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Cucumber is a flexible and well-known testing framework that has achieved enormous traction in the area of automated testing. It enables you to write and run tests in normal language, making them accessible to technical and non-technical team members.
This detailed book will look at the Cucumber testing framework, how it works, and how you can use it to do successful testing. We'll also look at its capabilities as a codeless test automation tool.
Cucumber Testing Framework Understanding
Cucumber is an open-source tool that aids in implementing Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) principles. BDD is an agile software development strategy that promotes cooperation among developers, QA teams, and non-technical stakeholders. Cucumber bridges the gap between technical and non-technical team members by allowing tests to be authored in simple English.
How Does the Cucumber Framework Operate?
Cucumber tests are written in Gherkin, a domain-specific language meant to be understandable by non-technical stakeholders. These tests are arranged into feature files that explain different parts of the software's behavior.
- Step Definitions: These plain-language feature files are supported by step definitions written in a programming language (such as Java, Ruby, or Python). The actual automation code that reads and performs the plain-language test steps is provided by step definitions.
- Glue Code: Glue code binds the plain-language feature steps to the step descriptions. It instructs Cucumber on how to convert plain-language steps into automated actions.
- Test Execution: Cucumber examines the feature files and executes the necessary step definitions to run the automated tests. It presents the test findings in a human-readable style, emphasizing any differences between predicted and actual results.
Cucumber Testing Framework's Key Concepts
To use Cucumber efficiently, you must first understand some of its important concepts:
- Feature Files: Feature files are the foundation for your testing. They specify what the software should perform and provide scenarios describing particular test cases.
- Scenarios: Individual test cases within a feature are represented by scenarios. They are composed of stages that are expressed in simple English and adhere to the "Given-When-Then" pattern. "Given" establishes the starting point, "When" explains the action to be conducted, and "Then" gives the intended result.
- Step Definitions: Step Definitions are defined in a programming language and correspond to the plain-language steps in the feature files. They hold the automation code that drives the test.
- Tags: Tags help you organize and sort your tests. Tags may be applied to features or scenarios and used to run tests selectively, making it easier to manage big test suites.
- Background: A backdrop is a collection of steps that are shared by all scenarios inside a feature. Specifying these procedures once and using them across various cases eliminates repetition.
- Hooks: Hooks are a mechanism to run code before or after specified events in the test execution process. For example, hooks can be used to put up test data or create reports.
The Role of Cucumber as a Codeless Test Automation Tool
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While Cucumber makes writing tests in simple English easier, it still relies on code for test automation. It does, however, act as a link between non-technical stakeholders and the underlying automation code.
Cucumber is a great codeless test automation tool because non-technical team members can read, create, and comprehend tests without having to learn programming.
How to Use the Cucumber Testing Framework in Practice
Here are some practical approaches to using Cucumber testing framework effectively:
- Set Up the Environment: Install the required software and dependencies, such as Cucumber, a programming language runtime (for example, Java or Ruby), and a test automation tool (for example, Selenium).
- Create Feature Files: Create feature files that explain the software's behavior. To write plain-language stages, use Gherkin syntax.
- Create Step Definitions: In the programming language of your choice, create step definitions corresponding to the steps in your feature files. The automation code for each step should be included in these step definitions.
- Organize and Tag Tests: Use tags to organize and categorize your tests. This aids test management by allowing you to execute specified groups of tests as needed.
- Execute Tests: Run your Cucumber tests. The Cucumber framework reads the feature files, associates them with the appropriate step definitions, and returns the test results.
- Results Interpretation and Action: Review the test results and take action based on any inconsistencies between predicted and actual outcomes.
The Cucumber testing framework provides a strong testing technique that bridges the gap between technical and non-technical team members. Cucumber promotes cooperation and clarity in testing by allowing tests to be authored in plain language and converted into automated code.