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okay now we are going to discuss.another protocol used for authentication.that is called.protocol ap 3.0 it is the better version.than protocol ap 2.0 so to.solve this problem to solve this problem.so we have another protocol which is.called protocol.at ap means authentication protocol 3.0.in this protocol the ls sends.password her password along with the.message.i am alice in along with her.ip address so this password is.only known to bob this is known to.bob and from this password and this ipad.is.and this message then the bob can.understand okay this message is from the.ls this message is from the ls that mmls.so but when this message is exchanged.this ls password is exchanged in plain.text.it is visible so when this message is.passing.from ls to bob so this message goes.through.internet and internet is a shared.network.so anyone can access it so suppose.bob is listening to this message so bob.notes the ls password.as well as lsip address okay.so this protocol can also fail and how.it feels.let's see it suppose when this message.was.exchanging between the ls and bob.so the alice noted the ls uh.password the the 2d noted the ls.passwords.and the ls iep address so after this.exchange.the 2d sends this message alice ip.address.ls password and imls so now that 2d is.sending the message to.bob using the ls password and ls ip.address so the bob will assume that this.message.is coming from the ls but it is not.coming from ls but it is coming from the.trudy who is the attacker so this is.called.because this password is also in the.plain text.this password is also in the plain text.so.this example is there like if you are.exciting.the gmail server and the ip the password.from you and to gmail server.is sent in the plain text so when the.message is passing through.anyone so anyone can understand this.message.okay okay.so so in this way.the trudy that sends the messages.to bob assuming the putting the lsip.address and ls password.so that bob is assuming that these.messages are coming from.ls but this message is coming from the.2d.okay so in this way it is.also there is failure of this protocol.ap 3.0.so that's why when when you log into.gmail yahoo ad any web server.so your password it should not be sent.in the plain text.because anyone can access that system.if your message is intercepted by.someone in the internet.okay so.now what is done so how to solve.this problem how to solve this problem.so this protocol.problem can be solved if the ls password.is sent.encrypted so if someone see it then it.cannot understand.so okay so in the protocol ap 3.1.the ls sends the message i am alice.anyone in any message.it alice puts the ip address her ip.address.and also put the password in encrypted.form.so so from the encrypted password.from okay when the bob receives the bob.will decrypt this.this password and then it can understand.that this message is from the.s okay so if the 2d see this message.so today can get the lsip address okay.but 2d cannot get the encrypted password.because this password is encrypted.so the trudy cannot understand this.password.okay however so this is okay protocol.but this protocol is because this.password is encrypted.so only the ls and bob knows the key.for decrypting this password so that 2d.cannot understand this message.okay this is good however this protocol.can also fail.how it can fail let's see it this.protocol can fail that for example when.the alice was talking to bob.so the 2d attacker in the middle are.men in the middle or woman in the middle.she.intercepted the message she stole one.copy of the message with herself.okay and when this.communication is done after this the.trudy.sends this that copied message again to.the.bob and this message it contains the.encrypted.password so when the bob decrypt the.password so.bob can understand okay this message is.from the ls because this password.encrypted password is only known to.uh alice and bob not to someone else so.this is called.playback attack and but.there is the same message mls it is sent.by the today.so you can see that this message is not.a new message.this message is a previous message that.was copied by.trudy that was exchanged by the way.alice and bob.so bob can not understand that this is.not the new message.this is a message that was generated by.l by ls previously and it has been.exchanged between alice and bob okay.so in the in in the previous protocol.this 2d can generate new message for.number i'm alice i'm.i'm flana flana hi and how are you good.etc.so it can generate the new messages and.the new passwords okay but here the 2d.cannot generate the new messages because.only this password is known to.okay so if the encrypted password is.sent so this is called.playback attack so okay so in this case.that.this encrypted password is stored by the.2d and it sends.in the message this encrypted password.okay.so there is and this is called playback.attack so.uh this uh this protocol ap 3.1.also not doesn't work so to solve this.problem.we have another protocol this is called.authentication.protocol ap 4.0.and this protocol how it works let's see.it.first of all in this protocol we use.number r this is called one this is.called.nonce and it is used once.in a lifetime and this number is random.and this number is used to avoid.playback attack how it is avoided let's.see it.for example when the ls.sends the message to bob so ls will also.include.r okay so let's see it through example.so the message so the ls the.ap protocol 4.0 it how it works the.lsn's.message i am ls okay bob sends.a random number r this number used.once in a lifetime okay.then the bob sends this r.in the encrypted form and this.r is encrypted by using a symmetric key.a sheared key that is only known to.a and b only to alice and bob.okay so after this.you know this protocol works however.this protocol is good because r is.sent and this is used for.one-time authentication so if the next.time.they want to undertake it again this r.should be used.okay so if here.if here the ls is talking so r will.generate first so when the ls and bob.they have finished talking.and after this the 2d wants to talk so.this.bob will send r since it doesn't know.the password.it doesn't know the key because the key.is only known to alice.the key is not so if if she sends again.so she cannot encrypt the r she cannot.encrypt.r because the 2d doesn't have.doesn't have the key this disk.because this key is used so if.this key is used to encrypt the r so it.can avoid.the this protocol a 4.0 it avoids the.problem.in the protocol ap 3.1 because when the.2d wants to send the message so the 2d.is first to get r from bob and when it.gets.r so then it has to encrypt it with.using a b.key key a b but the 2d doesn't have tap.because this is only known to ls.and bob okay so.this protocol works fine however.this protocol also have failure this.helps also.can fail and how it feels let's see it.so another protocol that is used because.in this protocol.it can fail what is how it can fail.because this.key a b it should be securely exchanged.between ls and bob.and that is difficult because.we have discussed it in the disadvantage.of.this algorithm symmetric key encryption.the exchanging of this.secret key is difficult between ns and.pop.okay so another protocol that is.proposed it is called protocol.ap 5.0 and in this protocol.how it works ls sends the message and ls.bob's and the non r.and it is once then alice.encrypt this pass this r with the.private key with her private key.why because her private key is.is only known to alice not to someone.else.so this is and her public key is known.to.each and everyone including bob so when.this message is coming.to the ls so the l from ls.then the bob can decrypt this message by.using the.ls private public key and ls public is.known to each and everyone including the.bob the ls can i can announce its public.key openly to each and every one.so when the bob receives the public key.so it can decrypt this message.so this since the bob is sure that this.message is decrypted by using the public.key of alice.not the public key of someone else so.the and the private key of alias is only.known to alice.if it is known to someone else then it.is the responsibility of alice.okay then we can fix the responsibility.on address okay.so this protocol works fine that it.avoids the secret key exchange.okay because this public key is can be.exchanged openly there is no need for.secret key exchange.okay however this protocol can also fail.this security protocol can also fail how.it can fail.for example when alice is talking to bob.so there is a main women in the emitter.actually.when the alias message comes to rudy.so she sent this message to bob.when the bob sends the r is sent to ls.when the alice sends her.encrypted this message with her private.key.so the alias request for the public key.of ls.so ls uh the truly request for the.public key of ls.so that ls can announce her public key.to each and every one.including 2d including bob.okay so when the 2d receives this uh.public key of ls so studi can.decrypt this message and when it.decrypts this message.then it can sense this message r.when after decrypting this r then the 2d.sends this.r message by encrypting with her own.private key.and when the bob requests for the public.key so of ls.so the 2d sends her own public key.rather than the public key of alice.so because and this message can be.decrypted by using the 2d public key.okay so in this way all the.communication that is done between.alice and bob it is passing through the.truth.and today kane and kane decrypt the.message can see the message m.and the alice and bob they are unknown.they are not.they are not aware of this situation.that there is a.man or woman in the matter okay.so this is a security hole and it is.very difficult to.detect okay now.we are going to discuss the message.integrity so we can achieve the.authentication.we have discussed lastly authentication.protocols.now we want to discuss message integrity.the digital signature is used for.you know that the message integrity it.involves.two things one is authentication.and one is called uh that the message is.not.altered not changed not notified there.is no insertion.there is no addition to the message no.deletion from the messages.no modification the messages and even.the message order is not changed this is.called message integrity one thing.and the second aspect is authentication.this message is coming from the.one from whom you assumes okay.so digital signature is used.to solve the message integrity problem.both authentication and.encryption and uh message integrity.so cryptographic technique analysis to.handwritten signature.okay for example when this when when you.sends a message.and you sign it so the bank can.understand your check.that this myth this check is signed by.you how they can do it.because there is as your signature is.stored when you sign it.so the check their check sign is.compared with the.stored sign in your bank account.so if they are matching then it means.that this message is from you so when.the center box digital signs the.document so it establishing that he is.the document owner he is the creator.so this is digital signature it is.verifiable.like your handwritten signature is.verifiable shared since.the digital signature is also verifiable.and it is non-forgivable.so the recipient ls can prove someone.that bob.and no one else including ls have been.must have signed this document.so if if you when you sign a check.and you send it to bank and they check.their sign is matching with your sign is.which is stored in the banks.and if later on you you say that i that.this message is not this check is not.sent by you.then they can take you to you to code.because this.signature is matching with the one which.is stored in the tanks.okay so the digital signature works in.the same way.okay and how it works so let's discuss.it.when the bob sends the message this is.the message.this message is encrypted using the.private key of bob.and the private key of bob is only known.to bob not someone else.and this message is sent when.you know this message is sent so.this message can only be decrypted by.using the public key of pop and public.key of bob is with each and every one.if someone's if later on this uh.bob said that this message is not from.bob.so one can take it to code because this.message is encrypted using your private.key.and your private key is generated by you.if someone else has come to know about.your private key then this is the.bob responsibility this is the bob.responsibility okay.so the prive so the public key algorithm.provides.strong authentication it provides strong.authentication because it cannot.denounce.uh the bob can not uh say that.this message is not from the uh bob okay.so digital signature suppose the alice.receives message in with the.private key of signed with the priority.of bob.so ls verify him by applying bob.public key so if the message is.decrypted using the bob.public key so it means that the messages.from the.above if the if the message is.decrypted using the public key of bob.then it means that it is.from the above not from someone else.so if the message that is encrypted by.using the public key of private key of.bob.it is decrypted by using the public key.of bob m.so the m message can be recovered so it.means that whoever signed must have the.bob's private key.and since the bar private key is only.with the box because bob generates this.private key.so no one else can come to now if.someone else comes to know about the.bob's private key then this is the.responsibility of bob.okay so alice verifies that the bob.signed him.because it is decrypted by using the.public key of.bob no one else signed in.messaging because the.m not someone else message okay.none reputation ls can take m and.signature this.to code and prove that the pub is sign.it if the.bob private key is known to someone else.then it is the responsibility of pop.it is the responsibility of bob okay.so another thing this is called strong.authentication so the digital signature.it.provides strong authentication okay this.digital signature it provides strong.authentication it solves.all the problems all the problem.that we have discussed this protocol.this problem is also.addressed by using the digital signature.okay now another part of.uh is is that.because the.public algorithm it is computationally.expensive extensive it takes a lot of.time.because it use modular arithmetics.so one a way of encrypting the whole.message with the public key.instead of encrypting instead of.encrypting the whole message with the.public key it will take longer time.and then again decrypting the whole.message with the with the.public key of bob it will take longer.time okay.so what should we do we should reduce.this time how should we reduce this time.that we a large message aim we generate.a hash.function a hash code a small code for.example three bits.four bits seven bits for example this.message is.10 mb and we generate one uh.one kilobyte hash function so instead of.encrypting this whole message we only.encrypt the hash.of the message so the history of the.message is very small.portion for example this large message.is 10 mb.and this hash machine message is 1 kb.so encrypting the 10 mb message.and encrypting the the 1kb message.so the encrypting 1kb message will takes.less time.is compared to encrypting a 10 mb.message.encrypting so the hash function it is a.minute one mapping it is a one minute to.one mapping for example you have a large.message so it will generate a unique.hash code okay so it produces a fixed.size message.for example you have 10 mb message one.mb message 13 mba message.10 gb message for all these traffic.meters it will generate 1 kb message.1 kb message so given a message digest.x computation infeasible to find such.and this hash function.is computed in such a way that if you.know this large message.so you can generate hash function m.but if you know the hash function from.this h function you cannot.generate this message.an encryption message can be encrypted.and message can be.decrypted but this hash code cannot be.decrypted.this cannot be decrypted so this is one.way.because from the hash message.you cannot from this h code you cannot.generate this message.but from the message you can generate.the h so this is one way.okay so basically it is like internet.checksum for example you have a message.this.and you generate this hash code.okay so later on if.when the message when the hash code is.received so again the hash code is.re generated and if there is something.missing.upon nine one missing then hash code.will be different.okay so this hashing provides that.this message is not entered because this.code is.generated for this message if there in.this message.if any one bit is changed this has code.will be changed.this whole school will be changed okay.so this is the property of the hash.algorithm okay so if.when the message is transmitted so we.also send the haste code.and when the receiver receives the.message it degenerate the hash code for.the message.if the hash code is generated from the.message.and the hash code that is sent by the.sender if they are matching.then it means that the message is not.altered the message.is received as it was sent by.the center and if they don't match.then it means that the message is.altered the message has been modified.on its way okay.so by combining the hash function so.how digital signature works for example.we have a large message m.we generate highest code function m and.this.hash message is digitally signed.this hash message it is.encrypted by using the private key of.bob.not the whole message and this encrypted.hash function.hash message it is attached with the.message.both the message m and this encrypted.hash message is sent to the.receiver send to the receiver okay.so when receiver receives the message.for example ls receives the message.okay so ls separates the message and.hash function.ls encrypted message.m is hash function is separated from the.message okay and the ls again.generates the hash function this h.algorithm is known to.bob and address sender and receiver okay.so the ls.generate the hash function and it again.hash function m.when ls receives the encrypted hash.function.so it is hash encrypted hash message is.decrypted by using the public key of.power.because the public key of bob is only.known to.bob not to someone else okay.so it is decrypted this message is.encrypted by the public key of problems.sorry private key above so this message.can be decrypted by using the public.keypad.and the public key of bob is known to.anyone including the.ls so the ls decrypt this message.hm and then it compares hm.this hm hash message it is sent by the.bob by the sender and this hash message.it is generated by the ls by the.receiver.and if they both match then it means.that this message is not.changed on its way from sender to.receiver.because if it was changed then this hash.message will be different.this size machine will be different so.this.protocol digital signature it provides.two things authentication.because this message is from the bob.because this message is decrypted by.using the.public key form in public of bob it is.decrypted.it means that this is encrypted by.private key of power.in the private key of bob it is only.known to bob.not to someone else so it means that.this image is coming from the bob.so it provides strong authentication.and since when this encrypted hash.message is.decrypted and this hash message is.matching with the h message that is.generated for the receiving message it.means that.this message is not changed because.this is the code the hash message this.hash message.it is generated by the sender when the.sender generates the message.and this is generated by.after receiving the message so if they.are same that means their sender message.and receiving message are same.so it means that the sin the message is.not modified on its way.there is no addition there is no.deletion and there is even now.reordering the message okay so this.digital.message provides message integrity.message integrity means.that the authentication that this.message is coming from the bob.because it is decrypted by the.public key it means that it is encrypted.by bob private.and the bob private key is only known to.bob and second.that this message the general it.the receiver generates the ls generate.the hash function of.the receiving message and this.the receiving message.message hash code has a message.it is equal to the hash message of the.sender this means that this message is.not.changed if they are not matching they.mean that this message is being.modified either there is some addition.there is deletion uh from the message.and there is a re-artery.okay so this provides message integrity.okay so we have discussed the message.integrity.so there are different hash function.algorithm available and you can see it.which is called md4 md5 sha1.okay 16 and so so.this security hole it is addressed by.the.uh security hole it is addressed by this.algorithm okay.so we have discussed digital signature.by this.we have in the network security course.okay and by okay so the network security.course is end.okay so the message integrity is done.

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