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.Stanford University..The often asked question, what's.the difference between Bio 150,.Bio 250, and-- is.it Hum Bio 160?.No difference..It's exactly the same..So like the same.requirements, same unit..So take whichever one.makes your life easiest..Let's see..Any other procedural stuff?.Well, the answers are back.from Monday's questionnaire..And a variety of.interesting answers..Not surprisingly, given.the size of a group..Why have you taken this course?.Really want to know about animal.behavior, but willing to deal.with humans..[LAUGHTER].Because I'm substituting it Bio.43, which I don't want to take..My dad used to make me read.books about human behavior.and biology as punishment..[LAUGHTER].That doesn't make any sense..I know one of the.TAs, so I figure.that guarantees me an A. OK,.guys, that's in your court..One I really liked,.because I want.to be a filmmaker after college..Yay, interdisciplinary..What else?.My first grade.teacher is making me..Tom McFadden told me to..I'm a hyper-oxygenated.dilettante..I wanted to, somewhat.correctly pointing out,.why have you taken this class?.I haven't taken it yet..A number of people.reporting that,.in fact, that was.the correct answer..And my favorite, why have.you taken this course?.Yes..[LAUGHTER].OK..Relevant background,.relevant background..I'm human, I'm human.and I often behave..I'm human and I have biology..19 years of being confused.about human behavior..Not really, sort of..Seeing crazy behavior as.an RA in an all frosh dorm..And I date a biologist..Let's see..There was also the.question on there of,.did the thing on the board.look more like an A or a B..And just to really.facilitate that one,.I forgot to put.the A and the B up..But that taps into a.cognitive something or other,.which maybe I'll get.back to at some point..Telephone numbers..Reading them off,.accuracy dramatically.tanked as soon as.the three number,.four number motif.went down the tubes..And when it came back.briefly, accuracy.came back a little bit..Finally, let's see..All of you guys conform to.a standard frequent gender.difference..Which is everybody was roughly.equally-- by gender-- roughly.equally likely to see dependent.as the opposite of independent..A small minority went.for interdependent..However, one finding that.has come up over and over.is that far more females are.interested in peace than males,.males are more.interested in justice..OK, have you taken the bio core..Quote, no way Jose..Somebody pointing.out quite correctly,.don't settle for.peace or justice..Then of course,.there was the person.who responded to that question.by writing those words are just.symbols..Need to know assumed meaning..[LAUGHTER].OK...There was one questionnaire.that was carefully.signed in something.approaching calligraphy,.it was so beautiful..And was otherwise blank..For years running, the subject.that most people really.want to hear, and most people.really don't want to hear,.is about the biology.of religiosity..And for 22 years running.now, Stanford students.are more interested in.depression than sex..[LAUGHTER].OK..So we start off..I keep telling Hennessy about.this, but nothing gets done..We start off..We start off, if.I can open this--.which is something.you can do if you have.a certain type of training..If you're some osteologist,.or whatever these folks are.called..If you are presented.those two skulls.and told this one's.a female, this one's.a male, you can begin to figure.out stuff like how heavy,.how large the body was.of that individual, what.diseases they had, had they.undergone malnutrition,.had they given birth, a.lot of times, a few times,.were they bipedal..All sorts of stuff.you could figure out.from just looking.at these skulls..What today's lecture,.and Friday's, is about.is the fact that with the.right tools under your belt,.you could look at.these two skulls.and know that information..You are a field biologist, and.you've discovered this brand.new species..And you see that this.one nurses an infant.shortly before leaping.out of the tree,.leaving only the skull..And this one has.a penis, shortly.before leaping out of the.tree and leaving a skull..So all you know is this is an.adult female and an adult male..And if you've got the.right tools there,.you can figure out who's more.likely to cheat on the other..Is the female more likely to.mess around, or is the male?.How high are the.levels of aggression?.Does the female tend to have.twins, or one kid at a time?.Do females choose males because.they have good parenting.skills, or because.they're big, hunky guys?.What levels of differences.in life expectancy?.Do they live the.same length of time?.You would be able to tell.whether they have the same life.expectancy or if there's a big.discrepancy between the two..All sorts of stuff.like that, merely.by applying a certain.piece of logic.that dominates all of this..OK, so you're back reading.those Time Life nature.books back when, and there.was always a style of thing.you would go through..Which is they'd.describe some species.doing something absolutely.amazing and unlikely,.and it goes like this..The giraffe, the.giraffe has a long neck,.and it obviously has.to have a big heart.to pump all that blood up there..And you lock up a whole.bunch of biomechanics people.with slide rules, and out they.come out with this prediction.as to how big the.giraffe heart should be.and how thick the walls..And you go and you.measure a giraffe heart,.and it's exactly what.the equations predicted..And you say, isn't.nature amazing?.Or you read about some desert.rodents that drink once.every three months, and.another bunch of folks.have done math and figured.out how many miles long.the renal tubules have to be..And somebody goes.and studies it,.and it's exactly.as you expect it..Isn't nature wonderful?.No, nature isn't wonderful..You couldn't have.giraffes unless they.had hearts that were that big..You couldn't have rodents.living in the desert.unless they had kidneys that.worked in a certain way..There is an inevitable logic.about how organisms function,.how organisms are.built, how organisms.have evolved solving this.problem of optimizing.the solution..And what the next two.lectures are about is,.you can take the.same exact principles.and apply them to thinking.about the evolution of behavior..The same sort of.logic where, just.as you could sit there and,.with logical principles,.come to the point of.saying, a giraffe's heart.is going to be this big..You can go through a.different realm of logic built.around evolutionary principles.and figure out all sorts.of aspects of social behavior..And we already know what's.involved in, say, optimizing..What's the optimal number.of whatevers in your kidney..What's the optimal behavior.strategy or something..All of us, as soon as.we got some kid sibling,.learned how to do the optimal.strategy in tic-tac-toe..So that you could never lose,.and it's totally boring..But that's a case of figuring.out the optimal solution.to behavior, reaching what is.called the Nash equilibrium..And actually, I have no.idea what I just said..But I like making.reference to Nash,.because it makes me feel.quantitative or something..So that is called.the Nash equilibrium..The Nash equilibrium, and.what the entire point here is,.the same sort of.process of figuring out.what are the rules of.optimizing tic-tac-toe behavior.can be built upon the.principles of evolution.to figure out all.sorts of realms.of optimized social behavior..And broadly, this is a field.that's known as sociobiology,.emerging in the late.1970s-- mid 1970s or so..And by the late.1980s, giving birth.to another discipline known.as evolutionary psychology..The notion that you cannot.understand behavior,.and you cannot understand.internal psychological states,.outside the context of evolution.had something to do with.sculpting those behaviors.and those psyches..So to start off with that, basic.song and dance about Darwin..Just to make sure we're.up to speed on this..Darwin, just to get some.things out of the way..Darwin did not.discover evolution..People knew about.evolution long before that..Darwin came up with the.notion of a mechanism.for evolution,.natural selection..And in fact, Darwin is.the inventor of that..There was another guy,.Alfred Russel Wallace,.the two of them..And, for some reason, Wallace.has gotten screwed historically.and Darwin gets.much more attention..But starting off with a.Darwinian view of how evolution.works..First thing being that.there is evolution..Traits in populations.change over time..Traits can change enough.that, in fact, you.will get speciation..New species will form..And the logic of.Darwinian evolution.is built on just a few couple.of very reasonable steps..First one is that there are.traits that are heritable..Traits that could be passed.on one generation to the next..Traits that we.now can translate,.in our modern parlance, into.traits that are genetic..And we will see, soon, how.that's totally not correct.to have said that..But traits that are heritable..The next thing is that there is.variability among those traits..There's different ways in.which this trait can occur,.and they're all heritable..The next critical thing..Some versions of those traits.are more adaptive than others..Some versions work.better for you..For example, giraffe.who wind up with hearts.the size of, like, a tomato,.that's not an optimal version..Amid the range of.variability, some.will carry with them more.fitness, more adaptiveness,.than others..And that translates.into another sound bite.that's got to be gotten rid of..All of this is not about.survival of the most adapted..It's about reproduction,.something we will.come to over and over again..It's about the number.of copies of genes you.leave in the next generation..So you've got to have.traits that are heritable..There's got to be.variability in them..Some of those traits are.more adaptive than others..Some of those.traits make it more.likely that that organism.passes on copies of its genes.into the next generation..And throw those three pieces.together, and what you will get.is evolution in populations..Changing frequencies of traits..And when you throw in one.additional piece, which.is every now and.then the possibility.to have a random introduction.of a new type of trait.in there-- modern parlance,.a mutation-- from that,.you can begin to get actual.large changes in what.a population looks like..OK, so these are the basic.building blocks of Darwin..And it is easy to apply.it to giraffes' hearts.and kidneys of desert rats,.and everything we think about.in the world of.physiology, anatomy,.in the context of evolution..So how do you apply.it to behavior?.And the basic notion,.for folks who've.come from this.Darwinian tradition.into thinking about behavior,.is you do the exact same thing..There are behaviors that are.heritable, types, traits,.classes of behaviors..They come with a certain degree.of variation among individuals..Some versions of them are.more adaptive than others..Over time, the more.adaptive versions.will become more commonplace..And every now and then,.you can have mutations.that introduce new variability..Totally logical,.absolutely unassailable..And what we're going to spend.an insane amount of time.in this class on is.one simple assumption.in there, which is that certain.behaviors are heritable..That certain behaviors.have genetic components..And as you'll see,.this one is just.going to run through.every lecture wrestling.with that issue there..This is a big incendiary issue.there as to how genetic--.and that's not the.same thing as saying.how genetically determined--.how genetic behavior is..So that's going to be an.issue we come back to again.and again..So now, transitioning.into how you would apply.these Darwinian principles..First thing before.starting, a caveat..You're going to wind up,.in order to think about all.of this most efficiently,.hopefully do some personifying..Personifying as in, you'll.sit around saying, well,.what would a female.chimpanzee want.to do at this point to.optimize the number of copies.of her genes in the.next generation?.What would this.brine shrimp want.to do to deal with this.environmental stressor?.What would this cherry tree do?.They're not planning..They're not conscious..They're not taking classes.in evolutionary biology..What would this.organism want to do.is just a shorthand.for something sculpted.by the sort of.exigencies of evolution,.and reducing the optimal..They want to do this..This is just going to be.a short hand throughout..Once you get past.the apes, nobody.is wanting to do any of.these optimization things..So just getting that sort of.terminology out of the way..OK, so we start off with.what's the first building.block of applying Darwinian.principles to behavior..Something that is absolutely.critical to emphasize,.because the first.thing we all need to do.is unlearn something we all.learned back when on all those.National Geographic specials.and that would consistently.teach us something about.this aspect of evolution,.and would always.teach it to us wrong..Here's the scenario..So you're watching, and there's.this wildlife documentary..It's dawn on the savanna..And you see, there's.a whole bunch lions.on top of some big.old dead thing..Some buffalo, or something..And they're chewing away.and having a fine time..So something happens.at that point,.which is, they have to deal.with how they divvy up the food..Or let me give you.another example..Another standard, sort.of endless vignette.that comes up in these films..Once again, now, you're.back on the savanna..It's not dawn this.time, but you are.looking at one of the.magnificent things.of the natural world, which.is the migration of zebras.throughout East Africa..A herd of 2 million of them.migrate around, following.a cyclical pattern of rains..So they're always going.where the grass is greener..So you've got this wonderful.herd of 2 million wildebeest,.and there's a problem..Which is, there's some great.field right in front of them.full of grass, and.bummer, there's.a river in between them.and the next field..And especially a bummer, a.river teeming with crocodiles.just ready to grab them..So what are the.wildebeest going to do?.And according to the.National Geographic type.specials we would get,.out would come a solution..There's all the wildebeest.hemming and hawing.in this agitated state.by the edge of the river..And suddenly, from.the back of the crowd,.comes this elderly wildebeest.who pushes his way up.to the front, stands on.the edge of the river.and says, I sacrifice.myself for you,.meine kinder, and throws.himself into the river--.[LAUGHTER].--where immediately, the.crocs get busy eating him up..And the other two.million wildebeest.could tiptoe around the.other way across the river,.and everybody is fine..And you're then saying,.why'd this guy do this?.Why did this guy fling.himself into the river?.And we would get the.answer at that point..The answer that is permeated.as, like, the worst urban myth.of evolution..Whatever..Why did he do that?.Because animals behave for.the good of the species..This is the notion that has.to be completely trashed right.now..Animals behaving for.the good of the species.really came to the forefront,.a guy in the early 60s named.Wynne-Edwards..Hyphenated, Wynne-Edwards..Some hyphenated Brit zoologist,.who pushed most strongly.this notion of.that animals behave.for the good of the species..He is reviled throughout.every textbook, Wynne-Edwards.and group selection..That would be the.term, selection.for the good of groups,.for the selection.for the good of the species..Wynne-Edwards and.group selection..I'm sure the guy did all.sorts of other useful things..And anyone who really has any.depth to them would find out..But all I know is that.the guy is the one who.came up with group selection..Animals behave for the.good of the species..This isn't the case at all..Animals behave for passing on.as many copies of their genes.as possible..And what we'll see.is, when you start.looking at the nuances.of that, sometimes it.may look like behaving for.the good of the species..But it really isn't the case..So animals behave.in order to maximize.the number of.copies of genes they.leave in the next generation..Remember, not survival.of the fittest,.reproduction of the fittest..So first thing you need to do.is go back to that vignette.and saying, so what's up.with the wildebeest there?.And what's up with the elderly.guy who jumps in the river?.And finally, when you.look at them long enough.instead of the camera crew.showing up for three minutes,.when you studied.this closely enough,.you see something that.wasn't apparent at first..Which is, this.elderly wildebeest.is not fighting his.way through the crowd..This guy is being.pushed from behind..[LAUGHTER].This guy is being.pushed from behind,.because all the other.ones are saying,.yeah, get the old.guy on the river..Sacrificing himself, my ass..This guy is getting pushed.in by everybody else..He is not sacrificing himself.for the good of the species..He does not like the.idea of this whatsoever..So he gets pushed in.because the old, weak guy..None of this group.selection stuff..What came in by the.'70s as a replacement,.a way to think about this,.is this notion of animals,.including us, behaving not.for the good of the species.or of the group, but to maximize.the number of copies of genes.left in the next generation..And what you see is three ways.in which this could occur..Three building blocks..The first one being known.as individual selection..The first one, built.around the notion.that sometimes the.behavior of an animal.is meant to optimize the.number of copies of its genes.that it leaves in.the next generation.by itself reproducing..The drive to.reproduce, the drive.to leave more copies.of one's genes..This was once summarized.really sort of tersely as,.sometimes a chicken is an egg's.way of making another chicken..No, that's backwards..Sometimes a chicken is an egg's.way of making another egg..OK, ignore that..What the guy said is, sometimes.a chicken is an egg's way.of making another egg..All this behavior stuff,.and all this animate social.interaction, is just.an epiphenomenon.to get more copies of the.genes into the next generation..Individual selection, a subset.of way of thinking about this.is selfish genes..What behavior is.about is maximizing.the number of copies of.genes in the next generation..And sometimes the best.way to do it, sometimes.the way that animals maximize,.is to get as many copies.by way of reproducing.themselves..It's not quite equivalent.to The Selfish Gene,.but for our purposes,.individual selection..And this can play out.in a number of realms..And bringing in sort.of a big dichotomy.in thinking about.evolutionary pressures, Darwin.and the theory of.natural selection..What natural.selection is about is.processes bringing about an.organism who is more adaptive,.what we just went through..Darwin soon recognized there.was a second realm of selection,.which he called.sexual selection..And what that one's.about is, this.is selecting for.traits that have.no value whatsoever in terms of.survival or anything like that..Traits that carry.no adaptive value,.but for some random, bizarre.reason, the opposite sex.likes folks who look this way..So they get to leave more.copies of their genes..And suddenly, you could have.natural selection bringing.about big, sharp.antlers in male moose,.and they use that for fighting.off predators or fighting.with a male..That would be natural selection..Sexual selection might.account for the fact.that the antlers are.green, paisley patterns all.over for that..And for some reason,.that looks cool..The female moose is,.and what you wind up.getting as a mechanism.for sexual selection.is, as long as individuals.prefer to mate with individuals.with some completely.arbitrary traits,.those traits will also.become more common..So this dichotomy.of natural selection.for traits driven by.traits that really do.aid leaving copies of genes.outside the realm of just.sheer sexual preference,.sexual selection..And sometimes they can go in.absolutely opposite directions..You can get some species.where the female fish.prefer male fish that have.very bright coloration..And that's advantageous, then,.to have the bright coloration.by means of sexual selection..But the bright.coloration makes you.more likely to get predated.by some other fish..Natural selection pushing.against bright coloration.in males..Very often, you've got the.two going against each other,.having to balance..So how would that be.applied in this realm.of individual selection?.This first building block..Sometimes an egg-- damn..Sometimes a chicken is an egg's.way of making another egg..Sometimes what behavior is.about is one individual trying.to maximize the number.of copies of their genes.in the next generation..A natural selection.manifestation of it.being, you're good at.running away from predators..Selection for speed, for certain.types of muscle metabolism,.for certain sets of sensory.systems that will tell you.there's somebody scary around..That would be the realm of that..Individual selection, selecting.the realm of sexual selection.to have more of whatever those.traits that are attractive..So this first building block,.it's not group selection..It's not behaving for.the good of the species..It's behaving to maximize the.number of copies of one's genes.in the next generation..And the most.straightforward way is.to behave in a way to.maximize the number of times.you reproduce yourself..Second building.block, which is, there.is another way of accomplishing.the same thing that you just.did with individual.selection, as follows..One of the things that.can be relied upon in life.is that you are related.to your relatives..And what you get is, the.more closely related you are,.the more genes you share.in common with them..On a statistical.level, identical twins.share 100% of their genes..Full siblings, 50%..Half siblings, 25%..This is exactly.something that's going.to be covered in the catch.up section this week..If you're not comfortable with.this stuff, this sort of thing.will be reviewed in more detail..OK, so the closer a.relative is to you,.the more genes they.share in common with you..So suddenly, you've.got this issue..You're an identical twin.and your identical sibling.has the same genes that you do..Individual selection, you.will be just as successful.as passing on copies of your.genes into the next generation.if you forgo.reproducing to make it.possible for your.identical twin to do so..Because on the level.of just sheer numbers.of copies of genes in.the next generation,.they are equivalent..And sometimes, you will thus get.behavior which really decreases.the reproductive.success of an individual.in order to enhance the.success of a relative..But you've got a.constraint there,.which is, all of.your relatives don't.share all your genes with you..They have differing.degrees of relatedness..And what that winds up.producing is another factor,.another observation..One of the great, witty.geneticists of all time, a guy.named Haldane who,.apparently, once in a bar.was trying to explain.this principle to somebody.and came up and.said, I will gladly.lay down my life for two.brothers or eight cousins..And that's the math.of the relatedness..You passing on one.copy of your genes.to the next generation is, from.the sheer mathematics of just.how evolution is going to.play out over the generations,.is exactly equivalent as giving.up your life for eight cousins.to be able to each pass.on a copy of their genes..Because you share 1/8.with each of them,.and it winds up being.a whole [INAUDIBLE]..And it's that math..And out of that, you.get something that.makes perfect sense instantly..Which is, evolution selects.for organisms cooperating.with their relatives..Something along those lines..And thus we have this.second building block.known as kin selection..Inclusive fitness..Kin selection..First building block, individual.selection, passing on copies.of your own genes as a way.to maximize future success..Second version,.helping out relatives..Helping out relatives.in terms of increasing.their reproductive success.with this vicious mathematical.logic, which is.one identical twin.to have two full siblings,.eight cousins, and so on,.as a function of.degree of relatedness..And what this begins to.explain is a whole world.in animal behavior of animals.being obsessed with kinship..Animals being fully aware of.who is related to who in what.sorts of ways..Animals being.utterly aware of you.cooperate with relatives,.but as a function of how.closely related they are..Animals put us in Social.Anthropology, in kinship terms,.and could you marry the daughter.of your uncle's third wife.or whatever, to.shame in terms of how.much a lot of social animals.deal with relatedness..So inclusive fitness,.kin selection..Here would be evidence for it..Here's one example..Very cool study done some years.back by a couple, Seyfarth.and Cheney, University.of Pennsylvania,.looking at vervet monkeys..And these were vervet monkeys.out in Tanzania, I believe..What they did was, a whole.bunch of these vervet monkeys.were sitting around..And they, the researchers,.had made really high quality.recording recordings of.various vocalizations.from the monkeys over time..So they had the sound of each.animal giving an alarm call,.giving a friendly gesture.call, giving a whatever..And what they would then.do is hide a microphone.inside some bushes and play.the sound of one of the infants.from the group.giving an alarm call..So what does the mother.of that infant do?.She instantly gets agitated.and looks over at the bush..That's her child, all of that..How to know that everyone.else in that vervet group.understands kin selection,.what does everybody else do?.They all look at the mother..That's whoever's mother,.what is she going to do next?.They understand the.relatedness, and they understand.what the response will be..All the other vervets look.at the mother at that point..Whoa, I'm sure glad that's.not my kid giving an alarm.call from the bushes..They understand kinship..Another version of that.came out in these studies..So you've got two females, each.of whom has a kid, a daughter,.whatever..And female A and female.B. And one day, female A.does something absolutely.rotten to female B..And later that day,.the child of female B.is more likely than chance.to do something rotten.to the child of.female A. They're.keeping track of.not only revenge,.but not revenge on.the individual who.did something miserable to.you, but displaced by one.degree of reproduction..Keeping track of kinship..Animals can do this..All sorts of primate.species can do this..And as we'll see, all sorts of.other species can do this also..There is that caveat again..All sorts of other.species want to figure out.who their cousins-- they.don't want to figure out..Evolution has.sculpted an ability.to optimize behavior.along lines of relatedness.in all sorts of species..So how would natural.selection play out.in this realm of kin.selection, I will lay down.my life for eight cousins..And that's just sort of.obvious there by now..How would sexual selection.play out in this realm..I am willing to expend.great amounts of energy.to convince people that my.sibling is incredibly hot..And with any.chance, then passing.on more copies of genes..That would be inclusive fitness,.kin selection in both cases..Decreasing your own.reproductive potential.by way of being killed by a.predator to save the 8 cousins,.or having to spend so much time.haranguing about your sibling..Doings that, in.order to increase.the reproductive.success of relatives,.where you were willing.to give up more energy.and potential on your part,.the more closely related.the individual is..So you throw those.two pieces together,.and you're suddenly.off and running.with explaining a lot.of animal behavior..Individual selection,.none of this.for the good of the species..Maximizing the number of.copies of your own genes..And the easiest way, the.most straightforward,.is you yourself.maximizing reproduction..Foundation number two the.whole thing, kin selection..Sometimes the best way of.leaving more copies of genes.in the next.generation is using up.your own reproductive.potential foregoing.to help relatives as a function.of degree of relatedness..OK, that's great..So now the third piece, the.third final building block.of making sense of social.behavior in the context.of real contemporary.evolutionary theory,.the third block here..Which is, you look at animals.and they're not all just.competing with non-relatives..Animals forego competition.at certain points..Animals would have.the potential to be.aggressive to other animals,.and they will forego doing so..And there's one circumstance.in which that can happen,.where you get what is called a.rock-paper-scissors scenario..You've got animals A, B, and.C. A has a means of damaging B,.but it costs A. B has.a means of damaging C,.but it costs B. C.can damage A, but it.costs A. You get the right.distribution of individuals.with one of those.traits in a population,.and you will reach a.rock-scissors-paper equilibrium.where nobody's doing anything.rotten to each other..Great example, totally.cool example that got.published some years ago by a.guy named Brendan Bohannan, who.was assistant professor in the.department here at the time..He was studying something.or other about bacteria.showing a rock-paper-scissors.circumstance..You had three different types,.three different versions,.of this bacteria in.this colony he had made..The first one could generate.a poison, but it cost..It had to put the effort.into making that poison.and protecting itself from.that poison, all of that..The second type was.vulnerable to the poison..It happened to have some.transporter on its membrane.that took up the poison,.and that was bad news..But it had an advantage,.which is the rest of the time,.that transporter.took up more food..The third one, the.good thing going.for it is that it didn't.have-- the bad thing.was, it didn't have poison..A good thing going.for it was it didn't.have to spend.energy on a poison,.and it didn't have.that transporter..So each one of those has a.strength, each one of those.has a vulnerability..They're like, I don't.know, Pokemon or something..And you put them.all together there,.and you get a.rock-paper-scissors scenario.where you get equilibrium,.where they are not.attacking each other..Because note, if I.am A and I destroy B,.B's no longer.wiping out C, who's.the one who could damage me..It's got to come to.an equilibrium state..So you can get the evolution.of stalemates like that,.and that's quite.frequently seen..And note here, this.was the evolution.of stalemates not in chimps, not.in cetaceans, but in bacteria..What we're going to see.is bacterial behavior,.to the extent that this is sort.of a metaphor for behavior..Behavior of all sorts.of unlikely species.are subject to these.same rules of passing.on copies of your genes..These three different.strains of bacteria.are competing with each other..None of them are behaving for.the good of the species there.of the three of them..So rock-paper-scissors.is very cool,.and you get versions.of that in humans..That's been sort of studied.quantitatively, all of that..But that's not real cooperation..That's merely.everybody realizing.we have to cut back.on the competition..We have to cut back.on the aggression..Because every time.I damage whoever,.I am more vulnerable.in another realm..That's a stalemate..That's a truce..But you look at animals,.and in all sorts of realms,.it's not just.rock-paper-scissors stalemates.they're reaching..They actually cooperate.with each other..And you look close enough, and.you see they're not relatives..They're not.relatives, yet you get.all sorts of.altruistic behavior,.and you've got it under.a whole bunch of domains..Because this brings.up the question,.why should you.ever be cooperative.with another individual if.you are a social animal..At every possibility, you.should stab them in the back.and be selfish..And the reason why.that isn't a good idea.is, there's all sorts.of circumstances where.many hands make the task light..Or whatever that is, cooperation.can have synergistic benefits..And you see that.with species that.are cooperative hunters,.where they are not necessarily.relatives..They will chase one,.chasing an animal.while the other is getting.ready to cut a corner on it..Cooperative behavior, and.they increase the likelihood.of them getting a kill..Another example of this..Research by a guy.named Mark Hauser.at Harvard looking.at rhesus monkeys..And what he showed was,.he would put these monkeys.in a situation where.they had access to food..They had access to food.under one circumstance,.where they could reach for it.and take it in and share it.with another monkey..Under the other circumstance,.it required two monkeys.to get the food in there..And what he showed was.clear cut reciprocity..Monkeys who were.sharing with this guy.were more likely to.get shared back with.and got more cooperation when.it was a task where two of them.had to work together.to get the food..One alone wasn't enough..Many hands make the task.lighter under all sorts.of circumstances..Cooperation has a strong.evolutionary payoff,.even among non-relatives,.with a condition..Which is, you're not.putting more into it.than you are getting..That is reciprocal..And ' opens up the third.building block of all of this,.which is reciprocal altruism..Cooperation, altruistic.behavior among non-relatives,.but undergoing very.strict constraints of,.it's gotta be reciprocated with.all sorts of rules like that..So what does that look like..You're going to see.reciprocal altruism,.when would you see that..What's the immediate.thing, what sort of species.would show systems of.reciprocal cooperation.among non-relatives..They've got to be smart animals..They've got to be social..They've got to be smart..Why do they have to be smart?.Because they have.to remember, this.is the guy who owes me a.favor from last Thursday..They need to be able to.recognize individuals..They have to be long lived.enough so that there's.a chance of interacting.with that individual.again and establishing.this reciprocity..You would thus.predict you would see.systems of reciprocal.altruism only in long.lived social vertebrates..But you see the exact sorts.of things in bacteria..You see the exact sort.of things in fungi..You see that in all.sorts of other realms..You get social bacteria,.colonizing bacteria..And where what you might.get are two clonal lines.that are together..In other words, two.genetically-- two lines,.each of which is,.all the bacteria.have the same genetic makeup..So think of it as one individual.who's just kind of dispersed..Another one who's just.kind of dispersed..And they've come.together in something.called a fruiting body, which.is how bacteria reproduce.or whatever..And there's two parts.to a fruiting body..There's one which.is the stalk, which.attaches to something or other..And then there is the.part that actually fruits..So you want to be in.the fruiting part,.because that's the part.that actually reproduces,.and the stalk is doing.all the work there..And what you see is.attempts at cheating..Attempts at one of.these strains trying.to disproportionately wind.up in the fruiting part,.and what you also.see is, the next time.around, this other strain.will not cooperate with it..Will not form a social colony..So that's getting played off.at the level of single cell.organisms forming.big social colonies..Getting played at that level..Yes, as we will see,.reciprocal altruism.works most readily.in big, smart, long.lived social beasts..But it can occur in.all sorts of systems..What it's built around is.reciprocal cooperation..And intrinsic in that it.is another motivation going.on there..Not just to involve the.reciprocal relationship.with a non-relative, and.many hands, and light tasks,.and all of that..But also, whenever.possible, to cheat..To take advantage of.the other individual..And thus, another.key facet of it.is to be very good at.detecting when somebody.is cheating against you..To be vigilant about.cheating in what.would otherwise be a stable,.reciprocal relationship..And an awful lot.of social behavior.is built around.animals either trying.to get away with something.or spotting somebody else.doing the same..An example of it..There is a test that's used.in evolutionary psychology.where you are given this.very complicated story,.or another version of a.complicated story, where.somebody promises if you do.this, you'll get this reward..But if you do that, you're.going to get this punishment..And really complex..And one outcome,.the outcome of it.is, the person isn't.supposed to get rewarded..But the individual.decides to reward them..Spontaneous act of kindness..In another.circumstance, the person.is the individual who is.supposed to get rewarded,.and instead, they get punished..A cheater in that case..And amid these.convoluted stories,.people are much.better-- 75% to 25%--.are much better at detecting.when cheating has gone.on in the story than when a.random act of kindness has gone.on..We are more attuned to.picking up cheating..And remarkably, some.very subtle studies.have been done.with chimps showing.that chimps have the same bias..They are much.better at picking up.social interactions involving.cheating than ones that.involve spontaneous altruism..So you see here, this.balance between cooperation,.reciprocal, even.among non-relatives..And that's great,.but you should cheat.when you can get away with it..But you should be.vigilant against cheaters..And what, of course,.it comes down to then.is tic-tac-toe and giraffe.hearts and all of that..What is the optimal strategy.in a particular social species.for a particular individual..What is the optimal strategy..When do you cooperate.and when do you cheat..When do you defect on the.cooperative relationship.you've had..And this introduces.us to a whole world.of mathematics built around.what is called game theory..The notion that there are.games, formal games, that.have mathematically.optimal strategies,.or multiple strategies,.multi-equilibrium..And a whole world.of research has.been built around them in.terms of when to cooperate.and when to defect..So game theory stuff..This was starting off.in a world of people.studying economics, and.negotiation, and diplomacy,.and all of that..And that was a whole world.built around this logic.of when do you cooperate,.when do you cheat..And what came out of.there were all sorts.of models of how to optimize.behavior in terms of that..And the building block, sort of.the fruit fly of game theory,.is a game called the.prisoner's dilemma..Prisoner's dilemma, sort of.cutting to-- sort of getting.rid of the details..Two individuals are.prisoners, and they escape,.and they're both captured..And they're.interrogated separately..And both of them refuse to.talk, that's great for them..If they both squeal,.they both get punished..If one of them is able to.squeal on the other one,.they get a great reward..If the other one--.what you get formally.are four possible outcomes..Both individuals.cooperate, both individuals.cheat against each other,.individual A cooperates and B.cheats, individual B.cooperates and A cheats..And what you get in.prisoner's dilemma.is a formal payoff for each..What gives you the.greatest payoff, stabbing.the other guy in the back..You cheat and they cooperate..You have exploited them, you.have taken advantage of them,.isn't that wonderful..That's the highest payoff.in prisoner dilemma games..Second highest payoff,.you both cooperate..Third highest payoff--.which is beginning.to not count as a payoff, but in.a lot of the games, this set up.is the start of.punishment-- both of you.cheat on each other..Fourth worst possible.payoff is you're the sucker..You cooperate, and.the other individual.stabs you in the back..So what the prisoner's.dilemma game.is set up these circumstances.where individuals will play.versions of this against each.other with varying rewards.and that sort of thing,.and parameters that we will.look at in a lot of detail..And seeing when is it.optimal to cooperate,.when is it optimal to cheat..When would you do this..So you've got examples.of this, and this.was the building block..And what anyone would.say looking at this is,.it's obvious..What you want to.do is, in some way,.rationally maximize your payoff..This whole world.of Homo economists,.the notion of humans as being.purely rational decision.makers..And what you begin to see in.this world of game theory is,.there is anything.but that going on..Later in the course,.we're going to see.something very interesting..People playing prisoner's.dilemma games inside a brain.scanner, looking at a.part of the brain that.has a lot to do with pleasure..And what you see.is, some individuals.activate that part of the brain.when they have successfully.stabbed the other.guy in the back..Some individuals activate it.when they have both cooperated..And there's a big.gender difference.as to which circumstance..[LAUGHTER].So you just guess which.one is going on there..We're going to see.a number of studies.like that coming down the line..So the question.becomes, how do you.optimize prisoner dilemma play?.And what emerged.at that time was.the notion of all sorts of.theoretical models and stuff..And then in the 1970s,.there was an economist.at University of Michigan.named Robert Axelrod who.revolutionized the entire field..What he did was he took.some paleolithic computer.and programmed in how the.prisoner's dilemma would.be played..And he could program in as.if there were two players..And he could program in what.each one's strategy would be..And what he then did was, he.wrote to all of his buddies.and all of his mathematician.friends and prize fighters.and theologians and serial.murderers and Nobel Peace Prize.winners, and in.each case, explained.what was up and saying,.what strategy would you use.in a prisoner's dilemma game?.And he gets them all.back, and he programs.all these different versions..And he runs a round.robin tournament..Every strategy is paired.against every other strategy.at one point or other..And you look at.what the payoff is..You ask, which is the.most optimal strategy..And out of it,.shockingly to everyone--.because this was a computer.teaching us optimizing.human behavior-- out of it.came one simple strategy that.always out-competed the others..This is people sitting.there, probabilistic ones.as to when to cooperate, and.lunar cycles as to what to do..The one that always won.is now called tit for tat..You start off cooperating.in the very first round.with the individual..You cooperate..If the individual has cooperated.with you in that round,.you cooperate in the next round..And you cooperate,.cooperate, as long.as the other.individual cooperates..But as soon as there is a round.where the individual cheats.against you, you cheat.against them the next time..If they cheated at.you that time also,.you cheat against.them the next time..If they go back to.cooperating, you.go back to cooperating.the next time..You have this tit.for tat strategy..In the absence of somebody.stabbing you in the back,.you will always cooperate..And what they found.was, run these hundreds.of thousands of versions of.these round robin tournaments,.and tit for tat was the.one that was most optimal,.to begin to use a.word that is not just.going to be a metaphor..Tit for tat always drove.the other strategies.into extinction..And what you wound up seeing.is this optimized strategy..And it was very clear why.tit for tat worked so well..Number one, it was nice..You start off cooperating..Number two, it retaliates if.you do something crummy to it..Number three, it is forgiving..If you go back to cooperating..Number four, it's.clear cut in its play..It's not some.probabilistic thing..What you get, then,.with tit for tat is,.suppose you're playing three.rounds with another individual..You both cooperate.the first one,.you both cooperate the next one..You're playing tit.for tat strategy,.so you cooperate on this one..And they stab you in the back,.and you can't get back at them,.because this is the last round..What you'll see is, under.lots of circumstances,.tit for tat is disadvantageous..But what the soundbite is.about it is, tit for tat.may lose the battles,.but it wins all the wars..This pattern of being nice,.but being retaliatory, being.forgiving, and being.clear in the rules,.drives all the other.strategies into extinction..OK, at this point my.alarm just went off,.which was to remind.me to ask somebody.who is wearing a life vest-- is.somebody wearing a life vest?.[INAUDIBLE].Over there..Where are you?.She just left..She left..Isn't that interesting?.Somebody put me up to.having to ask this person,.why are you wearing a life vest?.And apparently the.answer she would give.was going to free all sorts of.captives in some rebel group.in Colombia..And she fled..OK, what that does is--.[LAUGHTER].I don't know what that says.about reciprocal altruism..But what that says also.is, after I do a summary,.don't make a move..We will have a.five minute break..So what do we have.at this point,.we have the first building.block of optimizing.the evolution of behavior,.like optimizing giraffe hearts..First piece, you don't behave.for the good of the species..Individual selection,.passing on as many copies.of your own genes as possible..Sometimes a chicken is an egg's.way of making another egg,.he says triumphantly..Building block number.two, kin selection..Some of the time, the best way.to pass on copies of your genes.is by way of helping relatives..Kin selection, with the.mathematical fierceness.of degree of.relatedness driving it..Piece three, sometimes.what's most advantageous.is to cooperate, even.with non-relatives,.but with the rules of.it has to be reciprocal.and you have to.cheat when possible..You have to be on.guard against cheaters..And as we've just seen, game.theory, prisoner's dilemma,.beginning to formalize.optimal strategies for that..OK, let's take a.five minute break..But promise you will.come back if you go out,.and everyone won't wander off..Altruism [INAUDIBLE] game.theory as being a form or way.to maximize that behavior.in a very artificial realm,.but stay tuned..Prisoner's dilemma.as the building block.of how to do this amid.lots of other types.of games that are used..But prisoner's dilemma.is the most basic one..And that round robin tournament,.that computer simulation,.Axelrod asking all his.buddies to tell him.what strategy would you use,.run them against each other,.and out comes tit for tat..Tit for tat drives all the.others into extinction..However, there is.a vulnerability.in tit for tat,.which is-- OK, so..We have the technical way of.showing prisoner's dilemma.play..And first round, both.individuals are cooperating..Second round, both.individuals are cooperating..Third round, this one.cheats-- those are fangs..This one cheats and.this one cooperates..So the next round, this.one now cheats and this one.goes back to cooperating,.and we've just.gotten through a scary thing.that tit for tat solves,.and it's great..Wonderful..What if, though, your.system is not 100% perfect..What if there's.a the possibility.of a mistake being made, of.sending the wrong signal..What if there's the possibility.of noise in the communication.system..And at some point,.an individual who.does a cooperative.behavior, thanks to a glitch.in the system, it is read.as having been defection..So what happens as a result?.This individual-- forget it..OK, what happens as a result..The individual who cooperated,.but somehow the message.got through as cheating,.they don't know..Something got lost in the wires.between them in translation..The other individual.was saying whoa,.that individual.cheated against me..I'm going to cheat.in the next round..So along comes the next.round, and that individual.cheats against them..This one who's cooperating,.because they've.been cooperating all along..They don't know.about this error..And they say whoa, that person.just cheated against me..I'm going to cheat.in the next round..So they cheat in the next round..This one says whoa, they.just cheated another time,.again and again and again..And what you get is a seesaw.pattern for the rest of time..You've just wiped out.50% of the cooperation..And what you've got is.tit for tat strategies.are vulnerable to signal error..That's something that soon.came out in these studies.of Axelrod's..When I was a kid, there was.like one of these thriller.books I remember reading where.there's a glitch in the system..And at the time, the.mean scary Soviet Union.launched a missile that--.no, it was the United States..The United States,.by accident, launched.a missile, a nuclear weapon,.where they didn't mean to..Some cockroach chewed through.a wire some place or other..And the missile went off, and.wound up destroying Moscow..And oh my god, we had.a cooperative system.of mutually restraint of.aggression, all of that..And thanks to a signal.error, a cheating signal.was accidentally sent off..And how did the book end?.A tit for tat response..In order to avoid.thermonuclear wasteland,.the Soviet Union was.allowed to destroy New York..All right, so that.shows exactly how.you could then get into.a see-sawing thing,.simply by way of if the.system has any vulnerability.to signal error..So it soon became clear,.as soon as Axelrod.began to introduce the.possibility of signal errors,.that tit for tat didn't work as.well as another strategy, one.that quickly came.to the forefront..And that one-- for.some strange reason,.that's the way it's shown..That one was called.forgiving tit for tat..What happens with.forgiving tit for tat?.The usual rule, like tit.for tat, if you cooperate,.if they cooperate,.you always cooperate..If they cheat against you, you.punish them in the next round..Exactly the same.thing as tit for tat,.but oh no, what if there's.a signal error in the system.and you've gotten caught in.one of these horrible seesawing.things..What forgiving tit.for tat does is,.we'll have a rule, for.example, that if we.see saw like this.five times in a row,.I will forego cheating.the next time..And instead, I'll cooperate..And that will get.things back on track..I am willing to be.forgiving in one round.in order to.re-establish cooperation.after the signal error came in..And that one-- as.soon as you introduce.the possibility of signal.error, that one out-competes.tit for tat..Because it makes perfect sense..It's a great way of.solving that problem..So that was terrific..Tit for tat with the.ability to forgive,.and what you would then see is.variability, how many of these.do you need to go through.before you forgive,.what's the optimal number.of see-sawings, all of that..So a whole world of optimizing.how soon you're forgiving..Nonetheless, the general.theme being forgiving tit.for tat out-competes tit for tat.when you can have signal error..But there is a vulnerability..There is a vulnerability.here to this one, which.is, you could be exploited..If you're playing against,.for example, a tit for tatter,.or all sorts of other.strategies, where.they don't have forgiving.strings of defection.and you do, what's.going to happen.is you're going to keep.going back to cooperating,.they're going to keep.stabbing you in your back..Forgiving tit for tat is.vulnerable to exploitation.playing against.individual players that.don't have forgiveness in them..So what soon became apparent was.an even better strategy, which.is you start off with.a tit for tat strategy..Which is, you are.punitive, you are.retaliatory amid being.forgiving, clear and nice.initially..You are willing to punish, and.you cannot be exploited in this.way..If and only if you have gone.whatever number of rounds.without the other individual.ever cheating on you, if you've.gone long enough.without that happening,.you switch over to.forgiving tit for tat..What is that?.That's deciding.you trust somebody..You've had enough.interactions with them.that you are willing.to trust them..This is the transition from.pure rational optimizing.to switching over, forgiveness.coming in there protects you.from signal error..And of course, now, a whole.world of how many rounds do you.need to do this before.you switch that as to what.the optimal deal with that is..But again, this is a.way of transitioning.to solve the problem.of signal error,.but forgiving too readily.and being taken advantage of..Soon, another strategy appeared,.which was called Pavlov..And those of you who.know Pavlovian psychology.will see that this, in fact,.has nothing whatsoever to do.with Pavlovian psychology, and.I don't know why they did that..But they thought it.was kind of cool..But the rule was.remember, if you.stab the other guy in the back,.you get a bunch of points..If you both cooperate, you.get points, not as many..If you both cheat,.you lose some points..If you're taken advantage.of, you lose a lot of points..So two outcomes you gain,.two outcomes you lose..In Pavlov, the simple rule.is when I do something,.if I get points, if I get.some degree of reward,.I do it again the next time..If I get rewarded in either of.the first two types of payoffs,.I do the same thing again..And the other part, of course,.is, if I play my strategy.and I lose one of the.two bottom outcomes,.I switch to the other.strategy the next time..And what you see is that.can establish very good tit.for tat stuff..But if you sit and.spend hours tonight.with a long roll of.toilet paper and playing.out all the rounds.of it, you will.see what Pavlov allows.you to do is exploit.somebody else who is forgiving..So Pavlov goes along.just fine with this..And as long as Pavlov continues,.whenever they switch over.to a forgiving tit.for tat, Pavlov.will out-compete them,.because Pavlov exploits...What then emerged was just.zillions of people studying.all sorts of games like this..There's other ones, ultimatum.game, there's a trust game..It's the same notion.of business there,.which is you choose to.cooperate, you choose to cheat,.what's the optimal outcome..There are mathematically optimal.outcomes that you can use,.and you run all of it.against the computer,.and you get the optimization.popping out the other end..Wonderful..So there's Axelrod and.his buddies using terms.like oh, this.strategy will drive.the other one into extinction..Or this strategy works,.but if you program in.that every now and then.there could be a glitch,.there can be a mutation,.this will be-- they're.using all this biology jargon,.obviously metaphorically..But right around this.point, the biologists.look at this, who are.just beginning to think.about the social biology stuff..Formal patterns of.optimizing behavior..And they say whoa, does.this apply to the behavior.of real organisms?.Because at this point, it's just.economists and computer types.and diplomats learning.when to optimize,.all that sort of thing..Around the time there.was a paper published,.somewhat before that..This is a name nobody.is going to know,.lost in history, a guy.named Daniel Ellsberg..Daniel Ellsberg became.very famous around 1970,.by he was working.in the Pentagon.and he stole thousands.of pages of secret files.there, and gave it.to the New York Times.showing how utterly.corrupt everything that.went on behind the scenes was.in getting us into Vietnam..Major blowout, all of that..He had spent the early part of.his career perfectly happily.working in the Pentagon for the.military as a game theorist..As a game theorist coming.up with optimal patterns..And he wrote one paper.called \"The Optimal.Benefits of Perceived Madness\"..What times do you.want your opponent.to think you are.absolutely out of your mind.and going to do all.sorts of crazy stuff,.and where they.wind up cooperating.to keep you from doing that..The advantages of.madness, what's that..That's systems where things like.mutually assured destruction.doesn't work, because you.are willing to set it off..The advantages of madness..This whole world of people.working on it, mathematicians.and war strategists..And there's the zoologists now.looking at this saying whoa,.this is cool..I wonder if animals.behave that way..And that's when people, now.armed with their insights.into prisoner's dilemma.and tit for tat,.all this stuff, started to.go and study animals out.in the wild and see, were.there any examples where.this happened..Yes..In all sorts of.interesting realms..First example, vampire bats..Vampire bats, we are all.set up to be creeped out.by vampire bats..But in actuality, when you.see a vampire bat drinking.the blood of some.cow or something,.you are watching a mommy.getting food for her babies..Because vampire bat.mothers are not actually.drinking the blood..They're filling up.this throat sack thing,.and they go back to the.nest and they disgorge.the blood to feed their babies..She's just watching.out for her kids..It happens that vampire bats.have an interesting system.of reciprocal altruism, which.is a whole bunch of females.will share the same nest..Will have all their.kids in there mixed in..And these are not.necessarily related,.so we've just left the.world of kin selection..They're not necessarily.related, but they have.reciprocal altruists system..Each female comes in,.disgorges the blood,.and feeds everybody's babies..And they all feed.each other's babies,.and everything is terrific..And they have this blood.vampire commune going there..And they've reached a nice.state of stable cooperation..Now, make the bats think.that one of the females.is cheating on them..Out comes that female flying off.to find some blood, and instead.you net her and.get a hold of her,.and take some.syringe full of air.and pump up the throat.sack so the throat.sack is really.full and distended,.but there's no blood in there..You've just pumped.air into there..And stick her back.into the nest there..And she's just.sitting there happily,.and the other.females are sitting.saying look at her, look at.how much blood she's got there..I can't believe it, because.she's not feeding our kids..She's cheating on us..And the next time.they go out to feed,.the other females.don't feed her kids..A tit for tat..What you saw here.is an exact example.of introducing signal error..Signal error, in this case,.being some grad student.pumping up the throat.of some vampire bat.and showing that they're using.a version of a tit for tat.strategy..Totally amazing..People were blown away by this..Another example, fish..Stickleback fish who, in the.world of animals-- you know,.bats are probably not some of.the brightest folks around..But I don't think sticklebacks.are within light years of them..But stickleback fish can.do a tit for tat strategy..Here's what you do..You have a stickleback.fish in your fish tank,.and you make the fish.believe that he's.being attacked by another fish..What do you do?.You put a mirror up against.the edge of the tank there..So within a very short.time-- I told you.they were not that smart..So within a very.short time, he's.lunging forward at.this mirrored thing.and maintaining his.territory against this guy.and barely holding on..And that other guy is.just-- he doesn't get tired..Thank god I don't get tired..And they're just going at it..And now make him think he.has a cooperative partner..Put in a second mirror.that's perpendicular here..In other words, he sees.his reflection there..And every time he.moves forward, the.sees that one moving.forward, which is fortunate.because he's also seeing another.fish coming from that way..And he's sitting there.saying, this is great..I don't know who this guy is,.but wow, what a team we are..[LAUGHTER].Doubles, this is great..He's in there and the thing.is, it's funny how those two.guys are so synchronized..But whoa, we're holding.them off and we're doing it..Now make him think his.cooperating partner is,.in fact, cheating on him..Take the mirror and.angle it back a little.bit so the reflection.is set back some..And what he now sees is.the fish moving forward,.but not all the way.up to the wall there..The fish is hanging back there..The fish is cheating..And this stickleback is sitting.there saying, in effect,.that son of a bitch..I can't believe he's.doing that to me..We've worked together for years..I can't believe he's-- oh.he's pretending to go forward..But I see he's not.really doing that..Fortunately, that guy isn't.coming forward anymore, either..Phew..But I can't believe.the guy is cheating..And the next time you set up.this scenario, the next time.there's a chance the.stickleback doesn't attack.its own reflection there..It is tit for tatting.against this guy..So here we've managed to.set up one of these deals.within one fish and.carrying it out forever..One fish, ultimately with.some very blistered lips..Tit for tat, once again..Another example..This is the most bizarre.one I can imagine, and leads.to all sorts of.subjects that are going.to come many lectures from now..But there are fish species.that will change sex..And they do it under all sorts.of strategic circumstances.that suddenly begin to fit.into this realm of what.we've been learning about..And you've got one of these.things called black hamlet.fish..And they can change gender..So you'll have a.pair of them who.hang out with each other.of opposite genders,.and they take turns..They flip back and forth..For a while, this one's.female, and for a while,.this one's female..And they go back and.forth, and that's great..But there's an.inequity there, which.is that the price.of reproduction.is greater for the.female than for the male..As is the case in.so many species,.the female doing all.that egg and ovaduct.and progesterone stuff,.or whatever it is..And the male's just got to.come up with some sperm there..Doing to reproduction.as a cooperating pair,.they're not relatives..Reciprocal altruism, maximizing.each of their reproductions..Whoever's the female.in any given round.is the one who's paying more..What you see are reciprocal.relationships there.of the fish using tit for tat..If you get one fish that.begins to cheat and winds up.being a male too.much of the time,.the other fish stops.cooperating with them..Again, tit for tat stuff..So people were just blown out.of the water at this point,.seeing whoa, forget rational.human economic thinking,.all of that..You go out into the wild,.and bats and stickleback fish.and gender switching.fish and all of that,.they're following some of.the exact same strategies..Isn't nature amazing..No, nature isn't amazing..It's the exact same.logic as saying.a giraffe has to.have a heart that's.strong enough to.pump blood to the top.of the head of a giraffe..Or else there.wouldn't be a giraffe..And when you look at this realm,.it's applying the same notion..This same sort of wind tunnel.of selective optimization.for behavior-- in this.case, when to cheat,.when to cooperate--.sculpts something.that is as optimized.as a giraffe's heart.being the right size..So this made perfect sense..Wonderful..But then people began to.look a little bit closer,.and began to see the very.distressing real world.beginning to creep in there..Which were exceptions..First exception..This was done by a guy named.Craig Packer, University.of Minnesota, looking.at lions in East Africa..What you get is,.typically, prides.are a whole bunch of relatives,.usually female, sisters,.nieces, all of that..But you will sometimes.get prides that.are not of close relatives..Nonetheless, they will get.reciprocal altruistic things.going on..Lions, in this case,.having the same trick as.was done on those.vervet monkeys..Researcher putting inside.the bush there a speaker,.and playing the sound of like.400 menacing lions all at once..What you're supposed to do.is freak out at that point..And all of you need to very.carefully approach and see.what's going on in that bush..So what would happen.in a reciprocal system,.and everybody does this..Or if one time, one.of them cheats on you,.you push that one.forward the next time..Or some such thing..That's what you would expect..But what he would.begin to notice.is, in a bunch of these groups,.there'd be one scaredy cat.lion, one who habitually.stayed behind the others.and who wasn't punished for it..So this produced.this first puzzle.that oh, sometimes animals.aren't optimizing tit for tat..Sometimes animals haven't read.Robert Axelrod's landmark 1972.paper, that sort of thing..And what you suddenly.have is the real world..What could be.possible explanations?.One thing being, maybe they're.not really paying attention..Maybe they're not.quite that smart..Wait, bacteria are doing.versions of tit for tat..What else could be going on?.Oh, lions interact.in other realms..Maybe this individual is.doing very reciprocal stuff,.forgiving overly altruistic.stuff in some other realm.of behavior..Maybe this lion eats.less of the meat.and backs off earlier,.or something like that..Maybe there's another game.going on simultaneously..And this is introducing.the real world.in which it is not.just two individuals.sitting there playing prisoner's.dilemma and optimizing..You suddenly begin to get.real world complexities coming.in there..And by the time we.get to the lectures,.way down the line, on.aggression and cooperation,.what you'll see is things.get really complicated.when you have individuals.playing games simultaneously..The rules that you apply.to one psychologically.begin to dribble.into the other one..All sorts of things like that..It will get very complicated..So a first hint there.that, in fact, everything.doesn't work perfectly.along those lines..Here's another version..Here's one of the truly.weird species out there,.something called.the naked mole rat..If you ever have.nothing to do and you've.got Google Image up there, go.spend the evening looking up.close up pictures.of naked mole rats..These are the weirdest.things out there..They are the closest.things among the mammals.to social insects, in terms.of how their colonies work..They're totally.bizarre, all of that..But they live in these.big, cooperative colonies.that are predominately.underground in Africa..And they were discovered, I.think, only in the 1970s or so..And for a while when.zoologists got together,.if you were a naked.mole rat person,.you were just the.coolest around..And everybody else.would feel intimidated,.because you were working on.the best species out there..And you would see these.big cooperative colonies,.soon shown to not.necessarily be of relatives..And reciprocity and all.those sorts of rules..But people soon.began to recognize.there would be one or two.animals in each colony that.weren't doing any work..Work digging out.tunnels, bookkeeping,.I don't know what naked mole.rats do in terms of work..But there would be a.few individuals who.would just be sitting around..And they were these big.old naked mole rats..They were much bigger.than the other ones,.and they were scarfing.up food left and right..There goes Robert.Axelrod down the drain..There goes all.that optimization,.because no one would be.punishing these guys..What's the deal?.And it took enough watching.these animals long enough.to see this notion.of oh, there's.another game going.on in which they.play a more important role..And it is sort of.dribbling across..When the rainy season comes,.these big naked mole rats.go up and turn around and they.plug the entry to the tunnels.then..[LAUGHTER].That's what they do..And suddenly,.these guys who have.been sitting around doing.no work whatsoever all year.and eating tons of stuff, they.suddenly have to now stick.their rear ends out for.the coyotes to be around.or whatever it is.that predates them..What we have is role.diversification..Real animals, real.organisms, are not just.playing one formal prisoner's.dilemma game against each other.at the same time..And by the time we, again,.get to the later lectures.on aggression,.cooperation, all of that,.we will not only see that things.get much more complicated when.you're playing.simultaneous games,.when you're playing a game.against one individual.while you're playing.against another one,.and then against.triangular circumstances..How play differs if you.know how many rounds.you are playing against.the individual versus.if you have no idea..How play differs.if, when you are.about to play.against someone, you.get to find out what.their behavior has.been in the previous trials.with other individuals..In other words, if somebody.shows up with a reputation,.we'll see this is a much.more complicated world.of playing out these games..A much more realistic one..So we begin to see a first pass.at all this optimization stuff,.and how great that all is..One final interesting addition.to this game theory world.of thinking about behavior like.that, which came from a guy.named James Holland,.who apparently-- might.have a different first name..But Holland, apparently, as an.interesting piece in history,.he's the person first.person to ever get.a PhD in Computer Sciences..Which I think was in the late.50s, University of Michigan..Apparently, there are realms.of computer programmers.who worship this guy..And he, like a lot of other.folks in that business,.got interested in this.game theory evolution.of optimal strategies..And he designed ways.of running all of this..And he introduced.a new ripple, which.is the possibility of a.strategy suddenly changing..The possibility of a mutation..What he could then.study was mutations,.how often they were.adaptive, how often they.spread throughout the strategy.there, of individuals playing..How often they drove.the other strategies.into extinction versus.ones that were quickly.driven to extinction themselves..More cases where we are.getting these systems.where maybe they're not just.metaphorically using terms.from biology..Maybe they are exactly.modeling the same thing..And we will see more and.more evidence for that..OK, so reciprocal altruism..How would that play out in the.world of natural selection..Natural selection,.cooperative hunting..And there's lots of species.that have cooperative hunting..Wild dogs, jackals, some.other species as well..Clearly, that's.like the definition.of cooperative hunting,.of reciprocal altruism,.if they're not relatives..How would sexual.selection play out.in the realm of.reciprocal altruism?.A little bit less obvious there..That would be if you.and some non-relative.spent an insane amount.of energy and time.making sure you both look really.good before going to the prom..That would be sexual selection.working on reciprocal altruism.system..So what we have now are.three building blocks..This whole trashing of it's.not survival of the fittest..It's not behaving for.the good of the species..It's not behaving for.the good of the group..But instead, these.three building.blocks, the ways to optimize.as many copies of your genes.in the next generation.as possible..Way number one,.individual selection,.a version of selfish genes..Sometimes a chicken is an egg's.way of making another egg..Behavior is just a way of.getting copies of genes.into the next generation..Piece number two, inclusive.fitness kin selection..That whole business,.that sometimes the best.way of passing on copies.is to help relatives do it..And it's a function of.how related they are..The whole world of cooperation.more among related organisms.than unrelated ones..And as we will see way.down the line, what.is very challenging.in different species.is, how do you figure out.who you are related to?.And humans do it in a very.unique way that sets them up.for being exploited in all.sorts of circumstances that.begin to explain why culture.after culture, people.are really not nice to thems,.and it flows along those lines..This is something we will.get to in a lot of detail..So degree of relatedness,.a lecture coming..How do you tell who.you're related to..But that second.piece, kin selection..Third piece,.reciprocal altruism..You scratch my back and.I'll scratch your back..And whenever possible, you want.to instead scratch your back,.and they want to.make sure you're.not scratching your back..Or whatever cheating counts as..But trying to cheat,.being vigilant against it,.formal games where you can.optimize it, very complicated..And can you believe it, you.go out into the real world,.and you find examples.of precisely that..Optimization with tit for.tat, isn't nature wonderful..It's gotta work that way..Then you begin to see how the.real world is more complicated..Multiple roles, naked mole.rats stuck in plumbing,.things of that sort..These are the principles..And what people of this.school of evolutionary thought.would say, armed with.these sorts of principles,.you could now look at all.sorts of interesting domains.of animal behavior.and understand.what the behavior is going.to be like by using these..OK, we start with.the first example..Here we return to these guys..And we have one species.here, and knowing.this guy had a penis.and this one nursed,.we've got an adult male.and an adult female..What is it that.you can conclude?.In this species, males are.a lot bigger than females..Let's state it here as there's.a big ratio of males to females..Meanwhile in the.next county, you've.discovered another species.where somebody's got a penis.and somebody else is nursing..And their skulls are.the exact same size..Oh, here's a species.where there's.no difference in body size.between males and females..Let's begin to see, just.using the principles.we've got in hand already, what.sort of stuff we can predict..Starting, which of those.species-- in one case,.you have males being a.lot bigger than females..In one case, you've got males.being the same size as females..In which of those species,.the first one like this,.or the same size.ones, which ones.would you expect to see.more male aggression?.First one..First one..OK, how come?.Their bodies are built for it..Their bodies are built for it..Which begins to.tell you something,.their bodies are.built for it, maybe.because females have.been selecting for that..You will see higher.levels of aggression.in species like this, where.there's a big body size.difference, and much.less of it in these guys..Next, you now ask how.much variability is there.in male reproductive success..In one of these.species, all the males.have one or two kids.over their lifetime..In another species,.95% of the reproducing.is carried out by.5% of the males..A huge variability skew in.male reproductive success..Which species do you.get the every male has.a couple of kids, and that's.about it, and all equally so?.Which one?.[INAUDIBLE].Second one..How come?..Because these guys are being.selected for aggression..If they're fighting,.there's going.to have to be something.they're fighting for..Deferential reproductive access..OK, so you see more variability.in species that look like this..Next, females come.into the equation..What do females want?.What do females want in.the species on the left.versus the one on the right?.The one on the.right, again, skull's.the same size, same body size..On the left, what.does the female want?.[INAUDIBLE].What sort of male is the.female interested in?.[INAUDIBLE].Big..Exactly..That's exactly the.driving force on this..How come?.Because she's not going to get.anything else out of this guy..This guy is just going.to, like-- the present.is going to be some sperm..It might as well be some.good sperm, some genetically.well-endowed sperm that makes.her a big healthy offspring,.increasing the odds of her.passing on copies of her genes.in the next generation..What about in this species?.What's females looking for?..[INAUDIBLE].OK, good..Hold on to that for.a second, and let's.jump ahead a few lines..One of the species,.males have never.been known to do the slightest.affiliative thing with infants..They just get irritated and.harass them and all of that..In the other, you.have soccer dads.who are doing as much raising.of the kids as the females are..In which species do you get.lots of male parental behavior?.Smaller..The one on the right..OK..So lots of male.parental behavior here...Somebody just gave the.answer here, female choice..What would you see.in this species?.You want big, muscular guys..You want whatever is.selling that season for what.counts as a hot male, because.you want your offspring.to have those traits..And somebody else.called out here,.what do females want.in this category?.And what was it you said?.Good personality..[LAUGHTER].Good personality..Yes..Able to express emotions..[LAUGHTER].That, too..OK, somebody else.shouted out something.that gets at the broader,.more globally Oprah version..OK, somebody shouted out--.[INAUDIBLE].--parental behavior..You want a male who is going.to be competent at raising.your children..What is it that you.want, really most deeply?.You want to get the male who.is the most like a female you.can get a hold of..You don't want some.big old stupid guy.with a lot of muscle and canines.who's wasting energy on stuff.like that he could be using.instead on reading Goodnight.Moon or some such thing..What you want.instead is somebody.who's as close to a female as.you can get to without getting.this lactation stuff..Males are chosen who are.the same size as females..So the term given here is.choosing for paternal behavior,.parental behavior..Parental, let's just.put that in there..And that begins to explain.the top line, species.in which there's a lot.of sexual dimorphism..Morphism, shapes of things..Sexual dimorphism,.big difference.in body size as a.function of gender..And in these sorts.of species where.you get male parental.behavior, not.much variability in male.reproductive success,.low levels of.aggression, and what.females want is.a competent male..These are ones where you see low.degrees of sexual dimorphism..So how's a female.going to figure out.that this guy is going.to be a competent parent?.Once again, we just figured out,.if he looks kind of like you..Because that suggests he hasn't.wasted health and metabolism.on stupid, pointless.muscles when there's.more important things.in life for making sure.your kids have good values..What else would the female.want to know when she's first.considering mating with a male?..Is he a nice guy,.is he sensitive,.does he express his feelings..Is he competent.at being a parent..What do you want the.individual to do?.Prove to you that he can.provide for the kids..And suddenly you have a world of.male birds courting the females.by bringing them worms..Bringing them.evidence that they are.able to successfully forage,.they are able to get food..Female choice is built.around appearance.and behavioral.competence at being.able to be a successful.parent in order.to pass on as many.copies of genes.to the next generation.as possible..OK, how about life span..In which species is there a big.difference in life expectancy.as a function of gender?.First one..First one..Here you're choosing.for males to be.as close to females as possible,.and thus the physiology..Here you've got.these guys who are.using huge amounts.of energy to build up.all this muscle, which.takes a lot more work.to keep in calories..And you're more.vulnerable in famines..You've got these males.with high testosterone,.which does bad stuff to.your circulatory system..You've got males who, thanks.to all this aggression,.are getting more.injuries, more likely..In species in which you have.a lot of sexual dimorphism.in body size, you get a lot of.sexual dimorphism in life span..Then you look at these.guys, and it's basically.no difference by gender..Moving on..Considering primates.that are one.of these two patterns, in.which one do you always.want to give birth to twins,.in which one do you never.want to give birth to twins?.Who gives birth to twins?.[INAUDIBLE].The one of the right, of course..How come?.Because you've got two.parents on the scene..You are not a single mother..And you are a single mother.rhesus monkey or something,.and you give birth to.twins, and you do not.have the remotest.chance of enough energy,.enough calories on board, to.get both of them to survive..A twin that is born.in a species like this.has the same rate that it occurs.in humans, about a 1% rate..And it is almost inevitable that.one of them does not survive..Meanwhile, there's a whole.world of primate species.with this profile where.the females always twin...Finally, you are.the female and you.are contemplating.bailing out on your kids.and disappearing,.because there's.some really hot guy over there.who you want to mate with..And you are trying to.figure out this strategy..So you are going to leave.and abandon your kids..In which species do.you see that behavior?.The one on the right..The one on the right, because.you bail out and the male.is there taking care of them..You bail out in here, and you've.lost your investment and copies.your genes for the.next generation..You see female cuckoldry,.this great Victorian term..You see females cheating on.the fathers in this species,.but not in species like this..Because the father is long gone.and three other counties there,.courting somebody else..And it doesn't.matter, you're not.going to get any help from him..In primate species.of this profile,.you always see twinning..And they both survive..And what studies have.shown in these species,.and we'll get to.them shortly, is.after birth, in fact, the males.are expending more calories.taking care of the.offspring, then.the females go bail out on him.and go find some other hot guy..Which, in your species,.counts as some guy.who looks even more like you.than he does in terms of what.you want out of the individual..So that..So what have we done here?.We've just gone through.applying these principles.in this logical.way, and everybody.from the very first step was.getting the right outcome..And go, and these are.exactly the profiles.you find in certain species..Among social mammals,.these would be referred to.as a tournament species..A tournament species,.whereas the one on the right.is referred to as a pair.bonding, a monogamous species..Because in this one,.males and females.stay together, because they.both have equivalent investment.in taking care of the kids..All of that..What you have here.is this contrast.between tournament species.and pair bonding species..Tournament species,.these are all the species.where you get males with.big, bright plumage..These are peacocks,.these are all those birds.and fish species where the.males are all brightly colored..What are the females.choosing for?.Peacock feathers does not make.for a good peacock mother..Peacock feathers are signs.of being healthy enough.that you can waste.lots of energy.on these big stupid.pointless feathers..That's a sign of health..That's a sign of all I'm getting.from this peacock is genes,.I might as well.go for good ones..That's the world.of peacocks, that's.the world of chickens.with pecking orders,.dominating like that,.lots of aggression..That's the world of primates.where, as in savanna baboons,.the male is twice as.big as the female..Tournament species, where a.lot of passing on of genes.is decided by male-male.aggression in the context.of tournaments producing.massive amounts of variability.in reproductive success..Where males are being selected.for being good at this,.so they sure are being selected.for having big bodies, which.winds up meaning.a shortened life.span for a bunch of reasons..Females are choosing for that..These are guys who are.not using their energy.on parental behavior,.thus you do not.want to have twins if.you are a female baboon,.and you do not want to.bail out on the kids.because nobody else is.going to take care of them..Go and look at a.new primate species,.and see this much of a.difference in skull size,.and you'd just be able.to derive everything.else about its social behavior..Meanwhile, these guys on the.right, pair bonding species..These are found among South.American monkeys, marmosets,.tamarins..You put up a picture.of them, which.I will do if I ever.master PowerPoint.in some subsequent.lecture-- you put up.a picture of a marmoset.pair, and you can't tell.who's the male and the female..This is not the world.of the mandrill baboons,.with males with big, bright,.bizarre coloration on the face,.and with antlers when.the females don't,.and that whole world.of sexual dimorphism..You can't tell which.one is the male.and which one is the female.marmoset by looking at them..You can't tell by seeing.how long they live..You can't tell by.how much they're.taking care of the kids..You can't tell in terms of.their reproductive variability..That's a whole different.world of selection..All of the South American.tamarins and marmosets,.the females always twin..They have a higher.rate of cuckoldry,.of abandoning the kids..The males take as much.care, if not more,.of the kids than.the female does..Very low levels of aggression..Same body size, same lifespan..All the males have low.degree of variability..How come?.Because if you're.some marmoset male,.you don't want to get 47.marmoset females pregnant..Because you are going to have.to take care of all the kids..Because as we will see way.down the line in lectures.on parental behavior,.the wiring there is such.is bonding with the offspring.and taking care of them..No wonder among.species like these,.you have very low variability..All the males reproduce.once or twice..This is the world of 5%.of the guys accounting.for 95% of the matings..This is totally.remarkable because again,.that starting point..You start off here,.and you look at these,.and oh, you can tell if.they were bipedal and were.they diseased or malnourished,.simply by applying.these principles of individual.selection, reciprocity,.all of that..One factoid, you see.a new primate species,.and you see one nursing.and one with a penis,.and they're the same size or.there's difference in the size,.and you already know all.about their social system..Very consistent across birds,.across fish, across primates..Of course, all of.those, this dichotomy.between tournament species.and pair bonding species..As we will see.way down the line,.among some species,.types of voles, rodents,.that are famous in Hallmark.cards for their pair bonding,.for their monogamy..As we'll see, they're.not quite as monogamous.as you would think..But nonetheless, a general.structure like this..So, one asks expectedly, where.do humans fit in on this one?.Where do humans fit?.And the answer.is, complicatedly..Are we a tournament species,.are we a pair bonding species..What's up with that?.What we will see is.we're kind of in between..When you look at the degree.of sexual dimorphism,.we are not like baboons, but.we're sure not like marmosets..We're somewhere in the middle..Variability is somewhere.in the middle there..I'm not going near that one..Life span, the.dimorphism in lifespan.tends to be in between..Parental behavior and.likelihood-- all of those,.you look at a.number of measures..And by next lecture,.we'll be looking.at some genetics of what.a monogamous species.and tournament.species look like..And we're right in the middle..In other words, that explains.like 90% of literature..Because we're not a classic.tournament species and we're.not a classic pair bonding one..We are terribly confused.in the middle there..And everything about.anthropology supports that..Most people on the.planet right now.are in a form of.monogamous relationships.in a culture that.demands monogamy..An awful lot of people who are.in monogamous relationships.in such cultures aren't really.in monogamous relationships..Traditionally, most cultures on.this planet allowed polygamy..Nonetheless, in most of.those polygamous cultures,.the majority of individuals.were pair bonded and monogamous..You get two different.versions of polygamy.in different social.systems of humans..One is economic polygamy,.which is you're basically.sitting around, and the.wealthiest guy in the village.is the one who can have the.largest number of wives..An enormous skew in.reproductive success.that's driven by economics..The other type is demographic..You have a culture.where, for example, you.have a warrior class..Guys spend 10 years as.warriors-- worriers, warriors,.New York City accent..As warriors, they don't worry..There's no anxiety..But they eventually worry.about getting a wife,.because by the time they're.done being a warrior,.they're like 25..And they marry someone.who's 13, which.is what you see in a lot.of traditional cultures.that follow that pattern..And at that point,.you've got a problem,.which is an awful lot of.those guys have been killed.over the course of 10.years of being involved.in high levels of aggression.and 10 more years of life.expectancy to catch up with you..There's is a shortage of males..So you see polygamy there.driven by demographics,.and you see polygamy.driven by economics.in other types of society..So most cultures on this.planet allow-- traditionally,.before the.missionaries got them--.most cultures on this.planet allow polygamy..Nonetheless, within most.polygamous cultures,.the majority of people.are not polygamous..We have one really confused,.screwed up species here..Because we are halfway in.between in all sorts of these.measures..OK, so what do we.have next, which.we will pick up on Friday..What we've just.started with here.is the first case of using.all these principles,.individual selection, kin.selection, reciprocal altruism,.to understand all sorts.of aspects of behavior..We will then move.on to seeing how.they explain other aspects.of animal behavior, some ones.which, if you are behaving for.the good of the species circa.1960, there's no explanation.at all, because you're.doing things like killing.other members of your species..And then finally,.we will see how.this applies to humans and.some of the witheringly.appropriate--.For more, please visit.us at stanford.edu...

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Using this useful extension feature offered by Chrome, you can add CocoSign extension to your browser and use it whenever you need to write eSignatures in your documents. With CocoSign extension, you will also get other features like merge PDFs, add multiple eSignatures, share your document, etc.

Here are the basic key elements you need to follow:

  1. Note the CocoSign extension on Chrome Webstore and choose the option 'Add'.
  2. Log in to your account if registered before, otherwise choose signup and register with us.
  3. On your Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford , right-click on it and go to open with option. From there, choose CocoSign reader to open the document.
  4. Choose 'My Signature' and write your own signatures.
  5. Place it on the page where you require it.
  6. Choose 'Done'.
  7. Once you are done, save it. You can also fax it with other people.

How to create an electronic signature for the Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford in Gmail?

Mailing documents is so useful that majority of businesses have gone paperless. Therefore, it will be a great selection if one can esign form online from Gmail in a straight line. You can do it by adding a CocoSign extension on your Chrome. Here is what you need to do:

  1. Add the CocoSign extension to your browser from the Chrome Webstore.
  2. Log in to your pre-registered account or quickly 'Sign up'.
  3. Open the email with the document you need to sign.
  4. From the sidebar, choose 'Sign'.
  5. Draw your electronic signatures.
  6. Generate them in the document where you need to.
  7. Choose 'Done'.

The signed file is in the draft folder. You can easily share it to your required mailing address.

Working with electronic signatures in Gmail is such a quick and cheap tool. It is specifically designed for people who work from anywhere. By CocoSign, and you will surely be among our hundreds of happy users.

How to create an e-signature for the Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford straight from your smartphone?

mobiles are the most useful electronic devices used nowadays. You must be interested in using e-signature from this most used electronic device.

What's more, with eSignature capability on your mobile phone, you can e-sign your document anytime, anywhere, away from your laptop or desktop. You can work with CocoSign electronic signature on your mobile phones by following these key elements:

  1. Direct to the CocoSign website from your mobile browser. Login to your CocoSign account or sign up with us if you don't have registered before.
  2. Click the document you need to e-sign from your mobile folder.
  3. Open the document and choose the page where you want to put the electronic signatures.
  4. Choose 'My Signatures'.
  5. Write your electronic signature and insert it to the page.
  6. Choose 'Done'.
  7. Print the document or directly share through email.

That's it. You will be done signing your Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford on your mobile phones within minutes. With CocoSign's remote signature tool, you no longer need to worry about the usage of your electronic signatures and use our app of your choice.

How to create an e-signature for the Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford on iOS?

Many apps have a more complex setup when you start using them on an iOS device like the iPhone or iPad. However, you can esign form online safely with CocoSign, either using the iOS or Android operating system.

Below instructions will help you to e-sign your Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford from your iPad or iPhone:

  1. Add the CocoSign app on your iOS device.
  2. Write your CocoSign account or login if you have a previous one.
  3. You can also sign in through Google and Facebook.
  4. From your internal storage, click the document you need to e-sign.
  5. Open the document and choose the space you want to place your signatures.
  6. Write your electronic signatures and save them in your desired folder.
  7. Save the changes and send your Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford .
  8. You can also share it to other people or upload it to the cloud for future use.

Select CocoSign electronic signature solutions and enjoy effectively working on your iOS devices.

How to create an electronic signature for the Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford on Android?

These days, Android gadgets are commonly used. Therefore, to assist its customers, CocoSign has developed the app for Android users. You can use the following intstructions to e-sign your Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford from Android:

  1. Add the CocoSign app from Google Play Store.
  2. Login to your CocoSign account from your device or signup if you have not been pre-registered.
  3. Choose on the '+' option and add the document in which you want to place your electronic signatures.
  4. Select the area you want to put your signatures.
  5. Generate your e-signature in another pop-up window.
  6. Place it on the page and choose '✓'.
  7. Save changes and send the file.
  8. You can also share this signed Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford with other people or upload it on the cloud.

CocoSign helps you to write lots of electronic signatures at anytime. Connect with us now to automate your document signing.

Lab Rotation Evaluation Forms Department Of Biology Stanford Biology Stanford FAQs

Here are some frequently asked questions along with their answers to clear up the doubts that you might have.

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How can I fill out the form of the BHU biology honors or zoology honors?

Please visit: Banaras Hindu University : Entrance Exam If [possible call them up on phone to find out more details.If you need furter help please revert.

I'm a high school student in Utah and I want to do marine biology. what colleges could I go to that I can get the lab work and education and field experience I need? how can I get scholarships for good marine biology colleges out of state?

I was also a marine biologist and have a masters degree in marine biology (now I am a wetland scientist) Becoming a marine biologist takes a lot of hard work like Teng stated. I believe what got me to be a marine biologist is getting good experience. Try to get as much experience as you can and start early. Work at a Pet Store, intern during the summer (even in high school) and in college again intern in the summer... try Galveston marine lab, DisneyWorld in Orlando, Mote marine Laboratory in Sarasota, FL, look for places in California, Oregon, Washington, etc.. along the coast that might have places where you can work (most likely unpaid). Work hard, do good on your SATs and GREs, and take some good classes. As Teng stated, I recommend going to a college where you can get a good biology, zoology, or environmental science degree... Then apply to graduate school for marine biology. Most people pursue marine biology and then don't become marine biologists.. its a good idea to get an education in something else.. i recommend environmental science or zoology (I did zoology). Some good graduate schools for marine biology - UC Santa Cruz, Cal State and Monterey Bay (they have a marine mammal facility that's pretty cool - I visited it), Texas A&M Galveston, Eckerd College in St Pete, UNC Wilmington.. I'm sure there are others. I went to Nova Southeastern University in Dania Beach, FL for grad school. I only went there because they didn't have a traditional thesis program like the others. I went and visited UC Santa Cruz, Cal State, and UNC Wilmington and none of them would accept me since they didn't have "space" in their program.. You need to bring something to the program (Money) or great experience.. or they just have an opening... You can wait until there is an opening or find somewhere else to go. I don't know of any scholarships since marine biology is a highly sought after program. I got a scholarship for my undergrad (University of Florida) but it was only like $1500 through the Atlanta Gator Alumni Club. Check for scholarships through your local alumni clubs for the schools you are thinking of attending.. like I did. I highly recommend getting as much experience as you can.. get internships now and while in college. Even then, getting an marine biology internship can be very hard. I got a great internship because I took upon myself to do independent research while an undergraduate at the University of Florida. The research I did on Stenella skulls (measured skulls from various museums) made me stand out from the other applicants and I got an internship at Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota working in the dolphin and manatee stranding department. I ended up carrying a pager and was on call for any stranding events. I performed necropsies and other things like that. Even with this internship, it was really hard to get into graduate school for marine biology. You are compete against others around the US (and world) with almost perfect GRE scores and tons more experience than I had. I still went to graduate school (Nova Southeastern University in Dania Beach, FL) but did not go to a larger school with a traditional thesis program. I ended up getting my masters in marine biology and was able to get a job at an engineering firm as a marine biologist. I'd like to think my education and experience got me the job.. and it did help but ultimately my friend was working there and he helped me get the job. I worked as a marine biologist for about 3 years. I primarily dove the coasts of Florida, running transects in the nearshore hard bottom areas primarily for beach nourishment projects. It seems fun but it is hard work.. being underwater for 10 hours a day... even in the winter (the water can get around 60 degrees in the winter) and you have to work in some large swells/waves 3-4 feet at times (rare but it does happen). I left that job and got a job as a wetland/environmental scientist and enjoy it very much. I still occaissionally get some coastal work.. but its primarily desk work and report writing. Anyway, bottom line.. there are various routes in marine biology.. but its a tough field. Get really good grades, good test scores, and lots of experience.. that is the best you can do.

How is DNA testing done? How is DNA ‘extracted’ out of saliva, hair, or any other biological material? How does the lab get into DNA structure and determines whether it belongs to one person or another?

DNA is extracted from cells found in saliva, hair follicles and other bodily materials by separating out the cells from the fluid or other matrix they are trapped in. The DNA comes from the nucleus of the cell. One of the oldest and cheapest ways of comparing DNA is to break up the molecules and see how quickly they recombine with DNA from the reference source. The faster and tighter they recombine the closer the relationship between the two test subjects.

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