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White Mountain Apache Tribe Scholarship Application Form Inquiry Instruction

thank you for the nice introduction bill.and thank you all of course for being.here.I did ask bill whether or not we could.have class outside and he said no we.have to be in but it is a lovely room.and a lovely day so once again and so.the subject first and foremost for me is.as bill said near and dear to my heart.have been spending a fair amount of my.life and time working on site.preservation efforts in a variety of.different capacities as bill mentioned.for different agencies and different.university settings and now very happily.at archaeology Southwest but most of my.professional career spent in around this.area the White Mountain Apache tribes.lands straight north of Tucson and.straight north of the San Carlos Apache.tribes lands and what I first wanted to.do is just show you that map so that.you're oriented that way and then also.give you the main argument that I'm.gonna be presenting because sometimes I.drift around and especially without.notes who knows exactly what we're going.to end up so looting and grave robbing I.don't mean to get things a little bit.more sober but they persist as major.threats to sites and site preservation.something that people it's sort of.drifted away from thinking about very.much that tribal communities are.disproportionately impacted by these.crimes against archaeological resources.for reasons I'll go into and at the same.time however those disadvantages or.disproportional effects turn out to at.least in some ways be ways for tribes to.be able to harness their experience on.the impacted side and be able to turn.those adverse effects into tools for.dealing with looting curbing it and new.in different ways and then lastly lassen.not least there is that we are now.working through a the beginning stages.of what we hope will be a long and.fruitful partnership first with the.White Mountain Apache Tribe seeing how.it works to develop a more should we say.community-based and community driven.and diverse program of dealing with.looting activities and trying to find.what are ways to prevent investigate and.prosecute those activities and then if.it works and we feel successful and the.tribe feels successful then we'll move.on and consider working with other.tribes and communities as well so that's.the kernel of what I'm gonna say if I.get too far away from any of those.things somebody stop me but I did want.to just bring it all back around also to.where I am now sitting which is as the.manager of the program for site and.landscape preservation at archaeology.Southwest been doing this work for about.a year and it's not just because I.wanted to check off another box bill.it's just also just a little bit of a.case of employment attention deficit.disorder I'd stick with jobs on an order.of about 13 job 13 years each and then.somehow I lose lose track and and and.drift a little bit it's trying to look.for something different in any case this.is the core of what happens at.archaeology Southwest preservation.archaeology with this beautiful cyclical.blend between research site protection.and outreach in public engagement and so.grounded in to ethical principles the.top two bullet points there and then.I've just gone ahead and added liberally.a third the tribal values merit special.consideration and action these days on.the part of professional archaeologists.especially working in the context that.we work in and this means first and.foremost listening and this photograph I.really like the archaeology Southwest's.a cold overlapping three-part graphic.and I also like this photograph because.it's one of the few where I'm working.but with my mouth closed and so gives me.an opportunity especially in the.presence of gentlemen like these hope.excuse me Zuni officials to learn a lot.about their views of the past and their.relationships to archaeology so my job.entails these four things.land acquisition conservation easements.priority preservation lands advocacy and.preservation site preservation those are.the four components of our site and.landscape preservation program and the.first in some ways core one is land.acquisition and conservation easements.and I'm sort of happy to say that this.map is now outdated because of good work.on the part of the organization and many.of you all in order to make it possible.for us to acquire two new properties.that the Texas Hill property in the.gully parcel brand new ones both in the.Gila Bend area thank you very much to.the Smith Family Foundation for that and.again to many of you also for helping.with those acquisitions in 2016 and 2017.so that brings us up to I think by my.count about ten conservation easements.and nine properties held in fee simple.and so that's an impressive portfolio.and an important one for for me to keep.track of and here's one of our main.stars they're their own Keo preserved in.the ball court they're on the San Pedro.many of you familiar with that place and.that photograph of course in addition to.the actual dealing with real estate.there's the advance planning that goes.on in the program that I helped run and.that involves taking care of and.thinking ahead to priority preservation.lands of places and clusters of.archaeological sites that constitute.landscapes and the derv serve special.attention because of their connections.between the sites and the ways that they.come together and divine very special.places and districts worthy of special.attention in planning government.activities roads you know whatever else.might be going on community development.etc and so we use that information in.you know the third most important part.of our site and landscape preservation.effort which of course is advocacy.a part of the portfolio that's grown in.the last few years for for many reasons.but especially because of growing.capacity and recognition of the.fundamental truth that if we don't take.care of things now and make sure that.they're around for the future then then.who else is going to do it so just a.quick note on what.that we're doing site preservation for.what are the reasons why we need to do.site preservation and so the first being.that the world is changing in front of.our eyes and we need to be attentive to.those things an advance shot from or vet.fire across firing across the shot.across the bow from the big floods in.1993 that scoured through terraces on.the Gila River that hadn't been scoured.for a long long time we're seeing more.and more of these extreme weather events.of course there's also the.aforementioned economic development.especially resource extraction.activities that deserve attention by way.of site protection and preservation.community development in infrastructure.that are also sources of site.degradation I chose the the photo and.the the upper corner there of Honda.subdivision because it's on White.Mountain Apache Tribe lands and because.it shows community development and in a.certain sense shows the results of land.modification due to a changing climate.and changing world because of all the.intensive thinning that they've had to.do there especially in the wake of the.big rodeo Chetta sky fire that came.through and in 2001 didn't get there in.part because of lots and lots of forest.thinning but all these things of course.have potential to adversely affect our.geological sites and resources and.landscapes and so for your attention to.those things and then this last one is.the one that we are just now starting to.engage with in a deliberate and more.systematic way at archaeology Southwest.and that's this looting and unregulated.collecting issue that has been damaging.sites for a long long time it's an old.and shifty problem I think some of you.know about old and shifty problems and.one that's been around at least since.folks in my home state of Colorado took.exception to Gustav Norton's Falls and.his collecting activities in the Mesa.Verde area and were especially concerned.to know that the artifacts that he was.collecting were being shipped to the.National Museum of Sweden and so they.rallied around the troops oops rallied.around the troops and.got the antiquities act eventually.passed it started the dynamics that.eventually led to the passage of the.antiquities Act and Gustav did not live.long enough he was another tuberculosis.sufferer who came to Colorado the way.that my family actually came to Colorado.from Missouri because of a the eldest.aunt in my family was tubercular and so.he came there and was summarily excluded.from the place because he was a.foreigner and a non-native from native.Coloradans who were very concerned about.that that irony however was not lost on.Colorado's Native American people that.there was this rally around to try to.get Gustav norms gold out of the out of.the territory but no special rights or.privileges of being accorded at that.time and as a matter of fact Colorado.was one of the states that was most.opposed and it was actually successful.briefly from excluding all Native people.in lands from its its territory.anyway the irony was not lost as I said.like those dynamics though did set in.place the first major piece of federal.cultural resource management protection.legislation the antiquities Act of 1906.which made it a crime to collect without.a permit to excavate on public federal.Indian lands or public or federal Indian.lands without a permit and without an.agreement to curate the materials that.you collected and repository other.archeologists could find them and and.use them in their research it all Teddy.took care of that and then it also.included these other very important.provisions allowing for presidential.authority to set aside national.monuments and he used that to great.effect himself setting aside 18 every.other president including number 25 has.taken advantage of that provision of the.antiquities Act but the provisions for.criminal penalties.associated with the antiquities act did.not stand the test of time and in fact.in 1974 were struck down because of a.case from Arizona's Indian lands a.collector.then I think Diaz apprehended as a.result of possessing materials from the.San Carlos Indian Reservation con dancer.materials they brought him up on.antiquities act charges for failing to.get a permit and the act was found to be.unconstitutionally vague and so from.1974 onward there was no protection on.federal or Indian lands against looters.or unpermitted collectors you could go.after people for stepped of government.property or for theft of tribal property.but no federal legislation unifying.those things so it was left for another.generation and of leaders political as.well as archaeological people like.Raymond H Thompson and Don Fowler and.bill life who is sort of our should we.say Potter Familia preservation and.archeology led the charge to establish a.federal law that would prevent and.process enabled prevention and.prosecution of archaeological resource.crimes and this time they made sure that.it was a better law than the antiquities.Act provisions were gonna be and made it.so that there were felony provisions as.a matter of fact for any collecting or.damaging of archaeological resources.anything more than 100 years old as a.matter of fact and public and Indian.lands were equally protected people in.the federal workforce law enforcement as.well as archeologists saw this as a.great tool and believed at the time and.for many years after that this was going.to put an end to unauthorized collecting.and digging and damaged archaeological.sites.on federal and Indian land prosecutors.lined up four cases every archaeologist.in the federal works art force took ARPA.classes people flocked to classrooms and.and seminar rooms and into field.seminars to learn the techniques for.doing damage assessments it was unique.in the world of law enforcement not just.within the United States but across the.planet in obliging collaboration.directly between professional.archaeologists and law enforcement.agents to work on the looming crime and.so is a fire by 1984 this gentleman.showed up in the grass soccer field.school camp where I was working ray.Johnson FBI agent looking for help from.an archaeologist to go and work on a.potential felony crime and we were keen.on this and he was especially keen on.because if a helicopter was being used.to reckon wider sites and ARPA includes.explicit provisions for four key feature.of equipment or supplies used in Arma.cases and Ray by God wanted him a.helicopter and so he had proper.enthusiasm for it but it was a big deal.for many many years for archaeologists.to learn how to do damage assessments to.learn the protocols for working with law.enforcement to get busy on our but.damage assessments and to make it.possible and cases were made all over.the country including a number of fairly.high-profile ones in Arizona including.this one which I had a small piece of.where two a Yavapai County sheriff's.deputies Tony masher and John price were.apprehended both on the Fort Apache.reservation and on the Coconino National.Forest they pled out with the the US.Attorney's and ended up only being.charged for the crimes that they.committed on the forest lands and so the.tribe got a little short drifted on that.but the main thing is that they got put.away and these guys showed a little bit.about the ways that ARPA had changed in.the years from 1979 until this case was.made in about 2001 because look at these.guys they're in camo gear they've got.automatic or semi-automatic.weapons they also had Federal Firearms.charges against them they were very.serious about what they were doing they.used archaeological reports to identify.rooms inside of sites that had not been.dug professionally so that they could go.and easily identify those rooms and dig.those they worked at night they left.almost no traces they just got busted by.an NAU graduate student basically it's.the way it all ended up that was the.first place that they actually had some.trail on this guy and they let him back.to the Fort Apache reservation we did.some other work that made it possible to.guarantee that they were going to be.convicted.so changing type of MO and ways of doing.business as a looters through the years.another illustration of the fact that.you know very often especially federal.criminal laws tend to really just drive.folks further into the gray zone rather.than and to make it so that honest.people are less likely to step outside.of the lines whereas truly dishonest.people get more and more set in their.ways in many ways and that was an.example of that you can also see the.swastika that they had carved on the.tree above themselves they're so cheery.folks to interact with but you know.became a little bit of a lesson as well.in law enforcement looking over a dam.there and the changes in federal law.enforcement through the 2000s and until.recently in the Park Service and the BLM.and and in the Bureau of Indian Affairs.law enforcement ranks as well where you.had to be a lot more careful used to be.Rangers barely even had weapons some of.them preferred not to carry him no more.big difference in the ways that these.things have changed so and so and then.because we've been talking a lot about.the hoosegow in my house right now.here's a girl Shumway a hardened.looter on his way to that hoosegow as a.result of crimes in and around the bears.ears areas but he's his initials are.carved into cliff dwellings on the.Florida patchy Indian Reservation as.well so the guy got around so.effectively a subculture or a class of.of looters that were operating there no.more no more nice guys no more quaint.antiquary and collecting at sites so yes.things were changing and it seemed as if.through my years working as the tribal.historic preservation officer and.archeologists for the White Mountain.Apache Tribe from 1993 until 2005 that.because we made some cases because we.had some high-profile publicity because.the tribal Rangers were on duty because.of a number of other factors it just.didn't seem like looting was that big of.a deal anymore I wasn't seeing it.showing anything like it had in the 80s.and earliest part of the 1990s and we.all sort of took a breath and relaxed a.little bit and to be honest with you I.thought when I left in 2005 that it was.mostly something in the rear view mirror.and so I was happy to leave it to mark.call Taha on your right and Nick Lolich.his deputy historic preservation officer.for White Mountain leave it to them to.continue to manage and take care of the.place younger smarter that's still not.as good looking but but but nicer guys.in any case doing that business there.well I was wrong wrong wrong everything.except a better-looking part anyway.there was another substantial wave and.has been continuing a substantial wave a.very serious looting and grave robbing.on that jurisdiction and on many other.tribal jurisdictions we're not sure.exactly why it is that they're targeting.tribal lands but that they are doing so.places sites around the Kanishka cluster.that some of you are familiar with sites.in the forest Dale Valley that some of.you are familiar with and some of the.very most remote cliff dwellings have.been fairly recently damaged and pretty.seriously damaged by looters here's.here's a cliff dwelling site on the.southwest edge of the Fort Apache.reservation that not even a more Howry.found and it's a pretty good.site but the looters found it sometime.between the time I recorded it in 1999.and 2007 when I went back to it and they.really did a number on it so I'm gonna.spare you the you know photographs of.terrible human remains scattered around.the ground I'll tell you that they that.they were using children almost.certainly in order to crawl into small.burial crypts meaning that they had to.go over human remains in order to.retrieve pottery and pull it out of the.out of the tunnels that they had dug for.the for the kids to be able to get in.there gruesome activities and very very.sophisticated and I don't know what else.to call it but rapacious and just nasty.business involved and by these guys so.the result of that and really the.rationale behind it is thousands of.plots like this White Mountain red wares.and Salado Polly Chrome's removed from.the area on and around the Fort Apache.reservation and put into the.international art market this is.actually a Sotheby's catalog pages from.like I think around maybe 1998 or.something like that maybe a little bit.earlier so the values have have gone up.two or three or four times since then.we're talking about real money for the.main targets of some of these luteum.these looters so these are from the.1300s in the early part of the 1400s.pots they are mainly found in burial.context especially the whole ones so it.involves you know sort of treble damages.the ancestors lose out the contemporary.communities lose out the archaeologists.lose out the communities lose out that.you have criminal elements operating in.their ranks and so it's a it's a it's a.no-win crime people some of the times.think of it as a victimless crime.especially on Indian reservations it's.anything except a victimless crime and.so it also ties in here with you know.this idea of a global Nexus of.criminality involved in the.international art market where the same.skyrocketing values associated with.cultural artifacts and looted goods.are circulating in the similar ways with.guns with weapons and sometimes with.human slits weapons drugs not guns and.weapons drugs guns and human trafficking.all through this increasingly black.market so raising concerns with raising.values and increasing the danger levels.for the folks that are associated with.it and with those who would stand up to.it so this is just a diagram to show.based on really excellent reporting that.has come as a result of the.investigation of the now-defunct.inshalla.Islamic state the ways that these Goods.travel through art markets in order to.reach consumers and some of the ways.that things get marked up and the values.get escalated because of the measures.that must be taken in order to guarantee.the safety of these objects sometimes.making it so that they have to be stored.for many years and not allowed out so.that beats things and sort of quiet down.associated with them that adds cost and.adds adds price to them so a bunch of.ways where these things are funneling.into North America Europe and the Far.East and making it so that the market.for looting on places like the Florida.Patchi Indian Reservation remains a.viable way of Friendly's for some people.making a living and archeologists have.responded it's not as if we have been.doing nothing law enforcement on the.international level is very very serious.about understanding looting activities.there was just too talk by Bonnie Magnus.Gardiner up in Phoenix a couple of.nights ago she was the art crimes lead.investigator for the Federal Bureau of.Indian Affairs and as an archaeologist.and it's actually going to be at the.Society for American Archaeology in in.just a few days participating in a.session.on these topics but individual.archaeologists have now gotten serious.about understanding and great deal more.about the way that our markets work.about the cultures associated with.looting and again about their.connections with with gun drug and human.trafficking and that is adding profile.and dimension for criminologists and law.enforcement folks to use to better.understand the way that this is all.coming together so but it has not.translated so far into changes in the.ways that looting is being dealt with on.federal and Indian lands in the United.States of America and so about two years.ago we started thinking that there.needed to be a better way what are we.going to do in order to build the.toolkit make it more robust and more.appropriate to dealing with the new.types and levels of looting that we are.contending with here and so that's my.idea of a toolkit and it's got the top.shelf like the top tier stuff like get.them on federal felony charges as a.result of the standard way of doing.business by hoping that an archaeologist.notices looting in time for there to be.a suspect involved or hoping the land.manager or somebody else comes across a.somebody that should not be operating in.the backcountry usually by trespass or.whatever and relying on that but to be.honest with you the prosecution's have.fallen off assistant US Attorney's have.gotten interested in other matters.higher profile issues for them to.contend with and are constantly changing.and constantly being reprioritized for.political reasons set of cases that they.have to decide whether or not to go.after or not archaeologists in the.federal workforce have also been.realigned with other priorities from the.administration it's not just the current.administration this has been going on.for for more than a decade now where the.focus for the federal workforce is not.really on preservation and stewardship.it's much more closely focused on you.know enabling activities on public and.Indian lands.you know housing infrastructure and.economic development activities and so.the question we wanted to contend with.was well what are we gonna do if it's.not a high profile in the federal realm.anymore maybe it's time to grow up a.little bit and realize that the federal.government isn't gonna actually solve.all of our problems I know it's shocking.to think that that's true but it was a.little bit of a revelation for me as.bill mentioned I really started my.professional career working for federal.agencies seeing the amazing power of.good that the federal government can do.and also seeing how changing federal.priorities can have dramatic effects on.the ground including this issue of.looting and so who's going to step into.that bridge and if not archaeologists in.partnership with tribe the tribes then.and so we decided to actually take this.for a little bit of a test drive and see.what we could do with it and we have had.some success in trying to understand.some new approaches and I'm going to.tell you a little bit more about those.now but the little funny bubble diagram.on there and the other tool chest.drawers toolkit drawers there show that.there's a number of different things.that can be done besides just taking the.basic law enforcement approach so the.other revelation from the conversations.that we started two years ago is that.the one place where we knew we would.probably be able to get at least a.little bit of traction was by focusing.on the one thing that archaeologists.care lots about and know lots about dirt.it hasn't been used previously to full.effect to really understand.archaeological resource crime or as a.tool for prosecution and so anybody that.sees cop shows these days knows that the.range of different analytic techniques.that are out there in order to be able.to pin perpetrators and their equipment.tools Footwear fingernails you know.whatever you got back to crime scenes.has increased geometrically the cost has.gone down the precision of these.analytic techniques has gone way up and.so that was our first idea.let's get science involved and so that.led us to you know come up with this.idea of a forensic sedimentology.workshop and to host it at the tribal.community affordable you know one of the.auxilary communities associated with the.White Mountain Apache Tribe so we.decided to do that and we found some.money from the winter ground foundation.and assembled folks she was just this.past October in order to get that.workshop idea off and running and to see.how far the forensics sedimentology.notion would carry us and so this is a.dot diagram here or a figure just to.remind us of all the complexity that.goes into dirt inside of an.archaeological site and then my little.table just to suggest that there's you.know plant animal and mineral components.of the dirt in archaeological sites they.make makes making archeological sites.into incredible compendium of.environmental information as well as.information about human behavior and.giving every archaeological site a.distinctive signature in its.sedimentology that at least makes it.possible to think that if there are.sediments adhering to a person their.foot gear their hands their clothes the.tools that they use the tire tracks that.they you know the tires that they drive.away from a site in whatever that we.should be able to provide some.assistance in this regard and so that.was the rallying cry that got us the.money and got a bunch of people with.symbol at Fort Apache is let's look take.a close look at the Science Park and so.in order to do that we had to get people.together and we decided like good.archaeologists that we would figure out.what types of people that we needed to.do it so we have a typology of all of.our of our colleagues here and the names.associated with them and so we knew that.we were going to need community.representatives and folks that had.special insights into the ways that.especially Apache people thinks.we were working first and foremost on in.Apache country and so we attracted.native colleagues to join us at Fort.Apache and then we needed to know more.about the way that government.bureaucrats and criminologists and.others think about looting and ways to.curb especially curb looting and curb.archaeological resource crime and we.knew that we were going to need folks.involved in community advocacy that.understand that help us understand the.broader range of effects from looting.and ways that we could tailor our.response to ways that were most.meaningful to the folks that were being.affected personally by the looting.activities and then we needed folks in.law enforcement folks with bad badges or.Authority as prosecutors to help us.understand the ways that that community.thinks of that stuff the ways that they.make their decisions on who's going to.get prosecuted what constitutes a strong.case what's the difference between.archeological evidence and evidence.that's admissible in court these types.of questions everybody was sort of.deputized to do some thinking about ways.to do public engagement and make the.specialized knowledge that they brought.to the table accessible to everybody.else in the room and especially.eventually to community members and the.public more generally and then we had a.group of people who had specialized.knowledge in material types pottery.plant remains stone artifacts other.elements that are important for.archaeologists and for tracing and.understanding the full effects of.cultural resource crime we also needed.folks connected up with land management.organizations and understanding the way.that federal land management and tribal.land management works so everybody from.the White Mountain Apache Tribe chair.Gwen Tina Lee real bird who actually.wasn't able to participate much but to.the regional archeologist Gary Kant Lee.and others who had experience with.federal agencies and working.Tribes and then kind of at the top of.the pyramid the uber scientists the folk.dealings folks dealing with isotopes and.with analytic chemistry to be able to.really get into the nitty-gritty.associated with the sediment illogical.identifications and being able to do the.matching work so that was our crew and.here they are basically in the field.poking around at one of the fairly.recently looted sites at the Fort Apache.reservation Sarah her took this.photograph thank you Sarah.bill you can see is here and I wanted to.point out a couple of other folks that.we're super important in the gathering.well dusty whiting who's one of the the.shield bearers there he's the law.enforcement agency representative work.with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and.also with the White Mountain Apache.Tribe for many years here's the regional.archeologist Gary Cantley who has been.instrumental in moving this partnership.ahead you guys know Bill at Barbara.Mills and Karen Adams familiar to all or.most of you Stacy Ryan is another.colleague to Southwest who's basically.doing most of the work associated with.keeping the partnership together in many.ways the federal prosecutor Oh Richards.because he's the isotope scientist who.was my collaborator and he's the one.that said let's not select these people.solely on the basis of their technical.expertise and scientific proficiency.let's select them also on the basis of.their collegiality and their ability to.work together and across disciplinary.boundaries to make sense of what we're.doing and to find ways forward with the.information that gets transacted at the.workshop and so that was a great.revelation and it really paid off in.terms of the level of cooperation the.level of listening that went on across.these otherwise pretty diverse and.pretty different groups of people that.were involved with our.effort bill and Mike and I were also.keen on making it clear that we weren't.selecting Florida patchy as a venue for.the workshop just because I had a long.association with the tribe or just.because it is on a reservation that's.been experiencing heavy looting we.selected it because it is a very.powerful place in for reasons.incompletely known we could discuss.perhaps at another tea but it has been.very effective in getting people to pay.attention to native points of view for a.long time and so it was a way to get.non-native people's ears to open up in.new and different ways taking them to.not just close to the seat of tribal.government but also taking them to a hub.of colonial subjugation a place where.patchy people were brought to heel.effectively and put under the federal.government's control from the time of.its establishment in 1871 until 1923 it.was a cavalry outpost and then from.there on 1923 until the present it was a.Bureau of Indian Affairs funded native.school still is but of course without.the corporal punishment or funny.uniforms or marching around on the.parade ground for the students these.days but those colonial legacies in the.level of oppression sort of reverberates.at the place and Apache people are.attentive to that and it seems to have.the effect also on non Apaches when they.visit it to listen and learn in new and.different ways so we actually met right.in the commanding officers building the.the peaked roof that sort of feature on.top of it for the for the the workshop.and survives it to say that sort of.patchy had its desired effect in many.ways because it allowed for clarity.to come after a few days of.deliberations and close engagement with.colleagues about this way of tribes.being disproportionately affected and so.I think I can speak for all or most of.the participants in the in the workshop.that we appreciate did that from the.native point of view looking out on.damaged archaeological sites and.landscapes they see landscapes of broken.promises from the federal government to.take care of them to take care of their.land and especially even from.archaeologists and anthropologists that.said oh yeah we want to have a long term.relationship with you we want to come.and study your your customs in your.sights but we're here for you they.haven't really seen a lot of follow-up.from archaeologists sticking with the.communities and making sure to make good.on those on those pledges the other.thing from a native point of view is a.sense of their own stewardship duties.being truncated or prohibited that they.feel very very seriously and it's.culturally ingrained in fact for them to.take care of sites and lands and.landscapes and having the government not.do it and make it so that they couldn't.do it effectively has been traumatic and.and debilitating for them then there's.this matter of criminal elements.operating and being invited into and.circulating through communities that.didn't use to necessarily have to deal.with these types of problems of drugs.guns and other trafficking activities.and elements of their their communities.co-opted by these these criminals the.fourth thing listed here is inattention.- and disrespect to the knowledge.associated with sights and landscapes.from native points of view that.archeologists many times not always did.not pay attention to what native people.had to say about the sights and.landscapes themselves and instead prefer.to use scientific.and learn everything they could to the.exclusion of those made of points of.view and that was also debilitating and.harmful for Native people and of course.then there's a simple matter of having.families and ancestors graves disturbed.and desecrated so this is obviously hard.information for us even to transact it's.uncomfortable to talk about these things.it makes me feel sad it makes me worry a.little bit about the tribal communities.especially and it's important to note.though that these are just my.impressions of it that this isn't.necessarily coming from an Apache or a.Hopi point of view and so there are.other effects here that are not possible.for me to talk about because I don't.know and I haven't felt my way through.all of these things but it is certainly.a source of great trauma and.reverberating trauma and frankly in many.instances it's also a short source of.shame because of the inability of these.communities to take care of these places.they too feel very badly about this so.so what then would we do with this.information other than try to find ways.to harness our indignation our sense of.harm and violation our concern for the.future of these sites and landscapes and.maybe a bit like Achilles finding ways.to recognize that the thing that is our.greatest weakness is also the source of.the greatest strength associated with.with with tribal communities and so what.do we do other than try to harness these.bad things these disproportional effects.and turn them into comparative.advantages and when that happens it's.actually kind of amazing that tribes.actually control huge assets and.advantages that do not exist in other.communities to deal with this problem of.looting and desecration well we found.out at the workshop down to a person.everybody that attended it.really does want to help and was.absolutely free and liberal in the.provision of assistance technical.assistance ongoing collaboration in.order to keep this initiative alive and.moving forward people have just been.great and showing up and continuing to.show up to help with the initiative on.White Mountain Apache lands that these.stewardship duties and ethics that are.culturally ingrained in tribal.communities are fairly easily awakened.that they have maybe been threatened and.subdued but they are nonetheless alive.and well and ready to take hold again.tribes have another unique advantage in.the fact that they are unusual legal.entities there are places where.effectively they are private landowners.and act as private landowners as many.ways and have discs have jurisdiction.over people that are trespassing on.their lands and they also have federal.laws in place so all tribes have laws.against people coming onto their lands.and taking stuff messing around with.stuff and that puts criminals in greater.peril and exposes them to combinations.of civil and criminal prosecutions that.don't exist on purely federal.jurisdictions tribes have also learned.the the sad lesson I mentioned earlier.which is that federal government is not.there to solve all of their problems and.never will be that they have now built.capacities and institutions in many.places including at White Mountain.through their tribal Historic.Preservation offices and cultural.preservation offices to take care of the.cultural resources and the things that.they hold the dearest themselves tribal.Rangers are the other sort of ace in a.hole here tribes thanks to lawsuits from.the Mescalero tribe as well as from the.White Mountain Apache Tribe in the late.1960s have jurisdiction over their.fishing game and so they not the state's.so Fish and Game fishing and hunting.permits and they have the proceeds from.that and from those proceeds they.Rangers and those Rangers patrol lands.and have federal as well as tribal law.enforcement authority and so they also.typically have cultural knowledge.special backcountry knowledge of the.locations of sites and are very often.times excellent law enforcement Rangers.officers that you don't want on your.trail and trucks have Sanji over their.land limited though it may be they have.an enormous amount of control over what.happens there how it happens with whom.things can proceed and are excellent.partners for the type of experiment that.we've now got going there so the tribe.has bought in to this experiment bought.into this notion of harnessing this.range of values is eager to see us.proceed and so proceed we are to move.away from this state base several.central government expert driven.approach to dealing with site.preservation from and protection from.looting toward a more context specific.set of tools for addressing the problems.getting away from using hammers on on on.bolts and wrenches on nails towards.something at least that we think looks a.little bit like this it's got some.cyclicity to it involves very much like.the archeology Southwest graphic.combinations of outreach of research and.of public engagement and preservation.activities those three key components.that involve starting off with.identifying what the who the partners.are as I mentioned white mountain is all.in then it comes the time that we're.still involved with doing some more.deeper listening figuring out exactly.what the issues and concerns are.associated with looting and what the.tribe would like to see done as a result.of that moving from the listening in to.the preparing this is all sort of going.on more or less as we speak where we are.bringing together the best available.training information and encoding that.in.a damage assessment guide to be used and.using that as the basis also for.intensive site record recording and as.the basis for surveillance so that we.can detect changes in the insights and.landscapes as a result of looting.activity and criminal activity and then.that's preparing us to be able to be.more responsive to have a ranger core.and specialized criminal investigators.on call ready for dispatch effectively.to sites especially ones with warmer.trails towards suspects to do the.incident based investigations that are.very intensive crime scene.investigations especially when you add.on this layer of forensics and.Rheumatology putting to use the.historical information that is.accumulating from compiling damage.assessments from White Mountain and.related jurisdictions to learn more.about looter modus operandi and other.aspects of nefarious activities that.might help us figure out better ways to.respond and then sharing the kind of.thing that we're doing right now that.we'll be doing at the Society for.American archaeology meetings next week.and that the Arizona preservation.conference in June and in ongoing.conversations with tribal colleagues.from other jurisdictions and then a part.that's been left out really as this.healing and remediation dimension that.we hope will allow people to recognize.that and appreciate the range of harms.that have occurred and to come up with.ways that we can address those harms.together that archeologists have.participated in the harms not.necessarily directly but by me maybe by.failing to always be there to us to help.with this problem on tribal lands and to.recognize that the physical sites.sometimes need to be taken care of to.keep them from eroding further and being.further damaged as a result of reckless.excavations but that the communities and.the individuals are also affected by and.then back into partnering so if this.works.then we'll be able to hopefully move.forward and if all continues to go a.pace we'll be in the very near future.developing an integrated media campaign.strategy to focus specifically on White.Mountain Apache Tribe and adjacent.adjacent communities the places where.those White Mountain red wares.you know came from predominantly that.will you know use the key media outlets.that exist on White Mountain Apache.Tribe lands which is the radio and.Facebook and and in conversations.outside the grocery stores and.everything else is just not very.important on White Mountain Apache Tribe.lands so need to work backwards from the.key media and identifying the messages.that are going to be the most effective.to enlist public support and engagement.in curbing this archaeological resource.crime continuing to do the the listening.that I mentioned earlier so that we can.do a better job of being partners.continuing to empower the Rangers like.luiso Spa there on the right and.continuing also to harness the first.thing that I learned from my colleagues.believe it or not that's me sitting in.the front of folks I don't know what.this is we don't even know exactly when.this happened it was so long ago.beyond archeological recognition there.somewhere maybe sometime like 1986.though but one of the first things that.these guys all taught me and probably.the most important lesson is how much.they care about these lands and these.places and how much distaste they have.for people that refuse to respect their.lands and their sites and their.ancestors and so if we can continue to.encourage build capacity locally and.move forward and that type of a.partnership would feel pretty certain.that we're gonna be successful and we.know we'll be successful if we can count.on your continued help and also on your.comments critiques and questions from.the presentation from this afternoon so.that's what I have to say thank you what.we're thinking is that if it works there.then we can adapt it elsewhere but we.want to find an all-in partner to start.an intensive campaign and really sort of.I don't know what else to say but use.every single tool we can come up with in.one jurisdiction to see whether or not.that can actually matter and to actually.be deliberate about doing it so that we.can measure the effects of our activity.so Friday I went to an agnese Howry.Foundation workshop and they are going.to be given the opportunity to help us.design that mechanism for monitoring.people's responses to the campaign to.come up with other ways to see whether.or not media outreach intensive.engagement all of the intensive.surveillance the intensive damage.assessment and site conditioning work.that will do will have a measurable.effect and we think that will give us a.better chance to either invite other.partners or to modify the program to.make it more appropriate we thought it.was not a good idea to go too far too.fast beyond Apache country because every.tribal jurisdiction every tribal.community is so different from one.another and they all need specialized.attention from our point of view so you.know there's kind of just you know.whatever 15% of me and maybe 80% of.Stacey at archaeology Southwest.available to do this and Stacey has you.know pan BIA responsibilities and then.some sometimes and so we don't want to.get to what should we say diffuse or.distracted we want.see what full engagement kind of a.saturation thing looks like because the.the broad you know big brother is.watching the federal government says no.hasn't worked we want to see what.happens when we go from the ground up I.don't know if it's a good idea or not.we're gonna try to find out though.Hopi would be a great next stop as with.San Carlos because the idea would be to.maybe see if it worked a little bit in.that area then you just start off and.kind of spread out from there and see.whether or not can capture other tribal.jurisdictions and completely exclude.looting an archaeological resource crime.from those other jurisdictions that's.the goal.you just comment the ceramics that you.were showing were obviously ceramics.back there at the beginning what is the.perspective of those this is ties in.with my comments about the sort of sense.of stewardship duty that many Native.people feel but Apaches feel very keenly.and so under Apache jurisdiction.ancestral Pueblo sites and there are.thousands of them on Apache lands.ancestral Hopi and Zuni sites on both.San Carlos and White Mountain Apache.Tribe lands they suffered not at all.they were left almost completely intact.Apaches helped themselves to ground.stone to some chip stone ground stone.monos and Matata stew some chip stone.and to other surface goods but one of.the first lessons that young Apaches.learned was that unless somebody gives.you something you leave it alone and.especially something that is encountered.out and about in the land was left there.for a reason.and unless you know exactly what that.reason is and you're prepared to answer.the questions with I don't know what.else to say the powers-that-be.about why you are touching it using it.without permission and without.authorization without frankly proper.protection from the people that left it.there then you're taking not only your.own life into your hands but the lives.of all of your family your entire clan.and everybody that you might come into.contact with and patchi's hold that much.of the reason for the disruption.in the world at large and for the ill.health and spiritual crisis on their own.communities and around the planet stems.from exactly the sort of disrespect.demonstrated by looters that only.profound and sustained respect for one.another and most especially for those.that have come before us holds true evil.at bay and so they take it seriously and.they are very nervous with the idea of.people entering onto their lands and.looting these things not simply because.of their duties to take care of.archaeological sites and even because of.the criminal element operating in their.communities but literally because of the.hell Unleashed from this type of.disrespect it's just in case not anybody.could hear that the question is in part.because of the stewardship ethic for.Apaches and for other Native communities.when and if artifacts or other looted.items are recovered are they returned to.the tribes and the answer is yes but it.provides for the restoration and.remediation of the sites and allows for.the assessment of the penalty but the.dollar cost associated with that on to.the perpetrator on to the convicted.person and so you very frequently have.very high fines penalties monetary.penalties levied on on violators of the.archaeological resources Protection Act.and so that includes also some of the.spiritual treatments that have been done.in order to try to create the beginning.at least of the healing to apologize to.all the affected parties for this level.of disrespect ask forgiveness.and allow the community process to.proceed so it's a fine question thinking.yes yeah I think that's the literally.billion dollar-a-year question probably.even more than that but that's the stuff.that we know about and so hmm at least.from my vantage without you know willing.sellers and willing buyers at the end of.the value chain you know none of this.really happens a lot of it goes away and.so they are implicated they have found.very sophisticated ways to protect.themselves and shield themselves from.legal scrutiny the best of them in.Sotheby's is one of them does do quite a.bit of diligence in order to try to stay.away from Antiquities or other art.market stuff that have been illegally.removed from their their context whether.or not they're you know domestic or.international context but a couple of.things have happened in recent years one.is the rise of a professional.authenticators in part because of this.diligence on the part of the auction.houses and so there are now people you.can go to their websites and see and.some of them are very appear to be very.reputable individuals and some of them.for all I know really are fully.reputable but they will do the entire.chain of ownership investigation and.either verify or deny that the claims of.the seller are are true and that it is a.bona fide transact able piece of art.there's a second ethical question about.whether or not it's a good idea for.Humanity to transact and these kinds of.things and I'm afraid.have the answer to that I'm focused.right now at least on the illegal stuff.the other thing that the the looters at.least in Arizona and adjacent states.have done and I'm not sure how big of a.problem it is in other parts of the.world but they will recruit adjacent.private land owners to say there's a.private landowner close to the Fort.Apache Indian Reservation White Mountain.Apache Tribe lands and so they'll.recruit them and pay them in order to.say oh yeah we dug this stuff up off of.my private land and so they'll include.them in the you know partnership of of.trafficking in order to create a.plausible deniability associated with it.straight-up stealing so we're probably.only on that ethical spiritual level I'm.afraid there's you know private property.in the United States of America still is.the supreme rule of the land so barring.that there is very little that can be.done there are protections for graves in.some states right and you're still not.legal to intentionally excavate human.remains without a prom without a permit.but the objects associated with it are.usually overlooked by state authorities.and laws any other folks could comment.on that that no states better state law.better than I do.for Arizona and other places I've spent.so much of my time so closely focused on.federal jurisdictions and Indian.jurisdictions that I do not know the.state authorities well and the things.that pertain on private lands yes.you will actually go out to private.landowners and give them the benefit of.helping them protect Allah building they.have a half Sun valuable you know Indian.and typically and either paid to manage.it themselves are painting owner to let.them come in and assess it and I mean.that's one of the only ways I think its.first education and then actually come.in and help them.it's kind of a sad story and it's a.little tough but you know on the other.hand if we don't start attending to it.it's probably not going to get any.better this particular story no that's.that's exactly right and so I didn't do.as good a job as I should have by by.mentioning that that was the focus for.that main part of the site protection.program this idea of acquiring lands or.acquiring conservation easements for.lands where you have a landowner that.wants to see a place protected into.perpetuity surrendering the development.rights the rights to alter or sell the.land in a way that's going to be you.know commercially developed or changed.significantly enough to alter the.archaeological resources then you have.the conservation easement option and.it's something that we're pretty good at.so yeah.thank you.[Applause].

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