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Wa Approved Training 2013 2019 Form Appeal Advice

[MUSIC PLAYING]..Hi, I'm Jim Phillips,.and I've been.receiving a lot of questions.about the next edition of IEEE.1584..We've been working on this.standard for, well, actually,.it's been 16 years,.since the original 2002.standard came out..So what I would like.to do is give you.a little bit of a rundown on.what's happened in those 16.years, as well as.talk about, well,.what some of the major.changes are going.to be in the next edition..But before I begin, like I do.with most talks that I give,.I'm required to.give a disclaimer..And that is that.what I'm about to say.doesn't necessarily reflect.any view of the standards,.such as IEEE or.NFPA, ANSI, or IEC..And why this is.particularly important.is because I'm the vice.chair of IEEE 1584,.and I'm also on the steering.committee of the IEEE/NFPA.collaborative.research, and I'm also.the international chair of the.IEC Live Working Standards..So I'm kind of pretty.deep in all this..So I have to make.that disclaimer.that this whole video.is going to be my views..And you know, as I.said, may or may not.necessarily reflect the views of.some of these other standards..So with that, 16 years..And the last several.years, it's like back.in the days of family vacation.when I would keep hearing.from the backseat from my.kids when they were younger,.are we there yet?.And a little bit later,.are we there yet?.And are we there yet?.Until I'm about ready.to lose my mind..We've been at this for a while..And I think the last.16 years can best.be summed up by one of the rock.legends from the '60s and '70s..And I think it could.just be stated as,.\"What a long, strange.trip it's been!\".The infamous Jerry Garcia.from the Grateful Dead..So I want to give you a little.bit of a history of what.has gotten us to this point..And this point right now is.actually early August 2018..So if you see this.sometime down the road.keep that time frame in mind..IEEE 1584 was published.in September 2002..And when it came out,.it was widely celebrated.because it was the first.standard of its kind.that gave you methods.to actually calculate.the arching short circuit.current, the incident energy,.and the arc flash boundary..And so it was considered a.landmark standard at the time,.except it didn't take too.long after this came out.and there were challenges..And the challenges.came mostly from.a few international experts..And they looked at.it as, OK, well, this.is what you've done.now, but what about--.and they began to look at.what about x, and y, and z..And so after we heard enough.of that, started thinking,.OK, we need to move.this to the next level..But the next level was going.to be a pretty formidable task..So a collaboration.effort was put together.between IEEE, IEEE.1584, and NFPA..And so this collaboration known.as the IEEE/NFPA Collaboration,.that's how we approached the.next edition of IEEE 1584..This project was going.to have quite a budget,.and the goal was to go.on a fundraising mission.to raise about $6.and 1/2 million..That was the price tag,.the estimated price tag,.for all the new work that.was going to be performed..So the fundraising got underway..The collaboration.team was put together..The test plan was put together..And things were.going really well.until the economic meltdown..And the fundraising had taken us.up to about $3 and 1/2 million,.and then we'll say.the wheels fell off..So armed with $3 and 1/2.million, the next step was,.let's get the testing underway..So there was an initial.research period,.lasted about a year or so..We call it scouting.test, just trying.to do some initial testing..So from 2009 to 2012, this thing.really kicked into high gear..And there was a lot.of testing, and that's.what led to the development.of the new model..And this ultimately ended.up being in a report,.the IEEE/NFPA collaboration..And then another group.was put together..This was handed off to our.group, IEEE 1584 working group..And the working group.put together a task team,.and they would.review the equations.and make some refinements,.make some adjustments..And ultimately, this led to.the final report from the task.group within IEEE 1584..And this has a lot of their.work and tests and so forth..Quite a bit of work.went into this..Now what happened next is we.took the model, pretty massive.amount of equations.that I'll talk.about here in a little bit,.and they put all this together..And we had to put.everything into a draft.of the next edition.of IEEE 1584..Now this took a.little bit of doing.because we had text from the.previous edition from 2002..We were massaging it.to fit the new model..And it was quite an undertaking..This whole thing had been.quite an undertaking..A lot of people.involved along the way..So the draft was created,.basically the first draft.of the next edition,.and we had to achieve.what's known as consensus..And all consensus is is within.the working group, the IEEE.1584 working group..One time we peaked.at about 100 people..It kind of fluctuates.up and down..We had to get a consensus.from the working group.that, yes, this draft, this.model, everything, we're.good with it all before we pass.it on for the formal voting..And we finally.achieved consensus..And the formal.voting is referred to.as a sponsor ballot..Now, the sponsor ballot, that's.kind of the official voting..And what happens here is a.separate group of balloters.are put together..They sign up..There's a certain.process you go through,.and we actually had somewhere.around 160 balloters.that were going to vote.on the actual draft..And this is the formal part..Some were working group members..Some are from other areas..We had the first sponsor.ballot vote and it passed..That was really impressive..It passed the first time round..But when you vote, you're also.permitted to make comments,.and the comments all.have to be addressed..So yes, it passed, but we.had over 1,000 comments.that we had to address..So this was going to be a little.bit of a workload ahead of us..So what we did to more.efficiently address.all of the comments is a.Ballot Resolution Committee.was created..And the Ballot.Resolution Committee, it.was just a group of nine of us..And we tried to have it so that.it was a whole cross-section.of backgrounds that.represent basically.the backgrounds of.the working group..So it's kind of a.representative sample..And so the nine of us--.I was one of them..So the nine of us, we were just.in almost an infinite series.of phone calls, of web meetings,.of face to face meetings..We lost a couple of.weekends just meeting.at different locations trying.to resolve all of this..And it was quite an undertaking..So we got through the.first round of comments,.a little over 1,000..We developed a new.draft addressing.many of the comments..And then we went.for a second ballot..It's called a recirculation..So voting again..So again, it already passed..But what happened now is.we had to change things.because of all the comments..So it went around.for another pass..Came back, and we had a couple.of hundred more comments..So we had to address those..Repeat the process..And this went on.for several times..And we are now on draft six..And draft six is right here..So for draft six, this is.the latest and greatest..Draft six, at this point, is.the final draft that we have..And that's what this is.going to be based on..So draft six was sent to the.IEEE Standards Association,.and the IEEE.Standards Association,.they have several steps that.they have to go through..So it's not over yet..People keep asking, when.is it going to be out?.When's it going to be out?.And honestly, I don't know..There are a few hurdles left..I'm optimistic in saying.that it will hopefully.be before the end of the year..And I'm hopeful that's.the way it works out..But we've had some things.happen in the past,.and I'm not going.to say, yep, it's.definitely going to.be the end of the year.because I don't know..And I'll talk more about.that towards the end.of this program..So what's changed?.This is the question.that I keep getting..Jim, you're so involved.in this, and you.do a lot of the training.for the IEEE 1584 arc flash.calculations and.arc flash studies..So what's changed?.And I thought about.this, and I really.need to rephrase the question,.because it's not really such.a matter of what's changed..I think the better question.is, what has not changed?.That's an easier one to answer..So I thought about it..And the answer to.what has not changed,.it still has the same title..That's about it..Pretty much everything.has changed..There are a few things.that carried over,.but the bulk of it is.just a complete overhaul..New equations, new.methods, new approaches,.many different steps,.much more robust--.a nice way of saying.really complex--.equations..So what I want to do is.walk you through what.some of these major.changes are all about..The major changes, the.first one is we have what.are called different.electrode configurations..I have some diagrams, and I'll.explain this a little bit more.here in a few moments..The original 2002 tests were.based with three electrodes.in a vertical configuration..Basically, they.were oriented down..And so what would.happen was the energy.would shoot away.from the source, down.to the end of the.electrodes, and it'd just.come off the ends..And that was fine..It was very successful..We got good equations out of it..Again, it was the first of.its kind back in the day..But some of the.international experts.began to question, well,.what if the electrodes are.in a different configuration?.What if they're horizontal?.What if they're horizontal in.an enclosure versus in air?.We already had vertical in.an enclosure versus air..And then several years,.ago a couple of people.found out that if you have.the vertical electrodes.and they terminate in.an insulating barrier--.and I'll show you some.of this in a little bit--.it's a whole different animal..So what happened is we ended.up with the new model having.different electrode.configurations..Another thing that happened is.the original model from 2002.was based on a little.over 300 arc flash tests..The new model, we're.up to almost 2,000..It's just under 1,900.tests for the new model,.covering a wider range of.conditions, different enclosure.sizes..We added more enclosure.sizes, and I'll.talk about all that a.little bit later on as well..And also, one of.the big things is.we're trying to cover continuity.over the voltage spectrum..This still goes from 208 volts.to 15 kV like the last one,.but the 2002 edition, the.arcing current is really.based on just two equations..There is an equation that.went from 208 up to 1 kV,.just under 1 kV..And then there was an equation.from 1 kV up to 15 kV,.and that was it..So pick one..And there were no.adjustments or fine.tuning for actual voltages..That's all we had..So the new one,.we widened it out..There are three voltage.based equations..There's 600 volts, 2,700.volts, and then 14.3..So there are three..But more than that, you.interpolate along the way..Because you're thinking, well,.600 volts, my system's at 480..That's still not perfect..Well, once you go through.the calculations at 600.or whatever is appropriate.for your system,.then there's an interpolation.that you go through to get this.down to your actual voltage..There's also an enclosure.size correction factor..Because what happens?.If you have an arc flash.and it's in an enclosure,.the size of the opening is.going to affect the energy..So we have more enclosure.sizes or box sizes,.but we also have an.enclosure size correction.factor to adjust if.it doesn't happen.to fit one of the enclosure.sizes that we have..We also have a minimum.arcing current adjustment..Now, this kind of parallels.what was done in 2002,.but it's a little bit different..So you may recall in 2002--.it actually came out in 2004..It was an amendment.that's suggested.that for arcing current.calculations from 208.up to 1 kV, you multiply the.arcing current times 0.85, 85%..Basically you get a second.arcing current point.and use that slightly lower.adjusted arcing current.and see if there's any.change in the clearing time..Basically, did the.arcing current fall.below some significant point.on a time current curve,.like fall below the.instantaneous or something.like that?.Well, this was more.greatly refined..And there's an equation.and a lot of coefficients.that you use to develop a.more accurate adjustment based.on the configurations, based.on many other variables..And it applies from 208.all the way up to 15 kV..It's not just limited up.to 1 kV as the 85% was..The 125 kVA transformer cut off..I have had a lot of.questions about this one..I'm going to hold off on that.one until towards the end,.and I'll talk.about what happened.and why we handled.it a certain way..And also, the question.about the two second rule..Actually, the two second.rule I can answer right now..The two second rule back.in the 2002 edition,.there's the case--.and it still exists--.where you may have a situation.that you have a lower arcing.current, and the protective.device acts like it's--.the time current curve.for the protective device.looks like it's going to.have a clearing time that's.going to wait until next.Tuesday or something like that..I mean, kind of an exaggeration,.but you get the idea..And so there was some.language inserted.that said, well, if you have.basically a long clearing time.and if it's reasonable.or practical for a person.to jump back-- because.if there's an arc flash,.you're reacting..And so if it's reasonable.that someone could get out.of the way, you could just cut.the time off at two seconds..People keep asking,.you're not going.to get rid of that are you?.Is that still going to be.here for the next edition?.And the good news.is two second stays..So as of now, as of draft.six, which I'm hoping.will be the final draft,.the two second rule remains..And there was also a.question about grounded.versus ungrounded..Some you may recall that there.was a configuration that you.set up your system as either.grounded, like a grounded y,.or ungrounded, like a delta,.or even impedance grounded..And you got slight.differences in your results..And I'm going to.talk about how that.was addressed with this latest.addition of IEEE 1584 as well..There were some big changes.made along those lines..So as far as the.configurations, we actually now.have five different.configurations..We have what's called.VCB, vertical electrodes.in a metal box..That's basically the.same configuration.that we had in the 2002 model..We have another.configuration that's.VCBB, which is vertical.electrodes in a metal box.but they terminate into.an insulating barrier..And this is something that was--.well, we ran into it.several years ago,.and it didn't behave.like we thought..So we have a new.configuration, VCBB..And another configuration, HCB..So those are.horizontal electrodes..They're coming at.you in a cubic box..And we have VOA..Actually, VOA was.the same thing we.had back in 2002, vertical.electrodes in open air..And we have a new one,.HOA, horizontal electrodes.in open air..And so when you look.at all these acronyms--.VCB, VCBB, HCB--.I understand V is.vertical, B is a box,.but what's the C all about?.Well, this is something that.kind of changed along the way..When these terms and.these configurations.were originally put together,.the terminology that we used.was VCB, VCBB..And so the question.is, kind of a trivia.question, what does.the C represent?.And it simply stands for cubic..Originally, the terminology, we.called it vertical electrodes.in a cubic box..But then we recognized not.all the enclosures are cubic..The sizes aren't always.going to be the same..And the definition of a cube.is all the sizes are the same..So we still have C in.there because that's.an acronym we've been using, we.just got rid of the reference.to the word cubic..So if you see VCB.and you're thinking,.what is that based on?.It's kind of a carry over from.how this all started when we.referred to it as a cubic box..A little piece of trivia there..Now you know..So the VCB, this.is a set up that I.was part of in the.lab several years ago..This is the picture of what.was done with the next edition..There are photos.of the actual test.setups for the next edition.in the new IEEE 1584 standard..This is very typical of.that kind of a set up..So you see the three electrodes..And you take a fuse wire,.I call it a trigger wire,.and wrap it around.the electrodes,.and that basically.creates a short circuit..And so then when you.close the breaker.and you're closing.into a short circuit,.that wire vaporizes, and.then the arc is established..And it runs down..It runs away from the.supply, and the energy.comes off the tip..So what it'll do is.it'll go down and then.spill out of the box.off the end of the tips..So my own diagram of this,.you have the three electrodes.in the box..And I put the trigger.wire across there..That's not the.trigger wire there..That just indicates where.the arc is being established..The trigger wire's actually.higher up on the electrodes..And so you get the.arc established,.and this is almost.instantaneous..And then the energy, it.actually shoots down..But it kind of then.works its way out..So it comes down and.then out, spills out..And that's the test.that we had in 2002.and basically repeated it--.refined it but repeated it..So we still have.that configuration.for the next edition..And then we have a configuration.for the insulating barrier..Now, this was a test setup.from several years ago..Again, this isn't the exact.setup from the new standard..There are pictures.for those test setups.that you'll be able to.see with the new standard..But it's pretty much the.same kind of an idea..And so what happened is there.was this thought about what.if the conductor is terminated.into an insulating barrier?.And this is representative.of certain conditions.in some types of equipment..And the thought.was the arc energy.would be running down the bus,.and it would hit that barrier,.and it would balloon out.and basically come out.a little more aggressively..And so on the left side, I show.the trigger or the fuse wire.wrapped around it, then.it's a fiberglass block.kind of pushed up with a.couple of pieces of wood, two.by fours..And so that's the setup..And my diagram, like.this, it just shows--.this is actually more what the.IEEE 1584 test was based on,.what they did..And I say they because.it was actually.the project team that did this..It wasn't the working group..So what the project team did was.they took the three metal rods,.and they put the barrier down.at the bottom of the box..And so you got the.same kind of a thing..You have the initial.arc starting..Then what would happen is the.energy would hit the bottom.and then kind of be.ejected a little bit,.come out with a.little more authority..That's how we'll refer to it..And so that was the.VCBB as we call it..And then we have the.horizontal electrodes,.and these are the.electrodes pointed at you..And this is the most.aggressive of the tests,.because what's going to happen.when you have horizontal.electrodes-- and this might.be like bus stabs or something.like that, and I have a few.pictures I'll show you--.the energy, it's going to.run along the horizontal bus,.and it's going to come off.the end basically being.directed at the person.that may be in front of it..Hopefully there won't be.anybody in front of it..You should be standing.off to the side..But it's coming out.more aggressively..And so you have the arc, and.then you have, basically,.the energy that's being.directly shot, ejected,.straight out of the enclosure..And as I said, this is.a lot more aggressive.of an arc flash setup..And then we have the.cases for open air..We have the vertical.electrodes in open air..They're just suspended..That's what that little.grayish thing is..And you have your trigger wire,.and then you have the arc,.and then the energy just shoots.down, kind of comes down..And this is the same thing.that we had-- or similar,.I guess I should say--.to what we had back in 2002..It's been refined a little bit,.but it was the same electrode.configuration..And then we did add.another one for open air..Since we're working with.horizontal electrodes,.we have the horizontal electrode.configuration in open air..And again, this is going.to be coming right at you.but not being constrained.in a box or in an enclosure..It's still going to.be really aggressive,.but it's not going.to be concentrated.as much as if it was coming.out of an enclosure or a box..So the idea of having these.different configurations.is so that you have.more flexibility.if you want to be more creative.in modeling the different types.of equipment..For example, the vertical.electrodes in air.is just I'll call it a.run of the mill arc flash,.the way we've been treating it.so far, where you have an arc.flash that's in an enclosure,.and it just comes out.of the enclosure..And that's kind of.the way that we've.been handling this since 2002..And pretty effectively.with good results..Then we have the vertical.electrodes in the metal.box with an insulating barrier..And it might be.something like this..If an arc flash occurs, let's.say, up ahead of this breaker,.and the energy runs.towards the breaker,.it hits the.insulating properties.and it may behave more like a.VCBB type of a configuration..And then we have the.HCB, the horizontal..And this might be where you have.stabs or something like that..If an arc flash were to.occur, as you see here,.on these stabs.where the fuses go,.the fuse mounts, it.may tend to behave more.like horizontal electrodes.coming out at a person..And then we have the vertical.electrodes in open air..That's just a basic.arc flash in open air,.again, similar to.what we had in 2002..And then we also have.the horizontal electrodes.in open air..And this is a little different..This is actually-- it's kind.of questionable about this one.because this is from.the secondary of a pad.mount transformer..It's kind of a.special design, where.the side, the top,.everything opens up,.so it does behave a.little more like open air..But you might argue, can you.really sustain an arc flash.across that kind of a distance?.I don't know..The more distance you have,.the harder it is to sustain..But there are situations.where you may have electrodes.that are pointed at you..And in that case, you.can use the HOA model..To learn more about IEEE 1584.and also receive updates about.when it's finally released.as well as other news,.simply sign up for my updates.at brainfiller.com/updates..Now, I talked.about the voltages,.that the 2002 edition really.just broke the voltage.into two parts..There was a arcing short.circuit current equation,.and that was from.208 up to 1 kV..And then there was a second.equation, from 1 kV to 15 kV..And as I said, you pick one..And that was it..And there was no.adjustment or fine.tuning for whether the 208 to.1 kV, whether you were actually.at 208 or 480 or 575 or.you know any other voltage..There was no fine tuning..So what happens with.all the testing,.we actually have three.basic equations now.based on 600 volts,.and you actually.pick a 600 volt model or 600.volt equation, or 2,700 volts,.kind of a mid-level, or up.to 15 kV that was actually.tested at 14,300 volts..So there are three equations..And you might think,.well, that's not.much of an improvement..You had two before..Well, these three equations.are for everything--.for the arcing current,.for the incident energy,.and for the arc flash.boundary, plus this.is what's called.the intermediate.or I refer to it as the.initial calculation..And then what you do.is you interpolate..Once you come up.with your results,.then there's an.interpolation procedure.that you go through to scale.it into your actual voltage..So for example, if you're.using 600 volt equations.and your system is actually.480, your initial calculations.will be based on 600 volts..But then you go.back and interpolate.and basically change.it or adjust it.to the 480 volt condition..The calculation steps..There is the Intermediate.Average Arcing Short Circuit.Current, and that's.the initial calculation.that I was talking about..Next, you calculate the Final.Arcing Short Circuit Current.by interpolating for the.actual system voltage..Then after that there is what's.referred to as the Minimum.Arcing Short Circuit Current..So you'd begin with.the intermediate..That's the initial..That's going to be at 600.volts or 2,700 or 14.3..And once you go.through that, and you.go through all the other.calculations for the arc flash.boundary, incident.energy, then you go back.and there's the.adjustment factor..Now, in the 2002, it was.the 85% adjustment factor..Here it's adjusting for.the minimum current..As I said, it goes from.208 all the way to 15 kV..So make your adjustments.for the minimum current..And then what you do is you.take this minimum current, kind.of like the 85% that we had..You look at this.minimum arcing current,.and you evaluate the time.current characteristic.and determine, well, did.the clearing time change?.By using the minimum.current, did that maybe.drop below an instantaneous.setting and now.we have a time delay?.So it's similar to what we had.with the 85% multiplier back.in 2002..It came out in 2004.with the amendment..But it's a little.more robust, and it.covers the entire spectrum..And then we also.have an adjustment.for the enclosure sizes..I'm going to show you there.are many more enclosure sizes.this time around..But if you want to fine.tune it even further,.there are factors.that you can develop,.that you can calculate,.where you can further.make adjustments for the.size of the enclosure.based on specific conditions..And then we also have the.calculations for the incident.energy, the intermediate or.we'll say the first pass,.and then you go back.and fine tune that..Interpolate for your.specific voltage and the arc.flash boundaries..So it's a much.more robust process.that we have this time around..From the 2002.edition of IEEE 1584.we just had a handful of what.we called classes of equipment..And those of you.that use software,.this is one of the.functions that you set up.on the software..It usually says equipment type..It's really class, but.it'll say equipment type..Maybe it says class..And you select..Is it medium voltage?.Is it low voltage, usually like.distribution equipment panels.and switch boards?.Or is it low voltage power.equipment, like low voltage.switchgear?.And so these were basically.the categories that you had,.the equipment class..And the bus gaps..The gap between the bus bars..They're just kind of typical..Most people leave.these because you.don't know what else to use..And within any.piece of equipment.you can have different.spacings at different locations.in the equipment..And then these.are the enclosures.that were used for the.original 2002 standard..Well, with, as I.said, almost 1,900,.approaching 2,000 new tests,.this was greatly expanded..And so starting at the top,.we have 15 kV switchgear..We're still using the.152 millimeter gap,.same thing that we had before..And we have an enclosure.of 45 by 30 by 30..And then we had 15 kV.motor control center..152 millimeter gap, but the size.is smaller for motor control.center..And we have 5 kV switchgear.of a larger enclosure.size and then 5 kV with.a smaller enclosure size..5 kV motor control center..Low voltage switchgear..And then a new.thing that we have.is for low voltage equipment,.and I'll talk about this more..We make a distinction between.whether it's shallow equipment.or whether it's standard.or typical equipment..And the distinction is.it's below 600 volts..And there a certain.size parameters,.but it's really with depth,.that up through 8 inches, that's.going to be considered.shallow, and then.over 8 inches in.depth, that will.be considered a typical.sized piece of equipment..So there's a.distinction, and I'll.talk more about that.a little bit later on..And then cable.and junction boxes.at the very bottom of the table..The enclosure size.correction factor..So when you're going to.perform your calculations,.you have to select the proper.equipment class, the voltage,.the type of equipment, as close.to whatever enclosure size you.have, what you might consider.to be representative..But if you want to.fine tune it, there.are calculation methods where.you can take the equipment.class and whatever size.was given for that class,.and you can adjust it.for more exact parameters.that you may actually have..And so to begin with,.you have to determine,.OK, it's an enclosure, so.it's VCB, VCBB, or HCB..Those are the only.three for enclosures..So you have to select which.one of these you have..And up through 600 volts,.you have the distinction.between typical and shallow..And as I said, up through 600.volts, the height and the width.can't exceed 20 inches..And then the depth, up through.8 inches, that's shallow..And then greater.than 8 inches, that's.going to be considered.typical or normal..So as far as the.correction factors--.and there's a whole.calculation process.you go through for this--.we have what's typical and.what's considered shallow..Typical is most.commonly what you're.going to be using.for low voltage,.for medium voltage.up through 15 kV..But again, for lower.voltage, less than 600 volts,.if it's classified as shallow,.there's a different adjustment.that you can make...The arcing current variation, I.want to talk a little bit more.about this..I mentioned it earlier..So in the 2002 edition we.had this 85% multiplier.that was, as I said, brought out.in the 2004 amendment A, where.you take the arcing current,.multiply it times 85%.because there are.a lot of unknowns..And the real concern.was, well, what.if we calculate.this arcing current.and we have what seems.like an exact number,.lots of decimal places--.that's a little misleading--.and what if the actual arcing.current for a real event.maybe is less than that?.What happens?.And so that's why the.85% was introduced..And it was only up through 1 kV..So this time around it's a more.robust set of calculations,.and it applies all the.way up through 15 kV..So this adjustment, it's.really to determine basically.a minimum of what the.arcing current may be..And then you look at this.minimum arcing current, look.at your time current curve.to try to determine, OK,.so with maybe the.minimum, the low end,.would that affect.the clearing time?.Because as many of you.know, the clearing time.is going to be a.function of the current..And if it's all up in the.instantaneous and the average.and the minimum are still.in the instantaneous, well,.then it's not a big deal..But if the minimum drops.you below the instantaneous.or maybe drops you into a.short time delay or something.like that for some of the.electronic trip breakers,.well, you're going to want to.do a little more work on this..So the arcing current.variation factor..As I was talking about, the 2002.edition of IEEE 1584 used 85%..It was in the 2004.amendment A, as I mentioned..And the thought was, if you.calculate this arcing current--.and there could be all kinds.of decimal places, which.is misleading..It's like, this is really exact..It's an estimate at.best, and that's actually.how we used to reference it,.kind of an estimated arcing.current..What if the actual.arcing current was lower?.You might think, well,.if it's lower, then won't.be as much energy, will it?.Well, it won't be as intense..But what could happen.is the lower current.could end up maybe resulting in.an upstream protective device.that's going to maybe define the.arc duration, maybe that device.will take longer to operate..So it's not as.intense, but you have.more duration, which could.actually be the worst case..So that's what that.85% was all about..And so what we've done now is we.have a more robust calculation.process that spans over the.entire range from 208 to 15 kV..OK..The question that.everybody keeps asking..There was language in the.2002 edition of IEEE 1584--.it actually appeared in.two different locations--.that stated that.equipment below 240 volts,.which kind of implied.to 208, doesn't.need to be considered unless.it involves at least one.125 kVA or larger low.impedance transformer.in its immediate power supply..So the size of the.transformer, what.that had to do with it is.the thought was smaller.transformers are going to reduce.the short circuit current..And if this is.down at 208, there.were just a couple of.tests that were performed.that indicated that.it's really going.to be difficult to sustain..So can you have an arc flash?.Yeah..But is it going to sustain.and be what at the time.was considered to be.a significant hazard?.No, not really..And so that's why this.language was included..Some people are thinking,.well, that was deleted..No, not really..Not from the original source..What happened, those.of you who are thinking.it was deleted, that.in the 2009 edition.of a different standard,.NFPA 70E we'll say.borrowed this language..They didn't quite get it the.exact way that we had it..They said equipment.240 volts or less,.and here it's.actually below 240..But anyway, they borrowed it..It was introduced into the.2009 edition of NFPA 70E..This is the origin..It came from IEEE 1584..And then in 2012, they deleted..So if you're thinking it.doesn't exist anymore,.it doesn't exist it NFPA 70E..It really didn't.belong there anyway..The origin was IEEE 1584..So what this was all about is.if you're performing arc flash.calculations on the secondary.side of a small transformer.at 208, and let's say the.arc flash occurs somewhere.between the main.and the transformer.or the main piece of.equipment, normally.what you're going.to do is you're.going to look at the duration.of the arc flash being defined.by a device up stream,.which would be a primary..And you start looking at how.long it takes a primary device.to operate..It could be awhile..And so you end up with.some pretty extreme--.you could end up with some.pretty extreme numbers.for your incident.energy calculations that.may not be realistic..And that's why this.was placed in here..So the question.everybody's asking..Is the 125 kVA transformer.going to stick around?.Let me explain..So I have a couple.of tests here,.and this first one is.just a small panel..And it's downstream.from a branch breaker..And this is a typical we'll call.it a really low level, almost.an amusing arc flash..I'm guilty..I've done this more than once..So let's take a look...You really had to.be looking for it..Just a little pop on the side..That was kind of along the.lines, was there an arc flash?.Yeah..Was it a hazard?.Well, I guess it could.eject a little bit of metal.and maybe cause a problem.with your face or your eyes,.but it wasn't anything.really earth shattering..And so we'll take a.look at maybe kicking it.up a little bit..In this next case,.this was a bus plug..And with the bus plug, you.can see the shorting wire up.on the line side..And there was a little.more dramatic arc flash..This was a lower current..I believe it was 208..And let's take a.look at what happens..OK..400 amp bus plug..400 amp fuses..2, 1...I ran some numbers based on.the 2002 edition of IEEE 1584,.just looking at typical.transformer sizes and a pretty.typical impedance and looking.at the incident energy.based on one cycle, six cycles,.10 cycles, 20, and 30 cycles..And with 112 and.1/2 kVA transformer,.you cross over that magical 1.2.calorie per square centimeter.threshold where protection.is going to be required..It's often referred to as.the onset of a second degree.burn, where that could occur..And you cross over.that at six cycles..So you'd have to have a.pretty fast extinction..For 75 kVA, it's going to.take a little more duration..And you can see the.trend, 45 kVA, 30 kVA..So that's a little.bit of what drove.the language from the 2002.edition of the standard..And then, quite a.few years ago, there.was a question about, what.if the electrodes terminate.into an insulating barrier?.And this is a set up of.some of the original work.with the insulating barrier..Now, I was in the lab.when this was being done,.and then two colleagues of.mine wrote a really good paper.about this type of a setup..And so what happens is the.arc flash initiates where.the trigger, the fuse wire is..And the arc and the.energy runs down.and it hits the.barrier, as you can see..And then it kind of balloons up..Now, what the big.thing was here is.if you use an insulated.barrier for low current and low.voltages, the original test, the.original thought, if you didn't.have the barrier, that the.energy would just come off.the tips of the electrode,.boom, blow itself out,.and that was it..But with a barrier,.what happens is it.kind of captures it a.little bit, the plasma..And think of it as.like puddling up,.and it sustains, and it.actually can flare out..So this next test,.I was in the lab..This is one of the.earlier tests coming up..And I'll just say.I was surprised..This did not go like I.thought it was going to..I thought it was going.to be just another pop..And no, that's not what it was..3, 2, 1..Holy!.So as I said, I was.kind of surprised..So where is this taking us?.There was a lot more research.with the barrier tests.and with lower currents.and lower voltages..And what we found was.the 125 kVA exception--.it's not really an.exception, but that's.how people refer to it..The 125 kVA exception is.a little bit optimistic..And so after extensive.testing for the next edition.of IEEE 1584, the.new language just.simply states that.sustainable arcs are possible.but are less likely in three.phase systems operating.at 240 volts nominal or less.with an available short circuit.current below 2,000 amps..And so the way it.stands right now.with the next.edition of IEEE 1584,.the 125 kVA exception is gone..And in its place is a.reference to 2,000 amps..And still a possibility of.sustaining but not as likely..Grounded versus ungrounded..In the 2002 edition.of IEEE 1584,.when the arc flash.tests were established,.the first fraction of a cycle.or so it was really erratic..Then we'd hit more of the.stable part of the arc..And so what was.happening, the equations.reflected a difference.in incident energy.between whether the system.was grounded or ungrounded..And let me explain.why that was, and then.what was done to address.it in the next edition..So first off, when you perform.a power system analysis, power.system calculations,.what we typically.do is you take a three.phase power system,.and if it's balanced,.we perform what's.known as per phase analysis..You just analyze one phase,.because if it's balanced,.you're going to have the same.result for phase A, B, and C..So I'm not going to calculate.it three different times..So you calculate it once..A per phase representation..And this is an.example of a per phase.representation for a three.phase short circuit calculation..You look at one phase..You have the short across there..You look at the.values, and you come up.with your answer.for the one phase..And that's a per phase analysis..Well, an arc flash study,.the arc flash calculations,.they're based on.three phase systems..And we were assuming.that it was all balanced..And when you get a stable.arc, it's fairly balanced..But that initiation.period, we captured that.with the 2002 edition..And it affected the way the.equations were developed..And so you get two.different results..So to give you an example--.this is from 2002--.of the difference.that you can have.between a grounded.or an ungrounded system, both.with a box, an enclosure,.and an open air, I.ran a few numbers..This is from the 2002 standard..And for example,.a grounded system,.you have a coefficient.that's called K2,.and that varies depending on.whether it's grounded or not..So for the grounded.case for an enclosure,.there is 4.6 calories.per square centimeter,.whereas if you.select ungrounded,.there's a different coefficient,.K2-- it's actually 0--.for ungrounded, that number.goes up to 6 calories.a square centimeter..So there was a difference.in the way you handle this..And then for air.there was also a bit.of a difference, grounded.versus ungrounded..For the next edition of.IEEE 1584, all of the data.was analyzed, and it was placed.sequentially from maximum.to minimum..And the two lowest.cycles were kicked out..And that's when you get.into this basically mix.where it's partly a bolted short.circuit, the wire is melting,.the fuse wire, it's.transitioning to arcing,.it's really erratic,.and it actually behaves.a bit unbalanced, which is why.grounding factored into this,.because you had a bit.of an unbalanced current.there in the beginning..So the new equations are.based more on the stable arc..And because of that.there's no difference.between whether your system.is grounded or ungrounded..We'll call it one-size-fits-all.when it comes to grounding.for the next edition.of IEEE 1584..Now, the calculation.process, it's.going to be a.little more complex..This is a flowchart.from the book.that I wrote years ago about how.to perform arc flash studies..And in that process I have a.lot of the details grayed out,.but the arc fault calculation,.the short circuit calculation,.and the incident energy and.the arc flash boundary, those.are the three key.numbers that you.were calculating with the.2002 edition of IEEE 1584..We still need these values..But how we go about this.is completely different..As I mentioned,.there's a calculation.of the intermediate.values, and then.you fine tune it based.on your specific voltage..So what happens-- this is.just kind of a simplistic view.of how this plays out..You select the appropriate.equation based on the voltages..600, 2,700, or 14,300 volts..And so there's three.different equations..There's all kinds.of coefficients.that are going to be dependent.on the voltage that you select..And you calculate the.intermediate value--.I call it the initial value--.of the arcing current,.the incident energy, and.the arc flash boundary..And then, for each.one of these, you.interpolate for.your actual voltage..So as I mentioned earlier, let's.say you use a 600 volt equation.and you're calculating.for 480 volt system,.well, your initial calculation.would be based on the 600 volt.model, but then you.interpolate and adjust this.to the actual 480 volts..And then you go back.and you readjust.the arcing short circuit current.to find the minimum arcing.short circuit current..And as I mentioned, if that.happens to change the clearing.time, then you're going to.want to go back and repeat.the calculations for the.longer clearing time..And whichever case is going.to be the worst case--.and if you have a longer.clearing time that will.probably be it--.that's what you're going.to use for your result..The calculation steps..All I can say is.strap in and hang on..Here we go..This is the process.that we're going.to be going through with the.next edition of IEEE 1584..The first step is you calculate.the intermediate average.arcing current, as.I mentioned earlier..And then you calculate.the final arcing current..That's the interpretation..So you pick either 600.volts or 2,700 or 14,300,.and then you interpolate.for your specific voltage..And then you're going to.calculate the incident energy..Well, before you do that, you.select your enclosure type--.basically, your class.of equipment and that'll.default to a certain.enclosure type..And then, if you.want, you can adjust.that for the size.correction factor.to be even more accurate..So with the size correction.factor and the arcing current,.you calculate the.intermediate incident energy..And again,.intermediate just means.it's going to be 600.volts or 2,700 or 14,300..And then you calculate.the final incident energy.by interpolating.for the voltage..And then you calculate.the intermediate arc flash.boundary..Again, it's.basically just saying.the 600, 2,700, or 14.3 kV.version of the arc flash.boundary..And of course, then you go.back and you interpolate.for the actual voltage..So it's much more precise to.be able to handle it this way..And then you go back.and you calculate.the adjustment factor,.the variation factor,.to determine the.minimum arcing current..So then you adjust the.intermediate-- not the final,.you adjust the.intermediate-- arcing current.using the correction factor..And then go back and redetermine.the final arcing current.with the interpolation..And then you go.back and recalculate.the intermediate incident energy.and the final incident energy.and the intermediate arc flash.boundary and the final arc.flash boundary..And all I can say--.got to throw a big.warning out here--.your brain may.explode on this one..This is much more robust..It's a much more.elaborate process..Many more steps..One set of the.calculations actually.has 13 separate.coefficients that.are used in the interpolation..So there's a lot.that goes with this..So people are really.going to be looking.to software to solve this..And actually, as.far as the software,.I should go ahead and.bring that up right now..I also get the question about,.are the software companies--.and you know who they are..There's a lot of.majors out there..Are the software companies.up to speed on this?.Are they're going to be.ready to roll this out?.And actually, representation.from all the major software.companies are on the.IEEE 1584 committee..In fact, they all had a hand.in reviewing and evaluating.and fine tuning the model.from the project team..So yes, the software companies,.they've all had representation,.they've all been really.integral into the development.of all of this..And they all have--.to my knowledge, I've talked.with quite a few of them..They all have basically.their software.ready to go, just.waiting for the approval.that the next edition is ready..And they'll be out there..So they've been a.very integral part.of the working group and.the development of all this..Couple other things that.came up from the test..Light is considered.to be an issue..Of course, the ultraviolet.light can cause blindness,.temporary, permanent..So there were some tests.performed for light..Now, just as a benchmark.or a frame of reference,.we use the term lux for.the unit of measure,.and lux is just one.lumen per square meter..It's just the definition.of the illuminance level..And so give you some idea, some.basically frame of references.for what we're talking about..Around 1,000 lux is just kind.of a typical overcast day..You go up to 100,000 lux.and that's a really bright,.direct, sunlit day..So that's kind of give.you a frame of reference..Now, from some of.the arc flash tests,.three meters away there.have been recordings.of over 1 million lux..And there was one that.actually went up to a little.over 13 million lux, over 130.times brighter than the sun..That's going to be a tough one..And yes, light is.one of the hazards..I've told this story in my.training classes over the years.that several years ago when.I was performing arc flash.tests in the lab, I have.a camera that I set up,.and I have the lab tech who.actually hits the button.to close the breaker and.launch the arc flash..I always have him.count backwards..He goes 3, 2, 1, and then boom..And so on this one.occasion I had my camera,.and I was adjusting, and.I was kind of looking out.there, getting it all focused..And just [INAUDIBLE]..And it was probably about.20 feet in front of me..I wasn't right in front of.it, and I'm behind the glass..I think it was.bulletproof glass..But it was just.like, I was stunned..And I kind of shook.it off and looked up,.I couldn't see right in.here, my field of view..It was like a real.bright purple..Really weird..But you know, I had to.try to shake it off..There were a couple of other.people in the test booth..And I'm thinking,.they're going to think.I'm an idiot doing.this because I.thought I messed something up..And then I went back and.watched the video later..My sight came back over.about 15, 20 minutes..So then I went back.and looked at the video.and just turns out.there was no countdown..No 3, 2, 1..Just boom..And I was still.focusing the camera..So that's some new information.that we have regarding light..This really won't be.rolled into 1584 standard,.but it was some really good.test data that we ended up with..And then also blast pressure..Blast pressure is.still something.that we're scratching our heads..The thought is, yes, if there's.a really significant arc flash,.and it's really more.short circuit dependent,.that you can have a pretty.significant blast pressure..But the measurements are.showing that the pressure.is somewhere between 100 and.250 pounds a square foot..I mean, it's.significant, absolutely..It can knock you off of.ladder, off a scaffold,.do all kinds of.things like that..But there was sort of what.I call the urban legend.years ago, where.people would say,.oh, it would just blast.you right into the wall,.and basically you'd be a bug.splat, that kind of thing..And there are all kinds.of sensationalized stories.along with that..It could be significant..You know, knock you back, rough.you up, and knock you over,.hurt your head,.something like that..But I've never heard of a.case where it's actually.slammed somebody, basically.turn them into a-- well,.anyway, use your imagination..So upwards of 100 to 250.pounds a square foot..So we'll be looking at this.probably in the future..Some type of new modeling.for the blast pressure..There were some older.theoretical models.and some other models.that are out there,.but we'll be working on.this perhaps in the future.some time..By the way, with this.blast pressure thing,.about it blasting you into the.wall and the bug splat comment.that I made, the 40 calorie.per square centimeter note.that was in NFPA 70E, that's.what set off a lot of that,.was something that was brought.in in the 2000 edition..And over the years,.people began to recognize.it's not so much a function of.calories per square centimeter.incident energy as it is.about short circuit current..So the latest.edition of NFPA 70E.just simply removed it,.with really good reason..What they did is they.stated, what does 40 calories.have to do with de-energizing?.That's what this was about..Above 40 calories should be a.big emphasis on de-energizing..And the rationale was, what's 40.calories have to do with this?.You should always de-energize..So that was a genius move.to handle it that way..The sound pressure..So hearing protection, I.think, as most people know,.is required, at least.according to NFPA 70E..And the sound pressure can.be absolutely staggering..As a frame of reference,.conversational speech.is approximately.60 dB, decibels,.that's the measurement that.we use for sound pressure..This is actually sound pressure..And you take this up.to 120 dB, and that's.like a very loud rock band..And actually, I had to.dig through all my photos..That's one I took a long time.ago back in my rock concert.days..I think my ears are.still ringing to this day.from those guys..But you get the idea..Sound pressure goes up..And with an arc flash,.we've had some measurements.with an arc flash..And a typical arc flash, the.sound level's about 140 dB..I mean, it's an impact..It's not sustained..But 140 dB..I mean, that could cause.some hearing damage..And some tests have actually.recorded the sound pressure.upwards of about 170 dB..I mean, that can just.destroy your ears..So sound pressure..I mean, it's very significant..And wearing hearing.protection, this is why..And so we have some more.data, some more tests.to support what can actually.happen during an arc flash..So what's next?.We're not done..There is going to be more work..Just because the latest edition.of 1584 is about finished--.and I said there's a few other.hurdles that we have to clear.yet, but it's almost finished--.doesn't mean we're done..There's a lot more that.we want to look at..And this is in no.particular order,.and there's no guarantees.that this is exactly how we're.going to handle.this, but some things.that we're kicking around--.this first one actually.is a guarantee..That's what we're going to.take up at the next meeting..It's a revision of what's.called IEEE 1584.1..And IEEE 1584.1.is basically what.goes into an arc flash study,.the scope and deliverables.of an arc flash study..So since 1584 has been.completely overhauled,.we have to bring 1584.1.in sync with 1584..So this will be one.of the first things.that we begin to undertake..DC arc flash, that's still.kind of up in the air..The book that I.wrote years ago, I.have a chapter in there.about DC arc flash..I didn't come up.with the method,.but I'm the one that kind.of went public with it..It was based on some really.good technical papers.by some really well-regarded.and well-respected people.in the industry..So there's a method out there..It's just not based on.any kind of a standard..But the industry has kind.of embraced it so far.in the absence of anything else..But hopefully in.the future we'll.be able to start moving forward.and do a little bit of work.on DC arc flash..The lower current cut off..Well, right now it's 2,000 amps..Are we going to be able.to work with that anymore?.I'm not sure, because the.problem with trying to come up.with a low current.cut off, as I said,.it's not a hard fast number..There's the possibility under.certain enclosure sizes,.certain configurations,.and smaller gap distances,.you could sustain to.some really low values..So that one's kind up in.the air at this point..Higher voltages..That's something that.we've talked about..The standard goes up to 15 kV..Maybe someday we'll be able.to take it above 15 kV..Who knows?.Stay tuned..And then many other areas..There's just so.many other areas..And if you put this.into perspective,.we're only on the.second revision..The second round of.research for a standard..The 2002 edition, way.back then, as I said,.was one of the greatest things.when it came to arc flash.that the industry has seen..And now, 16 years later, we've.added so much more to it..So there's so much.more that we've.covered that we never.even thought about-- well,.I shouldn't say we.didn't think about it,.but that we didn't.address back in 2002..And so now what.we'll do is we'll.start looking at, what if?.Where are we going to.take this thing next?.And who knows?.Many of you know my.website, brainfiller.com--.kind of an odd name, but.everybody remembers it--.and periodically, I'll.write updates out there.based on direction, things.that we're looking at..Some of you've probably.seen some of these updates..And I also have.the website that's.called ArcFlashForum.com, and.I do similar things there..So if you have ideas, or.questions, or hey, what's.going on, put it out there.on the arc flash forum,.or send me an email..I'll give you my email.address here at the end..So still getting the questions..Are we there yet?.And actually, back in 2012,.some people were saying,.oh, it's done, it's going.to be out within the year..It's like, no, it's not..So the are we there yet has.been going on for quite a while..And more are we there yets,.and more are we there yets..So are we there yet?.We're really close..The draft right now, draft six..As I said, it's with the.IEEE Standards Association..There are certain hurdles that.have to be cleared on that part.yet..But as far as I know draft.six is going to be it..Now, I mean, something.could happen,.but I'm pretty sure the model,.the draft, and everything,.it's going to be as it stands..If not, well, you'll.be getting an update..But it should hopefully.be going through..But as I said, it's.probably not going.to be till towards.the end of the year.by the time we clear all.the rest of these hurdles..So we're really close..And after 16 long years.and lots of people--.I mean, the working group.peaked at around 100,.and there been a lot of.people coming and going.over the years..It's been a massive.undertaking by a lot of people..If you want to be.one of the first.to know when the next.edition of IEEE 1584.comes out, when we actually.get the green light,.one of the best ways to do this.is subscribe to my newsletter..Yeah, it's kind.of a cheesy plug..But what this is.all about is when.we get the notice that 1584.has actually been approved,.the chairman, myself as vice.chairman, the secretary,.we're going to be.the first to know..We get contacted the.moment it happens..And what I do is.I already have it.in the queue, basically the.release, that, hey, it's out..So if you're on the list,.you'll be one of the first.to know about this..And I'll launch it,.like, hey, it's done..Here we go..And start following it up with.a lot of follow up articles,.including follow up training..I have my new schedule.already put together.for when this.comes out, and it's.a pretty aggressive schedule..I haven't had a, we'll.call it a tour schedule.like this in a long time..I train nonstop all.over the country--.actually, all over the.world-- but it's usually.for individual companies..And a public schedule like this,.I haven't done this in a while..It's a pretty ambitious,.aggressive schedule..And planning on the first.class for the new 1584.and arc flash studies to just.be right here where I'm located,.Scottsdale, Arizona..And then from there I roll.on to San Francisco, Houston,.Anchorage-- like Anchorage.in February, are you serious?.This is actually.sponsored by another group.that wanted to do this.class up in Anchorage..So OK..New York City, Portland,.Oregon, Philadelphia, San Diego,.Denver, Colorado, Spokane,.Washington, Chicago, Orlando,.Boston, Raleigh, Washington DC..And then the end of the.year, back home again..So if you're interested.in more details of this,.take a look at the website..Give us a call..Our program director's email.and phone number are there..And set yourself up for one.of the classes next year..I'm going to go into a lot.more detail than I did here..So for the class,.I'm going to be.going through the derivation, a.lot more behind the scenes, how.everything works..We'll be going through some.actual manual calculations..You'll get a really good.feel for how all of this.comes together..Some modeling ideas, because.having so many electrode.configurations, it's got a few.people scratching their head..So that'll be coming.around beginning.at the end of the year,.assuming that everything.goes through with the.standard being approved..If you want to stay in.touch, if you have questions,.the best way to get a.hold of me is email..I'd say, give me a call,.but I'm never at the office..It's pretty rare that I'm in.the studio today doing this..I'm usually traveling or.on the road somewhere,.but shoot me an email..You could post questions.out at the Arc Flash Forum..Twitter..Not on there as much, but.yeah, there's Twitter..LinkedIn is a pretty good way..And a lot of the videos,.including this one,.will find its way.out on YouTube..So a lot of ways.to stay in touch..So I hope this overview gave.you a much better understanding.of why it took 16 years.to get to this point.for the next edition of the.standard and everything that.happened along the way..And more importantly,.I hope this gives you.a little better understanding.of some of the changes that.are going to be.coming down the road,.and why some of the.changes were made,.and how they're going to.affect your calculations.and the whole process..It's a much more robust method,.more detail, and much more.accuracy..So I appreciate you watching,.and have a great day..[MUSIC PLAYING]..

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Wa Approved Training 2013 2019 Form FAQs

Some of the confused FAQs related to the Wa Approved Training 2013 2019 Form are:

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How do I fill out 2013 tax forms?

You file Form 8843 to exclude the days that you were present in the US as an exempt individual. OPT is considered to be an extension of your student status, so you are an exempt individual for the purposes of the substantial presence test while you are on OPT. Because you are considered to be a student while on OPT, you can claim the benefit of the standard deduction that is available for students under the US/India tax treaty.

How do I fill out a CLAT 2019 application form?

How do I fill out the college preference form of the CLAT 2019? If you are AIR 1 and eligible for admission to all 21 NLUs, which one would you prefer? That is your first choice. Your first choice is not available. Out of the remaining 20, you are eligible for all 20. Which one will you prefer? That is your second choice. Your second choice is not available. Out of the remaining 19, you are eligible for all 19. Which one will you prefer? That is your third choice. Repeat the process till you have ranked all 21 NLUs. All the best.

How do I fill out the NEET 2019 application form?

Though the procedure is same as last earlier only the dates has been changed (tentative) yet to be announced by cbse u can fill form in October for the exam of February and in March for the exam of may if u r not satisfied with ur previous performance. All the best

How can I fill out the BITSAT Application Form 2019?

Hi dear First You have To sign Up Registration On BITSAT official website, and then fill up all of requirement they have to Know after registration successfully you have to fill login detail on the official website to process application form for different course you have to become eligible , for more detail all about you can Click Here

How can I fill out the COMEDK 2019 application form?

Go to homepage of COMEDK go to www. Comedk. org. in. then go register and after getting registered u will get a application number then u can proceed in the application form.

Can I collect unemployment and go to school California?

Please correct me if I'm wrong. But I think you can. Please go to the unemployment and tell them your story. Look, the government knows everything about you. The government has every tiny bit of information about you and everyone else. Collect your unemployment and your SSI. I do know this: each state is different so you need to be proactive and find out your rights.

Can you claim unemployment while in school?

Yes, you can get into medical school with a bachelor’s degree in nursing, if you have met the entrance requirements for medical school (required courses, GPA, and so forth) and rank high enough among other applicants. While some nurses go this route, it is not necessarily the best use of a bachelor’s degree. Medical school admissions committees do not care as much about the undergraduate major as they do about academic achievement and performance in the tough prerequisites. Some even prefer a non-science major because it produces a person with a well-rounded liberal arts education or a degree Continue Reading

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