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welcome you to the seminar this is our.warrant lecture that dedicated to our.colleague who passed away a number of.years ago professor Robert Dexter who.was really a leader in the area of steel.structures as part of today's ceremony.to are going to be recognizing our.scholarship recipients for the Dexter.scholarship at the end of the.presentation but before that it gives me.great pleasure to introduce our speaker.jamon wine from the University of.California San Diego it's been a faculty.member at UCSD for a number of years.early in his career he was a professor.at Northeastern University he's a leader.in the seismic design of steel.structures large-scale testing.recognized for his work on codes and.just the expanding the knowledge of.steel structures he's the recipient of.numerous awards including the ASCE.Raymond Ries award the most eff award.twice in addition he was recognized in.2007 with a very special award from a.ASC for being a leader for his.contributions in both the research and.steel structures and for his service.efforts and so he also gave an excellent.presentation this morning very bad.students one of the best that I think.we've had in a nutshell seismic design.and 50 minutes covering them really the.crux have the nature of what's behind.the theory it was just excellent so I'm.really looking forward to your.presentation this afternoon.and thank you so much for being here.today thank you.it is my great pleasure to be the.speaker of today's rubber texture.memoria lecture and in today's.presentation I would like to share with.you my understanding of the seismic.design of stair building structures in.the US and I would like to to review.what happens in the past half a century.it was about a five month ago that that.AAC stone of structural engineering.publishes a paper that I co-authored.with the professor.from the University of Buffalo on the.state of art on seismic design of steel.structures.and my presentation is more less.beautiful the paper that we published.that was for to celebrate the 60th.anniversary of the tune of structure.engineering so in my presentation Eric.to divide the development of the US as.mix deities I code into three eras okay.into three era the first era started.about half a century ago that was in the.in the 60s when high strength bolts and.the wording became available instead of.using the rivet in all days it was also.at a time that the present design was.well established and the professor.Columbus were play a very very important.role for the development of the plastic.design procedures at Lehigh University.okay so in that design method even.though that method was not used nowadays.because the method was cured by computer.according to Professor Columbus that.that method plays a very important role.for the development of seismic design.code in the u.s. in that procedure in.that a methodology that activity concept.was emphasized but that president main.method was not for cyclic loading for.earthquake it was many for on the top.mountain on tonic type of loading win.the load and the gravity load is how I.view that is the start of the first era.what happened at that time for seismic.design on the west coast California for.example we use the Uniform Building Code.okay not not at the International.Building Code or as sc7.as we know now so called a uniform.building code in that code or hair is.divided into loading provisions and they.also give the design engineers.requirement on the material side this.provisions in UBC was many based on the.so called Blue Book which is a.recommendation provided by the ciock.structure Engineers Association of.California since then that cold kept.updated every three years until 1985.that was about the end of the first era.okay so let's look at the death 1985.unifrom Building Code to see what was.done at that time first of all it tells.the design engineers how to computer.earthquake load at that time we were.using the allowable stress or working.stress design method so you can see that.the best year V sub W the working stress.design was in this form you can see.there this the weight of the building.the same as what we're doing nowadays.but here there are several parameters.each parameter does not have a physical.meaning but the product is about right.so it's very very empirical that's how.we develop a Zonda the engineers in the.early days they have a very very good.feeling based on the observations from.earthquake damage then they came up with.data formula okay so no physical meaning.so it that kind is one important factor.that's called a K factor this nut has.nothing to do with the effective length.factor that the character is is a system.performance factor and the there are.four number four values you can see that.okay those are the K you know the lower.decay.the lower the seismic design you need to.be designed that means if you have a.better system for earthquake resistance.for energy dissipation then you can use.elope dissipation and it go from point.six seven and Tier one point three three.that's what we did in all days.you read the so called the first error.and also the material side right that is.a loading side telling us how to.determine the earthquake load on the.material side I'm using the money frame.as an example.okay mobile frame was.view as a very very good system such.that the K has a very low value okay let.reflect that the engineers view they.believe this system is very very good.and that the requirement regarding the.connection design you can use design it.says all you need to develop the full.plastic capacity of the pin so engineers.usually we go to the plastic design.provisions and then for fully plastic.capacity or we just don't have the year.stress nominal year stress matter right.by the plastic section modulus for those.of you who - says me design knows now we.introduce more factor to it but that is.what we did in the old days in all days.and there also off to control the.buckling of the beams or there some.requirement because we do not have too.much research on seismic design so UBC.says oh you just go to the press the.design in ASE even though that code is.not intended for seismic design so we.just follow the rectory from non-plastic.design that is what we did in no days.here okay so you can see that the press.design was first interviewed introduced.in 58 1958 so in 1969 here they have.some requirement and giving you one.example on how do we control local.buckling so in the ASC code for.president I give us Tiffany oldest the.ear strength of the steer then the so.called the width thickness ratio of the.French cannot exceed the certain number.there is a purely for from press design.and if you produce data points and to.compare to the formula that we use.nowadays you can see actually our modern.seismic hold is strongly still strongly.influenced by the seismic by the plastic.design requirement okay so but this is.one problem right as I mentioned to you.the press design is formed monotonic.loading yet seismic design is for cyclic.loading here I'm showing you one of the.specimen a beam column specimen we test.it okay for this member.the b-24 member that represents story.drift okay with the presence of an extra.load that has a CA value equal to point.two that is about point about eighteen.percent of the extra load applied to the.column and they then we start securing.the column back in the fourth that can.be small 18 feet long and you can see on.the monotonic loading this is you can.see the yielding but compared to the one.of the secretary loading you see far.more yielding on the secretary loading.and you can see the significant buckling.okay that shows the effect of the.monotonic loading and the cyclic loading.chef Bruce friend because priapic on so.the UPC says old now you have to design.for a larger load so K value is higher.is higher and he also says all members.need to be designed for 25% more of the.25% more of that design earthquake load.is compared to the moment frame because.we know the police or Paco is not very.very tactile he also says the.connections you also need to develop the.full capacity of the member which is.very similar to the what we what is.required for the moment frames as I said.we Paulo france-presse every design.requirement even though it's for.monotonic loading but it was around at.the time that some researchers started.to do the cyclic loading research for.earthquake applications seismic his.applications and at the University of.California there was many time by.professor Popov he stopped studying the.cycling effect of beams.column connections and essentially.operates frame it so forth and this is.the some of his early walk it can.deliver beam and the secretary for this.how we started studying realized the.importance of cyclic loading and at the.University of Michigan that professor.Korea and the professor Hanson also.started doing police behavior under.secretary rody lettuce.but I know of the early research.development in the United States and you.can see that the member sizes is one.inch by one inch very very small that.was in early days they use more reduced.scale model for the psychic attesting to.the limitation of the testing facilities.but it was several decades ago nowadays.over never to these small sized people.people will not believe in the result.okay there's a one major difference but.that is what was happened in the old.days so called the first era there sit.in the era of started in 1988 ok the.uniform building code again this edition.88 has the size been rotating provisions.and the material provisions now let's.see why I Casa Phi that it's part of the.second era so now let's first look at.the seismic a loading port size me.loading part you may remember we used to.use this empirical formula okay each one.does not have too much physical meaning.this is the best year coefficient.instead we convert to this format we.come to the numerator is the elastic.design earthquake load if your structure.were to remain elastic but but based on.the concept that we have the regarding.the ductility that will help to reduce.the earthquake load so UPC 8888 you BC.after the using the K factor we use a.large number a sub W in the denominator.to reduced earthquake load this oughta.be factored that W okay this our tablet.W means for working stress design.nowadays we use our with our W.but in the second area we use this R sub.W so also W is very large we know the R.can be as high as eight but the four.working stress design.the S&P table you can be as high as turf.and we can roughly convert the k-factor.an art of effective effector by these by.this are by this formula okay so this.one to some extent it's also a direct.conversion from the K factor which is.also empirical in nature in written in.nature so this is the formula and you.can see that the page here is a function.of the period and so we know now okay.this is not true it's just mentioned to.you and that this of the vector was.influenced by another very important.documents are called ATC three or six at.that time that the document proposed to.use them our factor four strands design.but the engineers were not ready they.don't want to give up on allowable.stress design they don't to give up this.reason why that UPC still use the.working stress design and they use R sub.W okay that is the start of the second.error and the awesome W in this figure.that it shows clearly what is the.concept if this structural were to.remain elastic then what I'm showing.here is the plot that is a pastry ratio.and it is a storage drift if the.structure were to be main let's take it.has to be designed for very large.earthquake load okay partner because we.know the structures of a nicely designed.structure has the tactility and also has.a redundancy the socket over strength so.code allows us to reduce that a very.large force to a very low level called.this point for a court-appointed W for.working stress design and this is the.other key factor but the nowadays we use.are so we actually reduce to this point.where the first press hinge formation is.expected there's a difference between R.and R sub W but the concept remains the.same.okay we reduce the earthquake load.assuming that we have the activity and.the system over strength in the speed.into the system okay so here that you.can see that I mentioned the season over.strength and also the differentiation.verification was also enthused this is.the first time we have this one.but many of you are familiar with that.deflection amplification factor C sub D.as we use nowadays and also the system.over strength or make a knot that is in.the AC seven okay that the photograph we.know days but during the setting area.within I use those coefficient instead.we use this metric number 3/8 of the R.sub W it's the amplification factor.suppose season over strength and.diffraction amplification so that is a.factor but it intends there okay before.that we never improvise a node.okay we never considered a system of a.strength factor so you can see with that.a 3/8 RW it can be very large it's four.point five four point five is already at.that time in nineteen eighty eight is.already impact to the engineers you know.there have been performing the.earthquake analysis now officer then you.attending engineer when you check the.common actual load you have to increase.that earthquake load in the column by a.factor of four point five that was a big.shock at that time okay but now we.continue use the system over strength to.improvisor earthquake a load okay here.is the abbreviation factor I mentioned.to you okay this is 3/8 RW we want to.estimate because this is the design base.year once we reduce the ill s the force.by also W then you monitored by that.factor to see what is the ultimate this.is our first time we the call to.recognize the strength of the system is.a much much stronger and then you need.to design that whenever you're dealing.with a capacity design similarly we also.know the building will treat more than.what you will do based on that the.earthquake load and assuming.elastic analysis and we use that a big.factor to estimate what is the.deflection in your building structures.the ad a UBC on the material size also.incorporated some of the research that I.mentioned to you earlier earlier for.example the researches conducted at the.University of California Berkeley and.also at University of Michigan so.they're covered so some of the.requirements are reflecting the special.moment from the design and the eccentric.police frame design again that was done.by professor Popov and the concentric.freeze frame design some of the the.safest secular research done in the.early days or incorporated in the 88 UBC.okay here is one product from that era.one research which is incorporating in.the ETA UBC here is the beam to color.MoMA connection for special moment frame.and the many of you know that the death.condition actually did not perform well.in the 1994 Northridge earthquake but it.was codified during the second era it.was assumed it was assumed that the beam.when it forms a press hinge okay that.the moment will be resisted by the the.this competitor in the penetration.current world at top and bottom fringes.and the dipping shear will be resisted.by the motive the condition there but.unfortunately the earthquake showed it.didn't happen that way with protocol.Tina see a press hinge is pretty.embarrassing and on the concentric.braced frame design okay that there's.some requirement they were incorporated.a based on research for example that the.post buckling strength was considered a.new design for the beam for example and.the you know you also have to consider.embarrass a vertical load which we do.that the route came in nine days but.that wasn't introduced in the second era.and in the first area we did not even.consider days we do not even consider.pop buckling strength.and the Casa connection design is also.the same additional requirement that was.proposed by Professor Austin a that was.incorporated in the in the ad a uniform.building code which we continue to use.nowadays this is one example of that the.2t requirement okay this is a the Casa.connection that I took from the photo I.took from our campus for this special.concern secure his frame and they were.very very careful you know code requires.to put some limits a that can separate.for the press want to buckle out a plane.that you know you detain in such a way.to accommodate that the kind of.deformation it's another example.okay the brace want to pack all the plan.and then you know we have to be very.very careful to detail the Casa.connection such as the member can be.formed as where you want yeah this is a.testing that was done by Professor psy.at the National Taiwan University the.UBC also incorporated some new system.for example this one is the essentially.braced frame that the idea actually came.from Japan okay but professor Popov and.his former student professor rotor it's.some additional study together with some.other researchers at the pro kleh in the.80s that was codified there were cut.wire and the engineers in on the west.coast to use it from time to time that.was interesting that the nowadays that.this kind of construction we become.pretty popular in New Zealand after.their Christchurch earthquake yeah.the nursery girls quake admission to you.earlier showed that there kind of a one.kind of moment connection in the column.or appointment actually did not perform.well did not perform well and I view.that as the end of the second era that.earthquake and without the earthquake.and the lesson learned.ok we realize ok we did not do things.properly.they probably it was around that time in.1994 the SIOC the structure engineers.Association of California also was.moving deviating from the local stress.design to strength based design okay for.1997 at that time so I mentioned to you.we use the R sub W at that time for.working stress design and they want to.convert it to the effective force train.design okay there's a 1997 edition so.you can see the r and the RW again are.related to some hot for example this is.tariff then this become eight right the.one that we use nowadays and the effect.that is the one that we use in AC seven.okay four strands design so the strands.marry design.okay we append then that try to open the.dialog and here that they say we welcome.that one we don't work on that one.anymore okay so and also that one we.also introduced the concept or using.those Omega not and that the city factor.and we stay away deviated from way away.from the 3/8 uh W as we did in the.second area but not reaches first.Northridge earthquake give us a surprise.this one only one example one of the.building that we analyzed you can see.there are lots of damages at the many.locations amateur locations we realize.that something in that was not right the.way we design fabricate and the Butte.steer structures is not right.the most rigid problem basically is a.moment connection brittle fracture.problem and that this figure shows you.which is taken from FEMA 350 that was a.result of the so-called a sexual.adventure and that is the problem and.that one the pin pattern French to the.column French wording the computer in.the penetration wedding okay they are.not some problem there as a problem.there once the correct study he may.crack into de immigrate into the world.or isn't as propagated into the column.and in the in different form of failure.mode but the basically the issue can be.traced back to de here the detailing and.the word material issue because of the.brittle fracture in those moment.connections so the so-called effect the.very famous a second venture was formed.it was composed of three organizations.and I remember that the soon after North.quake that the UPC uniform breeding.coated that section on the moment frame.design what's cross out okay you the.engineers you are all your we don't know.how to do you do you to all your way so.it took at the set joint of venture.about five years a national effort.involving many people they finally come.up with a series of report.okay so called a FEMA 350 51 so forth.that you can download from the website.the our code is if reef 41 you know it's.strongly inference by this document at.the PI days set joint venture the issues.addressed in that five years period.involves several issues okay that the.wedding issue okay where the issue the.electrode and the toughness requirement.mean there are many issues Richard ax at.the detailing electrode packing and.inspection so forth that was it also.published in another it abuse code T.1.08 before that this non-working code.that is specifically for seismic.okay we're 1 for building static loading.and we have one for bridges but no sighs.me but now because of North earthquake.we have a list at t 1.8 and detaining.issue ok detainee issue for example the.way access hall we were not very very.careful ok we did not realize it is very.very important even though it does not.involve any calculation okay but happens.to be very very important because if you.don't do it the right stress.concentration hurt motor issue before.Northridge earthquake we use a 36th year.and the FI 72 350 steer if the sphere.was used routinely for beams we do not.realize because of the way we make steer.we cannot we in the United States cannot.make the true a 36th year anymore.unfortunately stronger steer hurt for.seismic design it hurts okay because of.that okay that there's a new creative.steer was developed as a 980 to NATO we.routinely use nowadays for the white.French sections and we also realized the.way we design is also not right.so everybody shared responsibility you.know we don't bring to one particular.people my view of the impact of the.Northridge earthquake okay effect at.least the two things one is the conduct.of the research from the researchers.point of view and the mentality of.research the conducting research during.the first era secondary era we use we.reduce scale model very small model okay.and then we do not realize actually for.Pinto color movement connection the size.has affect the people are being the more.troublesome that well refraction and we.do not realize that so testing smaller.beam and that then make a recommendation.for building codes is not appropriate so.nowadays we try to do full-scale testing.as much as we can.and also cold allows you to do to allow.us some some provide multiple.connections that based on test database.if you have not test to certain depths.certain weight code that does not allow.you to use that pre-qualification you.have to do testing to justify that kind.of connection can be used so that is one.change my days we are very careful about.the scaling effect also regarding the.wording in the old days in others in 88.in 1980s whenever we in the laboratory.we do testing if something broke where.the block or the brain whether you did.not to work this job you tell like it it.will rot the job it will do a lousy job.you know so we just plain the word and.we do not realize there are many other.things we don't do it right this is.another change another change okay also.if you look at the literature in.nowadays probably you don't see we do.the wedding.nowadays and very very careful whenever.I'm doing the wedding if that the.wedding should be done in the field we.ask the fear the weather to come here we.don't let the shop whether to do it a.very very for not to mention to let our.lab technician to to the ready we will.never do that we want to make make sure.it is done to reflect the practice ok.also the process and the waiting.position you know.now we document very nicely when we do.the testing and then we're very careful.that in all those days nobody care so of.course the result can be miss lady you.know.once the screen covering to the count is.one good example you see state testing.you know we have the column and the beam.that heavy the beautiful in and we just.ask a theater we come here and with the.presence of inspectors certified.inspector okay to make sure it is done.right.also another thing is expected size.limited man sesame before and after.North quake is also affected greatly by.the 1994 Northridge earthquake ok of.regarding the in terms of the force and.deformation let's first look at the.expected deformation demand deformation.because when you to testing you need to.determine how far you want to test it.right in order to qualify the.performance of your specimen or your.connection so you need to know how much.to to to to test to qualify before the.Northridge earthquake okay this one that.the problem many of you are not familiar.with that one.during the first era okay based on the.Night 1985 UVC and the the prior dition.we Morris called morally assumes the per.diem probably worth trip to one point.five percent of the story height one.point five percent and in ninety four.UBC that's even though the second era is.even the second era we use we we don't.use the k fact that we use our sabado.factor but it's still photo same way we.think the building we're only Clift of.one performance and so if the connection.if I were to do the connection testing.and multi 21.5% if this okay then I say.oh this connection is good it's use it.but after the North earthquake will.relation with a lots of study numerical.simulation and the earthquake simulation.we realize all the building nature.completion wat can trigger a lot so.nowadays the code want us to do testing.to make sure the connection or holidays.can drift up to four percent you can see.a big difference okay because of the.Northridge earthquake this is a.deformation site what is the expected.size Amica force it says recessionary.force demand as a very I mentioned to.you before more earthquake for the sixth.year the mobile phone construction is.very common even though we could not.make a 36 anymore the in physics there.you do grace tear it sure is great 50.square 50 but.fortunately you image you once the pin.is eating is eating it'll develop at the.last moment so the source in the French.that is pouring the competitor in the.position grew well or depending on the.area of the French and at the actual ear.the stress so if you use still stronger.than what you're assuming design you're.in trouble.so the world got overloaded so that is.then the problem right okay after not.worth quake now we are more realistic.with we don't have a 360 anymore instead.we use a 9 I to net we and in addition.to use Amen a 2 we also put a burn limit.upper limit on FY skier cannot be too.strong before that you get a 36 you may.get a 50 case I a 55 years I stronger.the better now not for seismic that's.for seismic ok so we put the upper limit.on the Year stress beyond that compared.to the first era and the second era we.are also more careful we realize giving.if you use a magnetosphere the 50 case I.steer 50 case I steer but we realized.the steer is somewhat a stronger than.what do you specify in this case for nni.to steer we assume a value of 1 point 1.so you have to use expected FY to.compute what is the force that that the.ear thing the idiot beam were developed.in the Titian to that which means is.that needed for prez design is society.overloading it was stream hardened a lot.it was shown harden a lot this reason.why in the modern code in the ASE modern.call 341 we also have another parameter.that requires engineers to increase.further the force when we want to.estimate what is the force demand to the.to the structure members that are not.expected to yield.okay the product of the density.earthquake okay we have 341 341 seismic.provisions okay under then if you want.to construct a moment connection design.moment moment moment frames then you.have to use another document okay.because it tells you what are.connections.what kind of connection they have been.verified by testing that you can use for.your mo condition and now may I mention.to you that the 1.08 okay that is the.waiting requirement okay for size.medications or your hemorrhages another.product of the not your earthquake that.I compared that in the u.s. is a prior.to the North earthquake usually you.don't see proprietary connection okay.you don't see too much of the provider.carnation after the earthquake okay.there some engineers start to think can.I do better okay.can I come up some other connections.there's a reason why that Northridge.earthquake also triggers AMA you know.some engineers earth trigger the idea to.have some proprietary connection I think.that is the cutaway even though you.still have to pay but you know people.start to think to come up with a better.idea other than just following whatever.is out there in the code regarding that.our document 350 ASC 358 on the.pre-qualified the moment connections.currently there are 10 connections that.are pre-qualified including five.proprietary connections okay they are.some of them are being used in.California quite often nowadays nowadays.okay these two are the connections that.is commonly used okay this one is widely.used you see the circle to reduce beam.section reduce position we intentionally.reduce the width of the french such that.a force that can be developed once the.pin see idiot the force is limited.because if the force in the pin French.too high the word were hurt.okay there's a reason why we have this.circle to reduce the beam section that.is very common this kind of construction.another type of connection is.pre-qualified so supportive French plate.mo condition involving a boating that.does not required fear radium but is not.common yeah the people on the west coast.here like star worthy they don't like to.do building this as far as I what I can.observe the current status of the.systems we have in the ASC 341 we have a.special moment frame we have a special.concern secure place frame we have these.eccentric a priest ran back arrange.transport frame and this the steer.pressure war and the some innovative.system and also the composite system.okay again the combo system is that all.is not common for building construction.for seismic resistance on the west coast.for special moment frame special mama.frame I mentioned to you that there are.you know that we'd benefit a lot from.the research findings from that sector.and venture so the ASE special.provisions are many based on that a sex.study and there's some other issues for.example that six style is the second.study in not focus on box column in case.you want to do the past column okay then.you know the code does not give you too.much guidelines especially you use the.build up pewter box a column also some.week access moment connection but.fortunately engineers usually can't get.away with it so there's no qualified.connection if you want to connect the.beam to the wick access of the moment.connection some other issues include.that tip column okay.the design philosophy for moment frame.design is that we want that the press.hinges to film at the ends of the.beam's for the columns should we mail a.snake except at the place okay at the.base so present may also form at the.base at the base of the column nowadays.engineers routinely use deep column.because code required engineers to.control story drift so it's a stiffness.issue it's a strengthening is not.strength issue because moment frame is.very flexible but the architecture II is.very desirable because there's just no.diagonal bracing okay so into it so so.the special mom Frank it use a lot.despite the fact that ostrich.earthquakes shows damage or get a.specialty damage so do you think in.order to control the drift.we need stiffness and we need moment of.inertia we need a moment of inertia so.here I give you one example if you were.to use this you know column to be 14 by.426 this is the moment of inertia you.need to control shift engineers make go.to another one similar moment of inertia.then use much deeper section there's a.30 inch deep other than for initiative.this is drawn to scale and they can use.this one how do they use this one and.you can see the saving per pound so this.have this put incentive for the design.engineers to use deeper column in their.design the problem of using the tip.economy is because it's much deeper okay.and the fringe thickness is also smaller.so you can see the so-called of width.thickness ratio for the fringe compare.that deeper column to the shallow column.you can see the very especially this web.you can see the web this with thick in.the ratio is much larger so these kind.of columns are prone to prone to okay so.I have those one upon two local buckling.problem it was about the eight or ten.years ago that really some testing for.ASE for the application of a police.friend and we were testing columns for.bridge frame for this kind of.application usually we were to use Shiro.column here I give you one example one.spaceman we test it okay the w14 that is.the Shiro column much stachyose action.section and then we put pretty high.actual load okay close for 40% of the of.the year the load and the retrieved the.two - for example - 3 percent to 3.percent ok so over there you can see.that the kind of it you don't see too.much buckling it's very very good ok it.came developed price ranges actually our.testing shows you can go way beyond 3%.and in this case we can go to 6% 8% with.this kind of section study section.they're very very good so there's no.problem - for the column based - from.price ranges and in the past two three.years we tested dipper column because of.the concerns raised about the engineers.so in this case we test every 24 ok that.24 inches deep column so this one is.about 18 inches deep and then we test.the current with later horizontally and.we approach the road and in this case we.apply the extra node this is a about 36%.of the year load and you can see at a 3%.you can see significant amount of local.puckering as expected because the width.thickness ratio is much larger but.compared to the zero column is much much.better so it tends to be a problem and.here is the response that of from their.testing you can see that of the.degradation strength is very significant.under cyclic loading this is another.section okay is a video ok look at the.previous section this is the public 24.by once 31 okay then video I'm going to.show you is back here ok it's the step.stuck in section that means the P over T.4.of the French and the web are lower the.ratios are lower so is supposed to.perform better in the previous testing.that we were able to show first hinge in.in the plan of bending okay.now let's look at the testing.okay okay so we speed up the movement or.they said that the motion okay we do the.statically and that we should expect the.present we should expect eating right we.are expecting press inch hole for the.implant you can see the ear ding okay.yeah then okay now you see also then you.see the eating length is very very long.which is very unusual okay you can also.see the pattern of year things that.uniform is that is the indication or.whopping stress the column is twisting.it's twisting we did not realize the.column and behaved this way.this column is stuck here than the.previous one that did not have the auto.promotion whenever you are you have the.tip column okay it's very likely you.have this kind of failure mode and that.we test couldn't number of them which.has more than 40 columns and we see this.quite hopefully something in planners a.lot of auto prints off a moment frame.design okay there are some room for.improvement in our current code okay.despite the fact and now you know.typical gets used a lot.if you use a lot and the reason we.should see that that the tightening of.the poverty web the reflux ratio in the.next edition of the seismic code ok that.is a on the current status of special.moment frame we seems to be okay based.on the researcher finding of sack and.there's some miscellaneous the issue for.example I just highlight the typical.phenomena okay other than that is pretty.good special concerns your braced frame.is more less in a pretty good shape also.after the note of your earthquake okay.the engineers it's to for certain period.of time the engineers try to stay away.from the moment frame.normal frames because of the problem and.before the the ASC came off the.recommendations as to how to design.moment frames or some engineers or total.price frame so after a year two thousand.years agree new.interest on special consensual briefs.special concerns of restraint research.including some testing that was done use.in the master lab at your University.okay this is again these are some photos.that I took in San Diego including one.on our campus they get used a lot okay.whenever architecture a depressing is.not a problem then that is very.economical system right but then some.testing that was done by professor main.at the UC Berkeley that he saw that as a.separate with connection connection is.very important you know when the priest.in tension son has a casa prayed me back.on this very strange even when the.police was intention this was because of.the sort of pinching effect they make.column try to pinch it squeeze the COS.operate you know that the custom a.Picasso day was a good amount of.researcher was down in the past at ten.fifteen years and there were some.recommendations made okay there were.some detail that is by professor from.stock at the University of Illinois you.know some recommendation try to.introduce a hinge you know to avoid that.kind of problem that is contained in the.ASC 341 this is the photo I took from.the construction of an elementary school.maybe incorporate some of the detail.that is in the ASE 341 and professor.Reuter at the University of Washington.also continue to research to improve.because sometimes the castle it can get.very large.based on the current requirement so it.is some testing here and you know come.up some better way to to detail the.connection lots of effort his own.connection connection is so important it.says me design essentially for his.friend.okay as I mentioned to you that was.important idea originally for in Japan.and the professor Popov in these.researchers he's from a student that did.a lot of work that was codified in the.second era of the building code uniform.building code this photo is taken from.my former colleague person Professor.Philip wrote when we went to Seattle.area in 2001 yeah he taught he he took.this photo he told me this is the.retrofit of the building probably.historical build a pretty old building I.heard his the headquarter of the.Starbucks I don't know whether it's true.or not.retrofit and he went there and he took.this photo what good or bad good or bad.freaking of the pending is a good or bad.good you walked right it's a healing.right he walked yeah it is good unlike.the the the the moment connection in the.Tokyo earthquake we'd like to see price.range we see nothing and because the.word broke right it's no good okay.there's the cosine just walking this is.central police frame design okay and.professor Okazaki who used to be.teaching here right yeah at at the.University of Texas Austin while working.with Professor Ingo heart they have been.working very hard to come up with the.solution okay the previous slide show.you that the link is in the middle of.the page but sometimes the ebf is right.next to the color and because of the.north view earthquake experience we know.that the moment conditioning is not the.likely to walk even though a cool number.of buildings have been constructed this.way the link is right next to the column.why is that because over there you have.a very high demand because the shear.link the shoe is also very high make it.even worse and professor Okazaki.together with prevailing go heart they.try a variety of details try to make it.a walk it's difficult to make it hoho.and that this is the one idea that we at.the UCS te all team together with their.team generally came up and then we have.one idea about a se has not follow up on.that you know to to prequalify the.connection so yes he basically says stay.away from it currently we don't know.what to do with the condition so if you.3bf don't put that right next to the.column okay this is the one that taken.from professor Bruno's our report okay.this is a as I mention to you in New.Zealand the concrete moment frame is not.perform well okay in the mm I wanted on.to did not perform well but during that.earthquake it was all preserved at least.to tour EPF building perform where that.was very encouraging so engineers in New.Zealand in their rebuilding of the.Christchurch they to use EPF but this is.one that I have never seen I've not seen.even I only read it in the rich in the.in the in papers okay this was so-called.a replaceable shear link they bought it.I have not have not seen anyone any.building that was constructed this way.in in California okay.but ideas to make it a very principle.that is the one of the trend in the.seismic design the construction you know.to make it easily replaceable so that.kept used quite often in New Zealand.okay this slide shows the different kind.of systems in ASD seismic provisions.lemon frame or the new member frame.special trust moment frame special.concentric brace brace frame essential.brace RAM and this too.I want to highlight this I want to.upcoming on this very periphery the.first one is the space special plate.shear wall okay that is the one system.that was in true.to use the new system that was.introduced in the third era in 2005.edition of the seismic provisions 2005.okay this is a new system another new.system is so-called apocrine restraint.brace friend again.that was first introduced in 2005 those.two new systems for the first one the.special plate the sheer wall okay so.what's your war actually it was adapted.from the Canadian code that was already.in the Canadian code we do not have that.one but i'm professor bruno you know.continue to improve it and including.lots of research including testing and.then that his recommendations are.incorporated the end current assessment.provisions that is a new system and the.idea of this approach the american.all-american cold north american code is.to use the so called and stiffen the.plate we let the place we let the plate.to Paco this philosophy the tension.fluid action this philosophy is very.different from the one used in Japan.okay the idea was of from Canada was.originally from Provost korek okay but.we did not in Japan they would stiffen.it to make sure the parade over Paco but.we did the opposite which is a little.buckle okay make it a pretty thin so.that is the approach used in North.America and those are the based on the.research by a professor Bruno.so there's the state pressure war the.certain system the second a new system.is becoming very very popular very.popular on the west coast and I also.heard it's also very popular in the.reconstruction of Christchurch very.popular is to use the Parkland restrains.braced frame again the idea was original.from Japan after the North Wales quake.we did not know how to do with a moment.frame so some engineers introduced.the poorest remplace from Japan okay.they start with a one building and then.later on it get the repute acceptance.very rapid acceptance in the u.s. in the.few years that this on my reservation is.very amazing and that the Poconos.embrace is a back tire history is a.betrayal his friend the priest will not.buckle okay is that buckle and the first.world product was from Nicosia.we called the trade name is Colin.Bonnie's brace currently we have Ambani.brace and we also have us PRP producers.producers so the price drops and they.becomes a very economical system also.why were this system get accepted so.soon even though the idea was originally.from Japan in Japan they treat the PRP.as a temper so the engineers may have to.do sophisticated analysis nonlinear.analysis time history analysis and so.forth in the u.s. it's too complicated.so true a young engineer they try so.buried under your rope your PES then.they come up with a procedure that is.compatible with the equivalent lateral.force procedure using the R factor so.they come out the R factor and then ever.with the procedure with the tactility.design and with the Capel design and.they codified so he my view that the.debris Americanized their design process.which was treated as a temporary in the.u.s. now typically designed in years can.use it that is another reason why the.PRP F is becoming more and more popular.okay.even though it's so popular okay but my.personal observation is based on.available research the researchers drift.after an earthquake the building is.treated which may be a problem so this.kind of system you know it's likely to.have a large permanent deformation that.is one of the problem okay along one of.the problem.the some research also comment that with.a BRB f because you get a very very nice.by anemia hysteresis behavior so the.damage is more likely to be concentrated.in the particular story that is another.conclusion that I observed from the.literature the caustic connection is.very important you know that if you.don't design at the property the custody.may fail as evidence from some of the.testing they taught again was done by.Professor psy in Taiwan that the in.their system level testing okay the.component performs whereas once you put.into the system then you have to be very.careful I can be very careful that but.there are ways to easily overcome this.problem you know that making sure the.Casa baya is not too long stiffening age.is not wrong or by proper stiffening of.the free age that kind of problem can be.easily overcome and so during the third.area there are some other ideas come.there being a proposal that includes a.rocking system even though this idea was.not new you know long time ago the.professor house on earth at Caltech you.know proposed some rocking a system and.the professor offered in the 1970s also.to some shaking table testing is used in.Berkeley and 2000 to about 20 years ago.tomorrow Mantova research was also town.on the self centering or the self.centering system with post tensioning.okay come on the walk and the recently.they also just so called a strong back.system they have been proposed okay this.is the one that I took from one article.from one one article from doctoral.Oscars from the exponent incorporated.that is the building that might have.been constructed very large very large.building was constructed probably last.year at the Reno that's for Tesla to.make a battery.huge huge a facility okay and I was.taught by dr. Ostrow des that they have.a very very tight schedule.and with the sometimes with incomplete.information they have to design okay and.deliver it so they come up with a way so.they come out without the rockin system.working system this is the working.system they're okay they use this like a.strong back they use strong back to.force that the building to deform in the.linear manner so the story truth tango.is uniform story truth is uniform such.that those PR bees okay.those PRPs we eat in the uniform manner.and not to concentrate in the particular.story so that kind of idea in a way the.idea is being implemented but to codify.it is another matter in all circles I.figure for this case they still have to.perform a nonlinear analysis in order to.verify that their design okay throw this.one last slide so in my presentation I.talked about the free surface area up to.80 Phi and the since 1988 until Donati.earthquake is the second era we start to.have the capacity design career Design.and the tactility because high concept.but that was interrupted by the setter.era third era.okay so when we go to the era.I don't know as you know that our last.major earthquake was the 1994 Northridge.earthquake and the earthquake a typical.one on the west coast is long over to.you it's long overdue and but we can.learn some lessons from the new zealand.earthquake 2010 and the 2011 based on.will report by professor bruno and the.professor McCrae published last year.based on their survey of the.construction in 2016 and 2017.they observe that the buildings.constructed.okay at Christchurch in those two years.the floor area ratio is.here okay steer getting used a lot.whenever they use concrete they tend to.use sure war probably no moment frame.Memphis concrete moment frame is.constructed as far as I understand and.from that and the from this statistical.you can see that they seems to have more.confidence in steer in California.whether we are doing where all our.building code is okay or not I think.that we have to wait for the next one we.forgive we can make that conclusion and.offer example I mentioned to you the tip.karna phenomena okay get to use a lot.whether they are okay or not it remains.to be seen.okay and with this one I will conclude.my presentation thank you what are your.slides chiming for this steel shear wall.you had a red letters noise issue oh.yeah okay I forgot to mention that to.you yeah and I'm the only one who talked.about this one you know the painting.build a problem right the painting board.problem you know one boat to boat in the.building got slipped Big Ben people.think that does you know very scary very.scary I have not tested that approach.steer pressure war but I know so testy.still pressure war because once you.reverse loading the preto epic OPEC in.the fourth whenever there is a reverse.overloading you heard the big noise I'm.like a thunder like a thunder okay and.the in the earthquake going back for.several times that kind of noise.it's a low frequency low frequency noise.the one that because I was involved in.the testing of the boat of the French.moment connection the Portofino can I.show your area and then the boat was.slit and the data so that is a swift.critical boat the predation aboard and.whenever post-sleep is very loud and you.put many boat and in the earthquake in.the building with many connections it.can be very loud okay but I'm not.allowed to remind engineering community.is a such a problem don't be surprised.if you rely on this kind of system they.don't say I don't tell you that because.I have done a number of testing with the.mostly pitches very noise very loud yeah.unless you are there you know you.presentation he'll be around if you have.questions but I want to make sure we can.get to the reception as well so first of.all thank you to our speaker.and I'd like to ask our two scholarship.recipients to come forward Rebecca McCoy.and Paul father for giving you a four.make it was fun so with the Dexter.scholarship I'd like to thank Lauren.Linderman who it was the leader of our.scholarship committee in the selection.process this scholarship was put forward.for a number of reasons one Robert.Dexter um he worked his way through.school he was committed to service of.the profession and things like that and.for both of our scholarship recipients.are not only great students but in.addition to that they've worked their.way through school and multiple jobs now.through internships with Walker Park.parking and continuing that through the.academic year as well and with Paul.you have also worked with Yoona systems.the kinetic structures and also through.a research assistantship with Professor.Linderman and post-tension structural.systems and in addition to that vice.president of ASCE who put on the career.fair which is a tremendous services.pastor too so for both of our students I.just would like to greatly commend you.for your work and this is really the.scholarship is very meaningful to our.department and so I have some plaques to.give to you and they've professor lay.this you can come forward and pass out.the plaques.I joined in have inception in the.congratulations and thanks to our Savior.

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