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.PATRICK WINSTON: The Uniform.Code of Military Justice.specifies court martial for.any officer who sends a soldier.into battle without a weapon..There ought to be a similar.protection for students.because students.shouldn't go out.into life without the.ability to communicate,.and that's because.your success in life.will be determined largely.by your ability to speak,.your ability to write, and.the quality of your ideas,.in that order..I know that I can be.successful in this.because the quality.of communication,.your speaking, your.writing, is largely.determined by this formula..It's a matter of how.much knowledge you have,.how much you practice.with that knowledge,.and your inherent.talent, and notice.that the T is very small..What really matters.is what you know..This point came to me suddenly.a few decades ago when.I was skiing at Sun Valley..I had heard that it was.Celebrity Weekend, and one.of the celebrities.was Mary Lou Retton,.famous Olympic gymnast,.perfect 10s in the vault..And I heard that she.was a novice at skiing,.so when the opportune.moment arrived,.I looked over on.the novice slope.and saw this young woman who,.when she became unbalanced,.went like that..And I said that's got to be her..That must be the gymnast..But then, it occurred to.me, I'm a much better skier.than she is, and she's an.Olympic athlete-- not only.an ordinary Olympic.athlete, an outstanding one..And I was a better skier because.I had the K, and I had the P,.and all she had.was the T. So you.can get a lot better.than people who.may have inherent.talents if you have.the right amount of knowledge..So that's what my objective is.today, and here's my promise..Today, you will.see some examples.of what you can put in your.armamentarium of speaking.techniques, and it.will be the case.that some one of those examples,.some heuristic, some technique,.maybe only one, will make--.will be the one that.gets you the job..And so this is a very.non-linear process..You never know when.it's going to happen,.but that is my promise..By the end of the.next 60 minutes,.you'll have been exposed to.a lot of ideas, some of which.you'll incorporate into.your own repertoire,.and they will ensure that you.get the maximum opportunity.to have your ideas.valued and accepted.by the people you speak with..Now, in order to.do that, we have.to have a rule of.engagement, and that.is no laptops, no cell phones..So if you could.close those, I'll.start up as soon as you're done..Some people ask why that.is a rule of engagement,.and the answer.is, we humans only.have one language processor..And if your language.processor is enga--.could you shut the.laptop, please?.If your language processor.is engaged browsing the web.or reading your email,.you're distracted..And worse yet, you distract.all of the people around you..Studies have shown that..And worse yet, if I see a.open laptop somewhere back.there or up here, it drives.me nuts, and I do a worse job..And so that ensures.that all of your friends.who are paying attention.don't get the performance.that they came to have..So that's it for preamble..Let's get started..First thing we talk about,.of course, is how to start...Some people think.the right thing to do.is to start a talk with a joke...I don't recommend.it, and the reason.is that, in the.beginning of a talk,.people are still putting.their laptops away..They're becoming adjusted.to your speaking parameters,.to your vocal parameters, and.they're not ready for a joke..So it doesn't work very well..They usually fall flat..What you want to do instead is.start with empowerment promise...You want to tell.people what they're.going to know at.the end of the hour.that they didn't know at.the beginning of the hour..It's an empowerment promise..It's the reason for being here...What would be an example?.Oh, I see..At the end of this 60.minutes, you will know things.about speaking you.don't know now,.and something among.those things you know.will make a difference.in your life..Yeah, that's an.empowerment promise,.so that's the best way to start..So now that I've talked a.little bit about how to start,.what I want to do is give you.some samples of heuristics.that are always on my.mind when I give a talk,.and first of these heuristics is.that it's a good idea to cycle.on the subject...Go around it..Go round it again..Go round it again..Some people say, tell him.what you want to tell him..Tell him again, and then.tell him a third time,.as if people.weren't intelligent..But the point is--.the reason is-- well, there.are many reasons, one of which.is, at any given.moment, about 20% of you.will be fogged out no.matter what the lecture is..So if you want to ensure that.the probability that everybody.gets it is high, you need.to say it three times..So cycling is one of.the things that I always.think about when I give a talk..Another thing I think about.is, in explaining my idea,.I want to build a fence around.it so that it's not confused.with somebody else's idea..So if you were from Mars,.and I was teaching you.about what an arch is,.I might say to you,.well, that's an arch..And that's not to be confused.with some other things.that other people.might think is--.this is not an arch...That's not an arch..I'm building a.fence around my idea.so that it can be distinguished.from somebody else's idea..So in a more technical.sense, I might say, well,.my algorithm might similar--.might seem similar.to Jones's algorithm,.except his is exponential,.and mine's linear..That's putting a.fence around your idea.so that people can not.be confused about how it.might relate to something else...The third thing on.this list of samples.is the idea of.verbal punctuation...And the idea here is.that, because people.will occasionally fog out and.need to get back on the bus,.you need to provide some.landmark places where.you're announcing that it's.a good time to get back on..So I might, in this.talk, say something.about this being my outline..The first thing we're going to.do is talk about how to start..Then we're going to deal.with these four samples,.and among these.four samples, I've.talked about the first.idea-- that's cycling..The second idea,.building-- and now,.the third idea is.verbal punctuation..So I'm enumerating.and providing numbers..I'm giving you a sense that.there's a seam in the talk,.and you can get back on...So now, we're on a roll,.and since we're on a roll,.can you guess what fourth.idea might be here--.an idea that helps people.get back on the bus?..AUDIENCE: Ask a question..PATRICK WINSTON: Yes?.AUDIENCE: Ask a question..[INAUDIBLE].PATRICK WINSTON:.Ask a question, yes..Thank you..So ask a question...And so I will ask a question--.how much dead air can there be?.How long can I pause?.I counted seven seconds..It seemed like an eternity to.me to wait and not say anything.for seven seconds, but that's.the standard amount of time.you can wait for an answer..And of course, the question.has to be carefully chosen..It can't be too obvious.because then people.will be embarrassed to say.it, but the answers can't.be too hard because then nobody.will have anything to say..So here are some.sample heuristics.you can put in.your armamentarium.and build up your repertoire.of ideas about presentation..And now, if this.persuades you that there.is something to know,.that there is knowledge,.then I've already succeeded.because what I want to convince.you of, is if you watch the.speakers you admire and feel.are effective,.and ask yourselves.why they're successful,.then you can.build up your own.personal repertoire.and develop your.own personal style..And that's my.fundamental objective,.and the rest of this.talk is about some.of the things that are.in my armamentarium.that I think are effective..So next thing on.our agenda, as we.start to discuss.these other things,.is a discussion.of time and place..So what do you think is a.good time to have a lecture?..11 AM?.Yeah...And the reason is most people.at MIT are awake by then,.and hardly anyone has.gone back to sleep..It's not right after a meal..People aren't fatigued.from this or that..It's a great time.to have a lecture..So that brings me, next,.to the question of what.about the place?.And the most important.thing about the place.is that it be well lit...This room is well lit..Problem with other kinds.of rooms is that we humans,.whenever the lights.go down, or whenever.the room is dimly.lighted, it signals.that we should go to sleep..So whenever I go.somewhere to give a talk,.even today, the.first thing I do when.I speak to the.audio-visual people.is say, keep the lights full up...Oh, they might reply, people.will see the slides better.if we turn the lights.off, and then I reply,.it's extremely hard to see.slides through closed eyelids...What else can you.say about the place?.Well, the place.should be cased, and I.mean that in a colloquial.sense, of like if you're.robbing a bank, you.would go to the bank.some occasions before.to see what it's like,.so there are no surprises.when you do your robbery..So whenever I go.somewhere to speak,.the first thing I ask my host.to do is to take me to the place.where I'll be speaking so that.if there are any weirdnesses,.I'll be able to deal with it..Sometimes, it might.require some intervention..Sometimes, it just might.require me to understand.what the challenges are..So when I came.here this morning,.I did what I typically do..I imagined that.all the seats were.filled with disinterested.farm animals,.and that way, I knew that,.no matter how bad it was,.it wouldn't be as bad as that...So finally, it should.be reasonably--.it should be.reasonably populated...It should be the case that--.if there were 10.people in this hall,.everyone would be.wondering, what's.going on that's so much more.interesting that nobody's here..So you want to get a.right sized place that's--.doesn't have to.be packed, but it.has to be more than half full..So those are some thoughts.about a time and place..Next thing I want to.talk about is a subject.of boards and props and slides...Well, these are the.tools of the trade..I believe that this is the.right tool for speaking.when your purpose is informing..The slides are good when.your purpose is exposing,.but this is what I use when I'm.informing, teaching, lecturing,.and there's several.reasons why I use it..For one thing, when.you use the board,.you have a graphic quality...It's the case that, when.you have a board, then.you can easily exploit the.fact that you can use graphics.in your presentation..So that's the graphic quality.that I like, and the next thing.I like is the speed property...The speed with which you.write on the blackboard.is approximately the speed at.which people can absorb ideas..If you go flipping.through a bunch of slides,.nobody can go that fast...Finally, one great.property of a board.is that it can be a target...Many people who are.novices at speaking.find themselves suddenly.aware of their hands..It's as if their hands were.private parts that shouldn't.be exposed in public, so right.away, they go into the pockets,.and this is considered insulting.in some parts of the world..Or alternatively,.maybe the hands.will go in back like this..I was once in a convent.in Serbia, and my host--.as soon as we entered,.a nun came up to us.and offered us a refreshment..And I was about to.say, no, thank you,.and he said, eat.that stuff or die..It's a question of local.custom and politeness..But then before.anything happened there,.the nun pulled my.hands out like this.because it was extraordinarily.insulting in that culture.to have your hands.behind your back..So why is that?.Well, it's usually.supposed that that's.that it has to do with whether.you're concealing a weapon..So if your hands are in your.pockets or behind your back,.then it looks like you.might have a weapon,.and that's what I.mean by the virtue--.one of these virtues.of the board..Now, you have something.to do with your hands..You can point out the stuff...I was once watching Seymour.Papert give a lecture,.and I thought it was terrific..So I went a second time--.first time to absorb.the content, second time.to note style..And what I discovered is.that Papert was constantly.pointing at the board..And then I thought.about it a little while,.and I noted that none of.the stuff he was pointing to.had anything to do with.what he was saying...Nevertheless, it was.an effective technique...So that's just a little.bit about the virtue.of blackboards..Now, I want to talk about props..The custodians of.knowledge about props.are the playwrights..Many decades ago, I saw.a play by Henrik Ibsen..It was Hedda Gabler..I remember vaguely that it was.about a woman in an unhappy.marriage, and her husband was in.competition for an academic job.with somebody else..And he was going to lose.partly because he was boring,.and partly because the.competitor had just.written a magnificent book..By the way, this.is back in the days.before there were copying.machines and computers..Anyhow, as the play opens,.there's a potbellied stove,.and in the beginning.of the play,.the potbelly stove,.with its open door,.just has some slightly.glowing embers..But the potbellied.stove is always there,.and as tension.mounts in the play,.and you see this.manuscript, this.prop that Ibsen so artfully.used, you just know.that something's.going to happen,.because as the play goes on,.the fire gets bigger and hotter.and finally all.consuming, and you just.know that that manuscript is.going to go into that fire..This memorable thing is what.I remember about the play..So playwrights have got.this all figured out,.but on the other hand,.they're not the only people.who can use props..Here's an example of.the use of a prop, also.due to Seymour Papert..He was talking about how.it's important to look.at the problem in the.right way, and here's.an example that not only teaches.that, but makes it possible.for you to embarrass.your friends.in mechanical engineering..So here's what you do..Take a bicycle wheel, and.you start it spinning..And then you put some.torque on the axle,.or equivalently, you.blow on the edge..And the issue is,.does it go that way,.or does it go that way?.Now, the mechanical engineers.will immediately say, oh, yes,.I see-- right hand screw wheel..And they'll put their.fingers in this position,.but forget exactly how.to align their fingers.with the various.aspects of the problem..And so it's usually the.case that they get it right.with about a 50% probability..So their very fancy.education gets them up.to the point where they're.equivalent to flipping a coin..But it doesn't.have to be that way.because you can think about the.problem a little differently..So here's what you do..You take some duct.tape, and you put it.around the part of.the wheel like that..And now, you start to think.about, not the whole wheel,.but just a little piece that's.underneath the duct tape..So here, that piece comes.rolling over the top,.and at this point, you blow.on it with a puff of air..Forgetting about the.rest of the wheel,.what happens to that.little piece that's.under the duct tape?.It must want to go.that way because you.banged on it like that..It's already going.down like that..And what about the next piece?.Same thing..Next piece?.Same thing..So the only thing.that can happen.is that the wheel.goes over like that..And so now, you'll.never wonder again.because you're thinking about.the problem in the right way,.and it's demonstrated.by the use of a prop...You can try this.after we're done...Another example I.like to remember.is one from when.I was taking 8.01..Alan Lazarus was the.instructor at the time,.and he was talking about the.conservation of energy, kinetic.and potential..And there was a long wire in.a ceiling in 26-100 attached.to a much bigger.steel ball, but one--.not one like this..And Lazarus took the ball up.against the wall like this..He put his head flat against.the wall to steady himself,.and then he let go,.and the pendulum.takes many seconds.to go over and back,.and then gently.kisses Lazarus's nose..And so you have many.seconds to think,.this guy really believes in.the conservation of energy...Do not try this at home..The problem is that, the.first time you do this,.you may not just let go..There's a natural.human tendency to push...So that's a little bit.on a subject of props...It's interesting..Whenever surveys are taken,.students always say more chalk,.less PowerPoint..And why would that be?.Props are also very effective..Why would that be?.I'll give you my lunatic.fringe view on this..It has to do with what I would.call empathetic mirroring..When you're sitting up there.watching me write on the board,.all those little mirror neurons.in your head, I believe,.become actuated, and.you can feel yourself.writing on the blackboard..And even more so, when I talk.about this steel ball going.that way and this way,.you can feel the ball.as if you were me, and you.can't do that with a slide..You can't do it with a picture..You need to see it in.the physical world..That's why I think that--.oh, yes, of course, it's--.there are speed.questions involved, too,.that have to be separated out..But I think the.empathetic mirroring.is why props and the use of a.blackboard are so effective..Well, let's see-- oh, yes,.there is one more thing.by way of the.tools, and that has.to do with the use of slides...I repeat, I think they're.for exposing ideas,.not for teaching ideas, but.that's what we do in a job talk.or conference talk--.expose ideas..We don't teach them..So let me tell you a little.bit about my views on that...I remember, once, I was in.Terminal A at Logan Airport..I'd just come back from a.really miserable conference,.and the flight was.really horrible..It was one of those that feels.like an unbalanced washing.machine..And for the only.time in my life,.I decided to stop on my way to.my car and have a cup of coffee.and relax a little bit..And as I was there for a few.minutes, someone came up to me.and said, are you.Professor Winston?.I think so, I said..I don't know..I guess I was.trying to be funny..In any event, he said,.I'm on my way to Europe.to give a job talk..Would you mine.critiquing my slides?.Not at all, I said..You have too many, and.they have too many words..How did you know, he.said, thinking perhaps I.had seen a talk of his before..I hadn't..My reply was, because.it's always true..There are always too many.slides, always too many words..So let me show you some extreme.examples of how not to use.slides...Well, for this demonstration,.I need to be way over here.and when I get over here, then.I can start to say things like,.one of the things you shouldn't.do is read your transparencies..People in your audience.know how to read,.and reading will.just annoy them..Also, you should.be sure that you.have only a few words.on each transparency,.and that the words.are easy to read..And I hope I'm driving.you crazy because I'm.committing all kinds of.crimes, the first of which.is that there are too.many words on the slide..Second of which is,.I'm way over there,.and the slide's way over there..So you get into this.tennis match feeling.of shifting back and.forth between the slide.and the speaker..You want the slides to.be condiments to what.you're saying, not the main.event or the opposite way.around..So how can we fix this?.Step number one is to get.rid of the background junk..That's always distraction..Step number two is to.get rid of the words..When I reduced the.words to these,.then everything I.read a previous time,.I'm not licensed to say,.because it's not on the slide..I'm not reading.my slides anymore,.but I'm saying what was.written on the slides.in a previous example..So what else can we.do to simplify this?.Well, we can get.rid of the logos..We don't need them..Simplification..What else can we do?.Get rid of the title..Now, I want to talk to you.about some rules for slide.preparation..I'm telling you the title..It doesn't have to be up there..By reducing the number.of words on the slide,.I'm allowing you to pay.more attention to me.and less to what's.written on the slide..I mentioned it before--.we-- have only one language.processor, and we can.either use it to read stuff.or to listen to the speaker..And so if we have too.many words on the slide,.it forces people in the.audience to read this stuff.and not listen...A student of mine did an.experiment a few years ago..He taught some students some.web-based programming ideas..Half the information was on.slides, he said the other half,.and then for a control.group, he reversed it..And the question was,.what did the subjects--.that is to say, freshmen.at his fraternity--.what did the subjects.remember best, what he said,.or what they read on the slide?.And the answer is, what.they read on the slide..When their slides have.a lot of material on it,.they don't pay attention.to the speaker..In fact, in the after action.report, one of the subjects.said, I wish you.hadn't talked so much..It was distracting...Well, the last item.is eliminate clutter..Here's some clutter..No reason even.for those bullets..So the too many words.problem is a consequence.of a crime Microsoft.has committed.by allowing you to use.fonts that are too small..So you should all have.a sample slide like this.that you can use to determine.what the minimum font.size is that's easily legible..[INAUDIBLE],, what do.you think of those?.AUDIENCE: Which size is right?.PATRICK WINSTON: What's that?.AUDIENCE: Did you ask.me what size is right?.PATRICK WINSTON:.Yeah, minimum, maybe..AUDIENCE: 40 or 50..PATRICK WINSTON: Yeah,.he says 40 or 50..I think that's about right..35 is beginning to get.too small, not necessarily.because you can't read it,.but because you're probably.using it to get too.many words on the slide...What other crimes do we have?.Well, we have the.laser pointer crime..And for that-- in.the old days, when.we didn't have laser.pointers, we used wooden ones,.and people would go waving.these things around..And pretty soon it became almost.like a baton twirling contest,.so here's what I.recommended in the old days.for dealing with.this kind of pointer...This is an example.of use of a prop...Jim Glass up there saw this.talk about 20 years ago,.and said, oh, yeah,.I remember that talk..That's the one where.you broke the pointer..It's amazing how.props tend to be.the things that are remembered..Well, now, we don't have.physical pointers anymore..We've got laser pointers..It's a wonder more people aren't.driven into epileptic fits.over this sort of stuff..Well, here's what.tends to happen..Look at that..It's a lovely recursive picture,.and I can become part of it.by putting that laser beam.right on the back of my head.up there...Then what do you see?.You see the back of my head..I have no eye contact,.no engagement, nothing..I was sitting with a student.watching a talk one day,.and she said, you know.what, we could all leave,.and he wouldn't know...So what happens when.you use a laser pointer?.You can't use a laser pointer.without turning your head.and pointing it at something,.and when you do that,.you lose contact.with the audience..You don't want to do it..So what do you do if you.need to identify something.in your image,.and you don't want.to point at it with a laser?.This is what you do..Put a little arrow.on there and say,.now, look at that guy at.the end of arrow number one..You don't need to have.laser pointer to do that...The too-heavy.crime-- when people.ask me to review.a presentation, I.ask them to print it out.and lay it out on a table...When they do that, it's easy.to see whether the talk is.too heavy, too much.text, not enough air, not.enough white space,.not enough imagery..This is a good example.of such a talk--.way too heavy..The presenter has taken.advantage of a small font sizes.to get as much on the.slide as he wanted...Lots of other crimes here,.but the too-heavy-- the fact.that it's too heavy is what.I wanted to illustrate..So here, by contrast,.another talk--.one I gave a few years ago..It's not-- it wasn't a.deeply technical talk,.but I show it to you.because there's air in it..It's mostly pictures of things..There are three or four.slides that have text on them,.but when I come to those, I give.the audience time to read them..And they're there.because they might have.some historical significance..The first slide with.a lot of text on it.is an extraction from the 1957--.from the proposal for the 1957.AI conference at Dartmouth..Extraordinarily.interesting event,.and that historical.extraction from the proposal.helps drive that point home..What else have we got here?.Oh, yeah, your vocabulary.word for the day..This is an hapax legomenon..What that means is, this.is the kind of slide.you can get away with exactly.once in your presentation..This is a slide that got.some currency some years.ago because it shows the.complexity of governing.in Afghanistan by showing.how impossibly complex it is..It's something you in the.audience can't understand,.and that's the point, but.you can't have many of these..You can have one per work,.one per presentation,.one per paper, one per book..That's what hapax legomenon is,.and this is an example of it...Well, I've shown.you some crimes..So you might be asking, do.these crimes actually occur?.So they do..[LAUGHTER].There's the hands in.the pockets crime...There's a crime and time.and place selection here..This is how you get.to the Bartos Theater..First thing you do is.you get on these steps.over at the Media Lab, then you.cross this large open space,.then you turn right.down this corridor..[LAUGHTER].At this point,.whenever I go in there,.I wonder if there are torture.implements around the corner..[LAUGHTER].And then when you.get in there, you.get into this.dark, gloomy place..So it's well named when they.call it the Bartos Theater.because it's a place where.you can watch a movie,.but it's not a place.where you can give a talk...Now, on a subject.of does it happen,.here's a talk I attended.a while back in Stata..Notice that the speaker is.far away from the slides..Speaker's using a laser pointer..And you say to me, well,.what's happening here?.It's, by the way,.the 80th - 80th!.slide of the presentation..Notice that it extends.with the words,.this is the first of.10 conclusions slides..[LAUGHTER].So what's the audience reaction?.That's the sponsor.of the meeting..[LAUGHTER].He's reading his email..This is the co-sponsor.of the meeting..He's examining the lunch menu..[LAUGHTER].What about this person?..This person looks like.he's paying attention,.but just because.it's a still picture..If you were to see a.video, what you would see.is something like this [YAWNS]..[LAUGHTER].So yeah, it does happen..Well, now, that's a.quick review of tools..Now, I want to talk.about some special cases...We could talk a little.bit about the informing.or to say another way,.doing what I'm doing now..But I'll just say a.few words about that..In that kind of.presentation, you.want to start with a promise.like I did for this hour.that we're going through now..And then it comes.to the question.of how do you inspire people?.I've given this talk.for a long time,.and a few years ago,.our department chairman.said, would you please give.this talk to a new faculty,.and be sure to emphasize what.it takes to inspire students..And strangely, I hadn't thought.about that question before..So I started a survey..I'd talked to some of my.incoming freshmen advisees,.and I talked to senior.faculty and everything.in between about how.they've been inspired..What I found from.the incoming freshmen.is that they were inspired by.some high school teacher who.told them they could do it..What I found in.the senior faculty,.they were inspired.by someone who.helped them see a.problem in a new way..And what I saw from everyone.is that they were inspired when.someone exhibited passion.about what they were doing,.exhibited passion about.what they were doing..So that's one way.to be inspiring..It's easy for me because I.do artificial intelligence..And how can you.not be interested.in artificial intelligence?.[LAUGHTER].I mean, if you're not interested.in artificial intelligence,.you're probably not interested.in interesting things...So when I'm lecturing in my.AI class, it's natural for me.to talk about what.I think is cool.and how exciting.some new idea is..So that's the kind of.expression of passion.that makes a difference.while informing with respect.to this question of inspiring...Oh, yeah and of course,.during this promise phase,.you can also express.how cool stuff is..Let me give you an example of.a lecture that starts this way..I'm talking about.resource allocation..It's the same sort of stuff.you would think of when your--.it's the same sort.of ideas you would.need if you're allocating.aircraft to a flight schedule.or trying to schedule a.factory or something like that..But the example.is putting colors.on the states in.the United States.without any bordering states.having the same color..So here it goes...This is what I show at the.beginning of the class..This is a way of.doing that coloring..And you might say, well, why.don't we wait till it finishes?.Would you like to do that?.No?.Well, we're not going.to wait till it finishes.because the sun will have.exploded and consumed the earth.before this program finishes..[LAUGHTER].But with a slight adjustment.to how the program works, which.I tell my students you will.understand in the next 50.minutes, this is what you get...Isn't that cool?..You got to be.amazed by stuff that.takes a computation from.longer than the lifetime.of the solar system.into a few seconds..So that's what I mean by.providing a promise upfront.and expressing some.passion about what.you're talking about..Well, the last item.in this little block.here is it has to.do with what people.think that they do it at MIT..You ask faculty what the.most important purpose is,.and they'll say, well, the.most important thing I do.is teach people how to think..And then you say.oh, that's great..How do you teach.people how to think?.Blank stare...No one can quite.respond to that part,.that natural next question..So how do you teach.people how to think?.Well, I believe that we.are storytelling animals..And that we start.developing our story,.understanding and.manipulating skills.with fairy tales in.childhood and continue on.through professional schools.like law, business, medicine,.everything..And we continue doing.that throughout life..So if that is what.thinking is all about..And we want to teach.people how to think,.you provide them with the.stories they need to know,.the questions they need to.ask about those stories,.mechanisms for.analyzing those stories,.ways of putting.stories together,.ways of evaluating how.reliable a story is..And that's what I think you.need to do when you teach people.how to think..But that's all about education..And many of you here.are not necessarily.for that, but rather.for this part,.for persuading, which breaks.down into several categories,.oral exams, not shown,.shop talks, getting famous..I won't say much about oral.exams other than the fact.that they used to be a lot.scarier than they are today..In the old days,.reading the literature.in a foreign language.was a part of that..And there was a.high failure rate..And when you look back.on those failures,.the most usual reason for.people failing an oral exam.is failure to situate and.a failure to practice..By situate, I mean,.it's important to talk.about your research in context..This is a problem that's being.pursued all over the world..There hasn't been any progress.before me in the past 30 years..Everyone is looking.for a solution.because it will.have impact on so.many other things, such.situating and time and place.and feel..And then as far as.practice is concerned, yes,.practice is important..But that doesn't mean showing.your slides to the people.you share an with..The problem with that is that if.people know what you're doing,.they will hallucinate.that there's.material in your.presentation that isn't there.if it isn't there..A variation on the.scene, by the way,.is your faculty supervisor.is not a very good person.to help you debug a talk.because they, in fact, know.what you're doing..And they will, in.fact, hallucinate.there's material in your.presentation that isn't there..So you need to get together.with some friends who.don't know what you're.doing and have them--.well, you start the.practice session by saying,.if you can't make me cry,.I won't value as a friend.anymore..[LAUGHTER].And then when you get to.the faculty on a oral exam,.it will be easy..You see, difficulty--.the amount of flak.you'll get from somebody.is proportional to age..The older somebody.is, the more they.understand where they.are in the world..But the young people are.trying to show the old people.how smart they are, so.it's subtly vicious..So whenever you.have an opportunity.to have an examining.committee that's.full of people with gray.hair, that's what you want..Well, that's just a word.or two about something.I haven't listed here..Let's get into the.subject of job talks..So I was sitting in a bar.many years ago in San Diego..I was a member of the.Navy Science Board,.and I was sitting with a couple.of my colleagues on the board.Delores Etter from the.University of Colorado..She made me so jealous I could.spit because she'd written 21.books, and I'd only written 17..And then the other.one was Bill Weldon.from the University of Texas..He was an electromagnetism.guy, and he.knew how to use rail guns to.drive steel rods through tank.armor..These were interesting people..So I said, what do you look.for in a faculty candidate?.And within one.microsecond, Delores.said, they have.to show us they've.got some kind of vision, quickly.followed by Bill who said,.they have to show us that.they've done something...Oh, that sounds good, I said..And then I said.to them, how long.does a candidate have to.establish these two things?.What do you think?.Well, compare your.answer to theirs...Five minutes..So if you haven't.expressed your vision,.if you haven't told people that.you've done something in five.minutes, you've already lost..So you have to be.able to do that..And let me just mention a couple.of things in that connection..Here, the vision is.in part, a problem.that somebody cares about and.something new in your approach...So the problem is.understanding the nature.of human intelligence..And the approach.is asking questions.about what makes us.different from chimpanzees.and Neanderthals..Is it merely a.matter of quantity,.or we're just a little bit.smarter in some continuous way?.Or do we have something.that's fundamentally different.that chimpanzees don't have.and Neanderthals either?.And the answer is yes, we.do have something different..We are symbolic creatures..And because we're.symbolic creatures,.we can build.symbolic descriptions.of relations and events..We can string them.together and make stories..And because we can make stories,.that's what makes us different..So that's my stump speech..That's how I start.most of my talks.on my own personal research..How do you express the notion.that you've done something?.By listing the steps that need.to be taken in order to achieve.the solution to that problem..You don't have to have.done all of those steps..But you can say here's.what needs to be done..An example, here's.what needs to be done..We need to specify.some behavior..We need to enumerate.the constraints that.make it possible to.deal with that behavior..We have to implement a system.because we're engineers,.and we don't think that.we've understood something.unless we can build it..And we've built such.a system, and we're.about to demonstrate.it to you today..That would be an example of.enumerating a series of steps.needed to realize the vision..So then blah, blah, blah,.blah, blah, blah, blah, blah..And then you conclude by--.you conclude by enumerating.your contributions...It's kind of mirror.of these steps..And it helps to establish.that you've done something..So that's a kind of.general purpose framework.for doing a technical talk..Now, only a few more.things left to do today..Getting famous is the.next item on our agenda.because once you've.got the job, you.need to think a.little bit about how.you're going to be.recognized for what you do..So oh, first of all, why should.you care about getting famous?.I thought about.this in connection.with a fundraising.event I attended.once, a fundraising.event for raising money.to save Venice from going under.water and having all of its art.destroyed..Anyway, I was sitting here,.and JC was sitting here..That was Julia, the.late Julia Child...And as the evening wore.on, more and more people.would come up and ask Julia.to autograph something.or express a feeling that.she had changed their life..And it just happened.over and over again..So eventually, I turned to.Julia, and I said, Ms. Child,.is it fun to be famous?.And she thought about.it for a second..And she said, you.get used to it..[LAUGHTER].But you know what occured to me?.You never get used.to being ignored..So it's-- here's a.way to think about it..Your ideas are.like your children..And you don't want them to.go into the world in rags..So what you want.to do is to be sure.that you have these.techniques, these mechanisms,.these thoughts about how to.present ideas that you have so.that they're recognized for.the value that is in them..So that's why it's a legitimate.thing to concern yourself.with packaging..Now, how do you get remembered?.Well, there's something I.like to call Winston's star..And every one of the items.I'm about to articulate starts.with an S. So if you want.your presentation ideas.to be remembered, one of.the things you need to do.is to make sure that you have.some kind of symbol associated.with your work..So this arch example is.actually from my PhD thesis.many, many years ago..And in the course of.my work at that time,.this work on arch learning.became mildly famous,.and I didn't know why..It was only many years.later that I realized.that that work accidentally.had all of the elements.on this star..So the first element is that.there was a kind of symbol..It's the arch itself...Next thing you need is.some kind of slogan,.a kind of phrase that.provides a handle on the work..And in this case, the phrase.was one shot learning...And it was one shot.because the program I wrote.learned something definite.from every example that.was presented to us..So in going from a model.based on this configuration.to something that isn't an arch.base on that configuration,.the program learned that.it has to be on top,.one shot learning..So that's a symbol, slogan..And now we need a surprise...Yeah, the surprise is you.don't need a million examples.of something to learn..You can do it with.one example if you're.smart enough to make use of.that example appropriately..So that was the surprise..You can learn something.definite from each example..Next item was a salient idea...Now, when I say salient.idea, I don't mean important..What I mean is an.idea that sticks out...Some theses, funnily enough,.have too many good ideas,.and you don't know what it's all.about because which one is it?.So you need an idea.that sticks out..And the idea that stuck out here.was the notion of a near miss...You see, this is not an arch,.but it doesn't miss by much..So it's a near miss..And finally, you need.to tell the story.of how you did it, how it.works, why it's important..So that's a bit on how to.not so much get famous,.but how to ensure that.your work is recognized..Well, we're almost.finished because now we're.down to this last item,.which is how to stop..And when we come.to that, there's.a question of all right,.well, what is the final slide?..And what are the final words?..So for the final.slide, let me give you.some examples of possibilities...How about this one?..Well, you might see that.slide and think to yourself,.there are 1,000 faculty at MIT..Nice piece of work,.but not so much,.but it's only a tiny piece of.work if you divide by 1,000..So when you show a whole.gigantic list of collaborators.at the end of a talk,.it's a kind of let down.because it suggests.that nobody knows..Well, did you do.anything significant?.Now, you've got to recognize.your collaborators, right?.So where do you do that?.Not on the last slide,.on the first slide..All this was on the first slide..These are the.collaborators, so you don't.want to put them at the end..You don't want a.slide like this...How about this one?.This is the worst possible.way to end a talk..[LAUGHTER].Because this slide can be.up there for 20 minutes..I've seen it happen..It squanders real estate..It squanders an opportunity.to tell people who you are..It's just--..What about this one?..I often see it..I never see anybody.write it down..Also, it wastes opportunity...Oh my God, even worse...All of these lines.do nothing for you..They waste an opportunity.for you to tell people--.to leave people with what you--.with who you are..Well, what about this?.Is this a good one?.It might seem so at first,.but here's the problem...If you say these.are my conclusions,.these are perfectly.legitimate conclusions.that nobody cares about..What they care about.is what you have done..And that's why your.final slide should.have this label, contributions..It's a mirror of what I said.over there about how job talks.ought to be like a sandwich..And the final slide,.the one that's.up there while people are.asking questions and filing out,.it ought to be the one that.has your contributions on it..Here's an example from.my own stump speech..Yeah, this is what.I talk about a lot..Yes, here are the things.that I typically demonstrate...And I wait for.people to read it..And the final element there is.this is what we get out of it,.so that's an example of.a contribution slide..All right, now, what.about the other part?.You got your final.slide up there..It's a contribution slide..Somehow you have to tell.people you're finished..So let's see it, check.out a few possibilities...One thing you could.do in the final words.is you could tell a joke...It's OK..By the time you're done,.people have adjusted themselves.to your voice parameters..They're ready for a joke...I was sitting in another bar,.this time in Austin, Texas.with a colleague of.mine named Doug Lenat..And Doug's a fantastic speaker..And so I said to.Doug, Doug, you're.a fantastic speaker,.what's your secret?.And he said, oh, I always.finish with a joke,.and that way, people think.they've had fun the whole time..[LAUGHTER].So yeah, a joke will.work down there..How about this one?..Thank you...I don't recommend it..It's a weak move..You will not go to.hell if you conclude.your talk by saying thank.you, but it's a weak move,.and here's why..When you say thank you, even.worse, thank you for listening,.it suggests that.everybody has stayed.that long out of politeness and.that they had a profound desire.to be somewhere else..But they're so polite,.they stuck it out..And that's what you're.thanking them for..So once wild.applause has started,.you can mouth a thank.you, and there's.nothing wrong with that..But the last thing you do.should not be saying thank you..Now, you say to me, well,.doesn't everybody say.thank you?.Well, what everybody does is.not necessarily the right thing..And I like to illustrate.how some talks can.end without saying thank you..I like to draw from.political speeches,.but the ones that I've heard.recently aren't so good, so--.[LAUGHTER].So I'm going to have to.go go back a little bit..So here is Governor Christie..He gave the Republican.keynote address one year..This is the end of his talk..Let's see what he does..[APPLAUSE].CHRIS CHRISTIE: And together,.everybody, together..We will stand up once again.for American greatness.for our children.and grandchildren..God bless you, and.God bless America..[APPLAUSE].PATRICK WINSTON: So that's a.classic benediction ending..God bless you,.God bless America..Now, I don't want to.be partisan about this..So I think I'd better switch.to the keynote address.in the Democratic Convention..It was delivered that year.by Bill Clinton, who knows.something about how to speak..[APPLAUSE].BILL CLINTON: If that.is what you want,.if that is what you.believe, you must vote,.and you must re-elect.President Barack Obama..God bless you, and.God bless America..[APPLAUSE].[LAUGHTER]..PATRICK WINSTON:.Now, watch this..Let's go back a little.bit and redo it..What I want you to see.is that at one point,.he seems to be almost pressing.his lips together, forcing.himself not to say thank you..Then there's another place.where he does a little salute..So watch for those.this time around..[APPLAUSE].BILL CLINTON: If that.is what you want,.if that is what you.believe, you must vote,.and you must re-elect.President Barack Obama..God bless you., and.God bless America..[APPLAUSE].PATRICK WINSTON: That's.where he's pursing his lips..[LAUGHTER].There's the salute..[LAUGHTER].Yeah, I think.that's pretty good..Now, what are we gonna.take away from this?.Well, I suppose I could conclude.this talk by saying God bless.you, and God bless the.Massachusetts Institute.of Technology, but it.might not work so well..But what you can.get out of this is.you don't have to say thank you..There are other.things you can do..And it's interesting that over.time, people figure this out,.and there's some stock.ways of ending things..So in the Catholic church,.and the good old Latin mass,.it ended with ite.missa est, which.translates approximately.to OK, the mass is over,.you can go home now..[LAUGHTER].And of course, at.musical concerts,.you know that it's time to clap.not at the end of the song,.but rather when the conductor.goes over and shakes hands.with the concert master..Those are conventions that tell.you that the event is over...So those are all.possibilities for here..But one more.possibility, and that.is that you can.salute the audience..And by that, I mean,.you can say something.about how much you value.your time at a place..So I could say, well, it's.been great fun being here..It's been fascinating to see.what you folks are doing here.at MIT..I've been much.stimulated and provoked.by the kinds of questions.you've been asking,.it's been really great..And I look forward.to coming back.on many occasions in the future..So that salutes the audience..You can do that...Well, there it is..You know what?.I'm glad you're here..And the reason is.by being here, I.think you have demonstrated.an understanding.that how you present and how.you package your ideas is.an important thing..And I salute you for that..[LAUGHTER] And I suggest that.you come back again and bring.your friends..[APPLAUSE]..

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What does a grade of P mean?

Some classes are just recorded as Pass or Fail, rather than having a grade assigned to them. In this case, a P means passing. In other circumstances, the grades might be Failing/Needs Improvement/Proficient/Advanced, in which case the P would mean proficient. There may be other grading metrics that use P as one of the options, but these are the two that I see most frequently.

What is a pass in York University?

Geometry~basic names for shapes Psychology~defense mechanisms Geography~ commonly known exports Vocabulary~synonyms & use the word in a sentence, & correct spelling gets extra credit, i.e, bucolic, resistant, resultant Biology~chromosomes Science~space exploration mathematics~algebra, trigonometry, and calculus English~literature; American and British Home Economics~ meaurements in cooking History~world Physical Education~ rules of rugby, lacrosse, hockey, polo Spelling~word origins and definitions Computer Science~systems analysis Business~accounting Drama~screenplay writing Music~piano playi Continue Reading

Is D+ A passing grade in college?

When I went to college you needed at least a 2.0 to graduare. A “C" is a 2.0. A “D" is a 1.0. The idea is to balance “D"’s with “B"’s. A “D" is passing. No need to repeat the class. Too many D's may flunk you out. Try to get lots of B's freshman year.

What does an INC grade mean?

It means you can still makeup whatever test or exam you missed for an accepted reason such as medical or family emergency absence and complete your course.

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