you.ought to see their ornaments.some wore large bracelets of brass and.some had.beads of tin around their arms.they were dressed in style i tell you.nelly fletcher about 300 arapaho indians.are camped near here.and came to our camp tonight loaded with.furs and robes.and some of the boys struck up a lively.trading post.the handsomest robes i ever saw were.bought for a pair of.common soldier blankets a cup of flour.bought a pair of beaded moccasins.and one man bought a gray wolf robe for.12.matches theodore bailey.among all the tribes of the northwest.the crow.stands first in manliness and physical.perfection.they also have pride of race and nation.they can be trusted as friends within.its boundaries.whenever they are treated with the.consideration.they deserve margaret carrington.for some fear of native americans was.justified.even though outright assaults on wagon.trains were rare.there were exceptions on july 7th 1864.the towson train consisted of 150 wagons.was attacked on the powder river in.present-day wyoming.the indians even lit a grass fire to.burn out the wagons.but the immigrants dug a trench around.the circled wagons and filled it with.water.after a six-hour battle with superior.weaponry.the immigrants were finally able to.fight off the indians the indians only.had bows and arrows.the arrows had iron heads and were very.effective at short range.but after they had made a few rushes our.guns had thinned them out and.they kept out of range pretty much we.had some long-range guns and kept.picking them off and.got quite a number of them never did.know how many.frank wager the towson party lost four.men in the encounter.two were quickly buried and the other.two presumed dead.as the next wagon train approached the.site of the battle a few weeks later.a horrific scene awaited we moved out.at eight this morning and some of our.advanced guard came on the body of the.man.killed he had been buried by his friends.but the wolves had taken him out and.devoured much of his body.we buried him again richard owens.besides hostile indians the bozeman.trail immigrants.experienced other hardships along the.way.passed through among barren desolate.region.grass very scarce nothing but alkali.water with sandy road.alkali one half inch thick all along the.creek.and our only chance for water is to dig.through it for water so.strongly impregnated with soda to be fit.for baking.bread john heck.i shall never forget this camp as the.breeding grounds of the mosquito.dense swarms of these pests attacked us.here.making life almost unbearable.the children the greatest sufferers.swollen hands and faces.from the effects of bites the cattle.restless difficult to keep together at.night especially.smudges had to be made to keep off the.mosquitoes.mary foreman kelly.yet all was not misery misfortune and.social discord.the land and its abundance its unique.vegetation and wildlife.captured the imagination and curiosity.of the immigrants.the country now changed from a dry.waterless plane.to well-watered steps beautiful hills.where there grew the buffalo and grandma.grasses.along the banks of the mountain brooks.we gathered the wild strawberry.and raspberry caught many a fine mess of.trout.mary foreman kelly went fishing.and caught 30 pounds of fish.some weighed two pounds two men of our.party caught 25 pounds.john hackney prairie dog villages are.scattered thickly.lyman shot one a few days ago they.belong to the marmot species and as near.as i can describe.they are about halfway between the.common gray ground.squirrel and the american groundhog or.woodchuck.perry burgess by the time the 1864.travel season was over thousands of.people had made it to the montana gold.fields.via the bridger and bozeman trails.mostly without incident.from the native american presence these.shortcuts to the mines were beginning to.pan out.then in the fall of 1864 an event.occurred that would soon.impact travel on the bozeman trail.on november 29 1864 colonel john.chivington leading a ruthless volunteer.calvary.attacked black kettle's peaceful.cheyenne village in southeastern.colorado territory.they killed and horribly mutilated.nearly 200 native americans.most of them women and children.damn any man who sympathizes with.indians.killing scalp all big and little nits.make lice.as a result of sand creek various tribes.began attacking along the platte river.road.the following spring and summer large.numbers then move north to the powder.river country.here they coalesced around the lakota.sioux warrior red cloud.the seeds of a unified indian resistance.or sprouting.red cloud was born in 1822 near the.confluence of the blue.and platte rivers east of today's north.platte nebraska.his father was killed when red cloud was.young and he was brought.up by his uncle chief old smoke as a.young man.he demonstrated his fearlessness his.ruthlessness and leadership.during wars against the pawnee crowe and.other tribes.in one battle he saved a youth warrior.from a river drowning.only to drag him on shore then kill and.scalp him.when he was just 19 he killed one of his.uncle's rivals.bull bear by 1864 he had been in more.than 80 battles.his growing reputation as a military.strategist.negotiator and orator elevated him even.more in lakota society.red cloud he managed to unite quite a.few of the lakota.bands together but also to bring in.cheyenne.and some of the arapaho without his.sports personality and his vision.i don't think the indian opposition.would be near as strong as it was.by spring 1865 with the increase of.continued indian attacks.the bozeman trail was shut down to.immigrant traffic but not to the.military.now that the civil war had ended the us.government increased its forces along.western trails.including the bozeman trail major.general grenville dodge head orders for.brigadier general patrick connor.settle the indian troubles this season.make vigorous war upon the indians and.punish them.so that they will be forced to keep the.peace.in august of 1865 connor did just that.with 2400 troops of the powder river.expedition.uh connor himself comes up bozeman trail.he was ordered to establish a fort so he.establishes.one's first fort connor and then becomes.court reno later that fall in 1865.down on powder river and that's the.first of the bozeman trail force.and so that's supposed to be a permanent.thing right here in the heart of the.indian country to keep them under.control.and then he goes off hunting for indians.he's.led by quite a few famous scouts and jim.bridger again being the most famous of.them.connor and his soldiers marched north as.they approached the tung river.bridger saw smoke rising in the distance.and alerted connor to indians.they attacked a peaceful northern.arapaho village of about 500.early in the morning of august 29th.burning the lodges.and winter provisions many of the.warriors were absent.off on a raid against the crow at least.60 arapaho were killed.many of them women and children i think.you know when you look at conor.attacking that arapaho camp who was what.was led by medicine men.the arapahos were not necessarily ready.to go to war.until after that that that just said.that just galvanized them and said we.you know we've got to join this movement.we you know if we if we don't join this.we're going to continue to see these.atrocities.it was the beginning of the indian wars.here and the beginning of the real heavy.bloodshed along the bozeman trail.in 1866 the bozeman trail was once again.open to immigrant and other.non-military travel but now many of the.wagons were driven by freighters and.teamsters moving merchandise equipment.and livestock.fewer prospectors were traveling their.places taken by merchants.professionals craftsmen and others.wanting to provide.goods and services to the now burgeoning.mining towns.opportunity was knocking they were off.to mine the miners but by an official.order on february 28.1866 all wagon trains were required to.get permission to travel.indian trouble was still on everyone's.mind.so much so that in the spring of 1866.cheyenne sue and arapahoe bands were.invited to a peace conference.at fort laramie nearly 2 000 showed up.the peace commissioners were certain a.deal allowing safe passage on the.bozeman trail could be reached.red cloud was one of many influential.leaders in attendance.he too was optimistic an agreement could.be attained.but the peace commissioners and the u.s.military were not.on the same page he'd made up his mind.that he wasn't going to.to fight anymore that you know that he.really did want to try to secure peace.and no sooner than they sat down.um and then the scouts come in and say.there's.a column of soldiers coming up the river.it was the u.s 18th infantry led by.colonel henry carrington.he had orders to re-garrison fort reno.and build two more forts along the.bozeman trail.to help protect wagon trains and.establish a military presence in the.region.red cloud was furious he.picked up and he left and said he would.never sign a treaty with the united.states government.abruptly leaving the fort laramie treaty.negotiations.sue cheyenne and arapahoe tribes later.gathered at red cloud's encampment.at the annual sundance ceremony they.vowed to fight against white incursion.carrington headed north with 700.soldiers 300 civilians.and 226 wagons filled with tons of.supplies and equipment.to stock and build forts along the.bozeman trail.most of the troops were raw recruits.unskilled in indian warfare they were.mostly armed with outdated single-shot.muzzle loading muskets.carrington himself was an odd choice as.a commander.in hostile indian country but he had.connections within the military and the.government.and was a good engineer and manager.colonel.carrington was from a very well-to-do.family an aristocratic family.carrington during the civil war was.pretty much a desk officer.so he had no combat experience and that.was one of the big wraps on him by some.of the men.who were veterans of the civil war when.he was ordered to build.forts up here in this country.carrington proceeded to come north and.they at.fort reno they they rebuilt on that and.re-garrisoned it and.then went to fort kilcarny they built.that and then in that.august of 1866 another two companies the.troops went up and built fort.c.s smith which is 90 miles north of.fort vilcarni.when the military started building forts.in this area it was kind of like the.last straw for them and and.you know the combination of sand creek.and and the aftermath of that just.tightened.the need to try to keep these people out.of our land keep them out of our.territory.once the military committed to building.three forts on the bozeman trail.the lakota and the northern cheyenne and.the arapaho.they saw that as occupation they saw.that.as humiliation by mid-summer war parties.of sioux.northern cheyenne and northern arapaho.were camped in the valleys of the tung.and rosebud rivers among the warriors.were a young crazy horse american horse.and red cloud who spoke out against the.military.hear ye dakotas when the great father at.washington asked for a path through our.hunting grounds.we were told that they wished merely to.pass through.our old chiefs thought to show their.goodwill promising to protect the.wayfarers.yet before the ashes of the council fire.are cold.the great father is building his forts.among us.this presence here is an insult to the.spirits of our ancestors.dakotas i am for war.fort phil kearney was the largest of the.three bozeman trail forts.it was located near piney creek about.halfway between present-day.sheridan and buffalo wyoming they arrive.in july.of 1866 on friday the 13th.and decide that this is the best place.to set up the.largest stockaded fort in the west it.was a massive undertaking.carrington does a really good job.selecting.where the fort should be placed this is.the most.beautiful place for fort that i've seen.west of fort leavenworth.its mountain scenery is most striking.and majestic with its beautiful.range of hills on either side north and.south as.it were throwing their arms around and.clasping one in their bosom.william thomas so the location well you.can see it's beautiful and it gives you.a great vista and a view of the land.around you.there's no place for there's no wood and.so they had to send civilians and.ultimately soldiers to protect the.civilians miles away.to cut wood to bring it to be able to.build the.entire perimeter of the fort and all of.the structures inside of the fort so.that was a real problem.45 wagon boxes go out every day 45.full past them 540 mules just to service.the wood train.massive wood gathering effort going.through at its peak.fort phil kearney encompassed 17 acres.and numerous structures.including officer enlisted man and.civilian.quarters a hospital mess hall stables.shops and two sawmills 400 troops and.150 civilians inhabited this fortress.on the little piney creek in the heart.of indian country.by the end of july 1866 all wagon trains.arriving at the slowly emerging fort.were required to consolidate into larger.trains before proceeding.more military trains were also on the.trail often traveling with immigrant.trains to protect them.everyone was much more alert to danger.livestock were heavily guarded.and men rarely wandered off alone to.hunt or fish.the military moves in and the indians.knew there was a war.so by 1866 the indians were attacking.and there was one week in july when 24.civilians and soldiers were killed in.attacks all along the trail from the.north platte to the bighorn river.william thomas traveling with the 1866.kirkendall wagon train.was preoccupied with immigrant graves.along the route.by the time he reached the site of the.new fort phil carney.he was filled with ominous feelings.about traveling through indian country.on the bozeman trail.i'm meditating upon the advantage.that i am about to take counting the.cost.summing up the danger cold chills run.through my blood.william thomas.arriving at the bighorn river without.incident the word around camp was no.more danger from.indians for they were now in crow.country.so after crossing thomas put his faith.in god.and left the small kirkendall train with.his eight-year-old son.charlie and hired driver over the next.six days.they journeyed to the yellowstone river.alone.this site is kind of a sad story to tell.william thomas was a farmer.back in illinois and he'd lost his.two daughters and his wife.sometime before 1866..he and his son decided to come west.can you imagine though going through.this country without even one firearm.he was a he was a religious man they.thought the good maker is going to take.care of him.they'd finally made it to the.yellowstone they felt safe.they built a campfire they had a little.celebration.unfortunately indians caught him here.killed he and his son and the hired man.shortly after the miners came down with.their wagon train.and they found the bodies.[Music].the bozeman trail has many sad stories.and this is just one of them.[Music].perhaps the most daring group to use the.bozeman trail in 1866.was its last nelson's story a mule.packer.had struck it rich at alder gulch always.the entrepreneur.he saw a need for beef in the new.montana territory.and went to texas with ten thousand.dollars to buy cattle.story bought a thousand head of cattle.at bargain rates.in the devastated post-civil war texas.economy.then along with 25 hired hands he drove.them up through.oklahoma kansas nebraska colorado.and over to wyoming and the bozeman.trail.along the way his outfit was attacked by.indians.on the dry fork of the powder river.two of his men were injured one died and.about 30 head of cattle were stolen.after leaving the injured at fort reno.story and his men tracked down and.killed the indians.and recovered the cattle he shot the.place up pretty good and that was.something that uh.years later he felt a little upset about.it but it turns out that's probably the.best thing he could have ever done it's.probably saved the life of this entire.crew.story arrived at fort phil carney in.october 1866 without further incident.but was ironically delayed by military.order because of.anticipated indian trouble after two.weeks.he finally had enough in the dead of the.night.he left the fort and continued his.cattle drive up the bozeman trail.fending off two more indian attacks.along the way stopping near present day.livingston montana.in december 1866 story eventually sold.some of his stock.at a huge profit and established cattle.ranching.in montana with the rest sets up cow.camp between livingston and bozeman.and uh started running cows in the.paradise valley because it was.actually pretty good weather down that.way but the maine his main operation was.out here out of bozeman.and he also had an operation of course.in virginia city and nevada city.variously described as a fearless tough.guy a scoundrel.and a robber bear he was also said to be.generous.intelligent and compassionate if he got.mad at you he might he might actually.pistol-whip you.but at the same time if if you needed.help he'll be.buy you a house nelson's story.eventually settled in bozeman montana.and became its first millionaire with.interest not only in cattle.with flower mills banks stores and real.estate.he was a good friend of john bozeman who.by 1866.had solidly established himself in the.town that wore his name.he was involved in many businesses he.was an entrepreneur he.was involved in civic activities and he.had.lots of contacts in april 1867.friend and flower mill owner tom coover.talked bozeman into going to fort cf.smith.with him to secure government contracts.bozeman had serious misgivings about the.trip but after much pressuring.he finally agreed to go the gallatin.valley was already in a panic.in spring 1867 when john bozeman and tom.cover set out to go to.fort sea of smith that spring there were.rumors of indian.threats that would come over the.mountains and attack.into the gallatin valley so john bozeman.was very apprehensive about this trip.we're standing in katy coulee the.yellowstone.river is 300 yards that direction.this is kind of an interesting place in.montana history it's.told that bozeman had a bad feeling.about what was going to happen in front.of me.they stopped here in this school right.where we are very close.to have lunch while they were eating.lunch.five pegan indians showed up.they signaled that they were hungry and.they wanted to eat they came into camp.they were offered food at that time the.indians drew their.their arms and killed both.his partner was still armed and fought.his way.and hid in the brush and escaped.upon hearing of bozeman's death nelson's.story sent one of his men to the scene.of the crime to look around.he reported that there were no signs of.indians or.indian pony tracks around katie cooley.coover's wound was said to have had.powder burns.which could have been self-inflicted.this led some to believe.coover himself killed bozeman others.pointed to business foes or.jealous husbands but indian culprits.remain the most plausible explanation.a burial party soon arrived and john.bozeman age 32.was interred on the spot next to the.yellowstone river.two years later nelson's story had.bozeman's body dug up.and reinterred at the story family plot.at sunset hills cemetery in bozeman.montana.his marker stands to this day and the.questions about his death.still swirl so he died.the tragic young hero of the story.which i think has added to a lot to the.the ambiance if you will.the romance of his persona um if he had.lived.on you know it would have been.interesting to see what he would have.done.with his life the news of bozeman's.death on april 18.1867 served to inflame already.smoldering fears.that an indian attack on the gallatin.valley was imminent.even though the dominant tribe in the.area was relatively friendly crow.it raised such a furor among bozeman's.new citizens.that the federal government established.fort ellis just east of town.in august of 1867.purchases of provisions by the fort and.patronage by its soldiers in town.pumped more than 30 thousand dollars per.year into the fledgling bozeman economy.that's nearly a half a million dollars.in today's currency.without fort ellis the town of bozeman.might not have survived its formative.years.as the travel season of 1866 ended.red cloud's coalition of tribes.increasingly attacked areas around the.forts that autumn.they occurred on an almost daily basis.it began this.kind of slow bleeding process.you'd see indians around the hills every.day you'd send out wood cutting parties.to go cut the wood.the indians and they would clash in the.woods you would send out.parties to take out stock to graze them.the indians would attack.and capture what stock they could so it.just was continual.hit and run tactics and those would.continue really throughout the fall.although they knew that these forts had.been built.some of them would be impenetrable but.they knew that they could attack the.supply wagons and they could continue to.to harass anybody who was coming into.the region and and that was basically.the plan.and that's what led basically to the.federal fight it was also the result.of the wagon box fight later on.the need for wood.at fort phil kearney during the autumn.of 1866.carrington's officers included.lieutenant george grumman.captain tinadore 10 ike captain fred.brown.and captain james powell captain brown.was obsessed with chasing down.indians which he did on a regular basis.powell was a grizzled veteran who worked.his way up through the ranks.he suffered from lead poisoning with.musket balls still in his body from the.civil war.grumman was a hothead who would dash.into any battle.and ten ike was in poor health after.time spent in a civil war prison camp.these officers were in charge of an.infantry in calvary comprised of fairly.green recruits.poorly armed with mostly single-shot.muskets.and untested in indian warfare.even the officers good soldiers during.the civil war.were unprepared for the guerrilla.tactics of the sioux alliance.in the unfamiliar and unforgiving.landscape of the powder river country.but they were soon joined by one more.captain william j fetterman was a rising.star in the military.a decorated civil war officer he was in.line for a promotion.possibly the new commander of fort phil.carney.or fort c smith they were thrilled.when fetterman showed up at the fort.because.that was the moment when they knew that.they could start to professionalize.militarily.he was such a high-ranking officer had.such great administration.and leadership skills from the war that.they knew that he would be able to come.in.and bring some discipline to what they.felt was the disorder of having to.build rather than protect which is what.they were going to have to be ready to.do.on december 21st they sent out a wood.train.it was the last wood train they were.going to send out for the season.on this particular day red cloud's.coalition would attempt to decoy the.military over lodge trail ridge.and down into the draws and gullies.below.their 1500 warriors lay hidden ready to.spring the trap.the indians knew the terrain very well.and they knew where they could.hide and the soldiers wouldn't see them.the signal came from up in the signal.yell that wood.grain was under assault and so a relief.calm.was put together and they took so many.from various companies.mostly a lot of them from fetterman's.personal company.and then fetterman by wright a seniority.you know.wanted the captainship under cloudy.skies and fairly mild temperatures.fetterman and 49 infantry moved out that.winter solstice day to support the wood.train they were overtaken shortly by 27.calvary riders.led by grumman and brown two civilians.wheatley and fisher accompanied the.calvary.eager to try out their new henry 16 shot.repeating.rifles the cavalry carried seven shot.spencer repeating carbines.fetterman soldiers were armed only with.obsolete springfield muzzleloaders.before fetterman left carrington.supposedly gave orders.not to cross lodge trail ridge because.the rest of the company wouldn't be able.to support.such a move so uh fetterman comes out.with.his stadium in february grumman and.brown all of a sudden.once they got out of the fort here and.came around to the front they could see.the.signalman on pilot hill saying.wood train's not under attack anymore.it's safe.fetterman was a civil war veteran and.whenever there were changing battle.scenarios.that changed the orders and you didn't.have time to go get permission.he was too good an officer to just.disobey orders because he didn't like.his commanding.officer or because he was arrogant and.a fire eater like he's been portrayed.he was not like that crazy horse.american horse and a handful of others.attempted to lure the soldiers over the.bridge.red cloud may have been watching the.plan unfold from a high vantage point.nearby.betterman does go over the ridge grumman.in the cavalry went over first.and so he hears what's happening over.the ridge.likely knew that there was activity.great activity happening over the ridge.and in my opinion he went over the ridge.to relieve grummond and the cavalry men.who were ahead.they had no idea there were 1500.indians waiting in a well-staged ambush.i didn't understand the indians.abilities.to stage an ambush like that to create.a strategic and tactical scenario.hearing gunfire back at the fort a.relief column of infantry led by.tenedor tent ike was quickly organized.they marched to a ridge south of the.battle to get a view of the conflict.it started to die down time that then.i'd reached the.ridge above to look down all i saw was.indians.and what they said looked like white.logs which were the bodies.strip bodies so it was it was over very.quick uh.and uh and a very complete victory.all 81 men were wiped out and their.bodies mutilated.in a perfectly executed attack.brown had a bullet through his temple.possibly self-inflicted.or perhaps a mercy killing by fetterman.american horse claimed to have.personally killed fetterman.the bodies were mutilated because of.spiritual beliefs that a maimed enemy.would be weaker when met again in the.afterlife.only adolf metzger the bugler was left.intact and covered reverently with a.buffalo robe.the indians later claimed that he was.honored for his extreme bravery.during the battle in the end even using.his bugle.as a weapon to defend himself this was.the most successful.strategic plan that.any of the planes indians had ever.pulled off.as troops went out to retrieve bodies.after the fetterman massacre.the temperature plunged the wind spiked.and snow began to swirl.a blizzard was on the way back at the.fort.it was feared that the stockade itself.might be assailed by the indians.so a plan was made should an attack.occur.the remaining soldiers would defend the.fort while women and children would be.sent to the ammunition magazine for.safety.if a breach of the fort occurred the.magazine would be blown up.rather than subjecting them to the.mutilation scene on the battlefield.listening to the carpenters making.coffins for the soldiers while it's.sub-zero and just the.abject misery and not hearing because.they don't have telegraph not knowing.whether anybody even knows what their.situation is i can't imagine that.the tension and stress of the people who.remained in the fort.under these dire circumstances.carrington asked for civilian volunteers.to ride with news of the massacre.and plea for reinforcements john.portugue phillips stepped forward.and later that evening of december 21st.began a journey to.the horseshoe station telegraph near.present-day glendo wyoming.about 190 miles away.persevering bitterly cold temperatures.and driving wind-blown snow.he arrived on christmas morning and sent.a message of the disaster to fort.laramie.phillips then continued another 40 miles.to fort laramie.arriving late that night during a.festive military ball.due to the continuing foul weather full.reinforcements didn't depart until.january 6th.but an attack on fort phil kearney never.happened.phillips near total collapse recuperated.in the post hospital for two weeks.his legendary ride lives on to this day.in january 1867 there was another ride.through difficult conditions.because of army reorganization colonel.carrington.had new orders to report to fort casper.he was accompanied by his wife margaret.and a contingent of soldiers.as they brave their way through snow.wind and temperatures near.40 below colonel carrington and.all of his remaining men from his.battalion.have to march through this blizzard with.their wives.and and spouses and families to get out.of the bozeman trail area.men lost their feet the wives described.this.there's just agony of riding in these.ambulances freezing trying to burn wood.in the aftermath of the massacre henry.carrington faced.courts of inquiries congressional.hearings.and special commissions all looking into.what happened.there was false evidence and subterfuge.from all.quarters there's multiple year-long.investigations.from the army and from congress and from.the.office of indian affairs trying to.figure out what happened.all of these studies started initially.to point at colonel carrington.and his weak leadership carrington.defended himself by blaming fetterman.for disobeying orders not to cross.lodge trail ridge and portrayed him as.generally.reckless over the years historians would.amplify the story.of an ambitious and reckless veteran.they would attribute an.infamous quote to him with 80 men i.could ride through the entire.sioux nation but whether he ever uttered.that phrase.or whether that famous order not to.cross lodge trail ridge.ever reach fetterman's ears it's still.disputed to this day.general ulysses s grant moved to court.marshall carrington.but at the suggestion of his friend.general william t.sherman a court of inquiry exonerated.carrington.and later an investigation by the.department of the interior found.no culpability.in 1908 henry carrington and his second.wife francis.were honored in sheridan wyoming.carrington spoke at the fetterman.massacre site memorial still blaming.fetterman for the disaster.he died at the age of 88 in 1912..all along he just felt like he was.wrongfully.blamed he spent his entire adult life.trying to clear his reputation.the result of the federal massacre what.the indians called the battle of the.hundred in the hand.made immigrant travel impossible after.1866..the threat of attack was simply too.great.for the next two years the bozeman trail.became a military road.between the forts.in july 1867 after their annual sundance.sue cheyenne and arapahoe warriors.decided to attack soldiers.around fort cf smith and for phil carney.red cloud was again instrumental in the.planning.the ensuing hayfield and wagon box.fights took place.just one day apart august 1st and 2nd.1867 in these fights about 30 armed men.fighting from behind barricades defended.themselves against hundreds of indians.both engagements had the same outcome.in the wagon box fight near fort phil.carney captain james powell commanded.just 30 soldiers against nearly.400 sioux and cheyenne warriors led by.red cloud.the battle lasted over eight hours until.help arrived.the indians made their initial charge.and their idea normally would have been.to charge the krell and at about 150.yards the indians would kind of duck.behind their horse.that's when they expected the soldiers.to shoot.and then the indians would jump up and.then put the gas on and.jump the wagons and kill the soldiers.inside the corral.the short stout indian bow was primarily.used from horseback.during buffalo hunts deadly at short.range these weapons were not very.effective.at a distance the soldiers instead of.having muzzleloaders now had.breach loading what was called allen.conversions.and all they do is pop up the bridge.sort of new round in and close the.bridge and shoot.so unlike the muzzle loader which took.which.could fire about two rounds a minute.these could fire.closer to like 10 rounds a man and that.was a real shock.to the warriors that were charging the.crowd because.they expected the soldiers to be delayed.while.loading their rifles and instead they.fired again.and they fired again and again and the.unions broke off their assault.the battle at the hayfield the wagon box.fight and i think that.in those engagements the lakota people.went away and and bewilderment.the wagon box and hayfield fights were.the last major engagements of red.cloud's war.the outcome of the battles discouraged.native warriors from attempting.additional large-scale attacks against.government forces.and so for the remainder of 1867.the lakota and their allies concentrated.on small-scale.hit-and-run attacks along the bozeman.trail.by 1868 with the completion of the.railroad across southern wyoming.the trail is no longer needed it was.built for a shortcut and.a cheap way to get people from the.oregon trail.to virginia city but now they had a.railroad that went clear across the.united states and they could go straight.north from birmingham city utah.and it was a shorter route and an easier.route to get into those gold fields so.they abandoned the bosom trail.in the spring of 1868 a peace conference.was convened.at fort laramie by the u.s government.slowly cheyenne arapahoe and sioux.leaders.filtered in but there were problems i.really couldn't find any indians to sign.the treaty red cloud said i'll sign it.once the forts are gone.i'll come in and sign it that was his.ultimatum close the bozeman trail.get rid of the forts and then i'll sign.your treaty.finally the united states government.agreed the fort laramie treaty of 1868.called for the abandonment of all three.bozeman trail forts.and the bozeman trail itself closed.the indians quickly destroyed the.abandoned forts those symbols of u.s.military power.their victory they thought was complete.but in reality.it was the beginning of the end the way.the treaty read.was that all the land between.yellowstone river north platte river.the bighorn mountains and the black.hills would become.unseated indian territory where the.indians could live.and hunt and continue their culture as.it always had been.as long as the buffalo existed to.support that.style of living that was pretty good.treaty from the sounds of it for the.indians.the especially for well the lakota and.cheyenne raffle.the problem in the negative part of the.treaty was that.up until this point the lakota had not.had.agencies indian agencies or reservations.and the treaty created those.i think the indians successfully made.their point.that we do not want any permanence.in our country and from their.perspective you bet they won.you bet they did so in 1868.they think that they've closed the.bozeman trail they're rid of the forts.they thought they defended that land and.had proved.their point and it was now theirs.this land along the bozeman trail area.will become what they call unseated.indian land.and that means it's kind of it's hunting.land they can use it but it's not part.of reservation it hasn't been given to.the indians.the indians are being allowed to use it.for eight years.from 1868 to 1876.there was a you know this land was.pretty much unseated.the legal thing was that they put in a.clause that said that.this would land that the indians could.move unopposed.and use this land for hunting and living.for so long as the game shall justify.the chase.well by the mid 1870s the buffalo were.getting pretty well decimated.and so they basically declared that the.game no longer justified the chase.and it's time to vote a reservation red.cloud was still.intimate about the changes in the treaty.that he didn't agree to.i have said three or four times that the.document that you have before you is not.the document that i agreed to.i did not agree to this treaty.after his success in closing down the.bozeman trail.red cloud became a spokesperson and.advocate for his people.traveling to washington dc on numerous.occasions.he would fight no more towards the end.of his life.he saw the desperation of his people and.spoke to president grant.now we are melting like snow on the.hillside.while you are growing like spring grass.red cloud died on the pine ridge.reservation in south dakota.in 1909. he was 87 years old.he is revered to this day as a bold.warrior.a superb military tactician a gifted.orator.and an esteemed statesman for his people.with the discovery of gold in the black.hills of south dakota.in 1874 a new influx of gold seekers.broke provisions of the treaty.which led to the great sioux war of.1876..the defeat of custer at the battle of.the little bighorn.was the final indian victory soon.afterwards.a reorganized and re-energized u.s.military with superior resources.spread out over the land they forced the.native americans to surrender.primarily by attacking and destroying.their encampments.and property i think for a while the.indians thought they could win.but they didn't understand the.industrial.force behind you know the institutions.of the army.it was endless limitless in just 15.years since the beginning of the bozeman.trail.the traditional nomadic hunting culture.of the plains indians was coming to an.end.a culture that had thrived for 10 000.years was now.about to change forever.[Music].what began with gold ended with gold.a heavy substance the nomadic tribes did.not consider useful.or valuable but this glittering prize.that eluded most miners motivated john.bozeman to find a different way.to cash in on the fever and in doing so.led not only to his own demise.but a stunning indian victory.the disgrace of a military colonel.and the ascendance of a lakota warrior.in the end this ancient travel corridor.rediscovered by john bozeman and others.led to a diminished indian presence a.surge.in euro-american population and the.emergence.of two new states.eventually this road less traveled gave.rise to towns and cities.roads and highways.reservations and public lands.that have shaped this part of the.american west.to this day.[Music].[Music].[Music].[Music].production of the bozeman trail of rush.to montana's gold.was made possible in part by the big sky.film grant.a grant from humanities montana an.affiliate of the national endowment for.the humanities.and funding from the wyoming humanities.council helping wyoming take a closer.look at life.through the humanities this project was.also made.possible with the support of the.gilhausen family foundation.the rocky mountain power foundation a.division of pacific corp.and grants from the wyoming cultural.trust fund a program of the department.of state parks and cultural resources.the greater montana foundation.encouraging communication on issues.trends and values of importance to.montanans.and the wyoming community foundation.connecting people who care with causes.that matter.to build a better wyoming.

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