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the following program is part one of two.parts each 90 minutes long there is.support material available at this.website including quizzes handouts and.lecture outlines for all presentations.consult the uctv programming guide for.the date and time part 2 and other.lectures in the series will be shown.we've got a lot of material to cover as.you saw by the agenda that I put.together so I'll be talking rapidly and.I might overlook something so if you've.got a question be sure and y'all stop me.here well as Judy mentioned we're.talking about pesticides and I brought.my own favorite bottle of pesticides.with me and I have to do a disclaimer at.this point what's wrong with this.picture it's an empty pesticide what's.wrong with that it has to be disposed of.why is that okay so what can you do.what's the legal uses of an empty.pesticide container absolutely this is a.great crowd absolutely none so why am i.bringing it in here and using it as a.teaching aid I tried it out good I'd.lose it on the way actually if the egg.Commissioner next door saw me using this.as a empty pesticide container you've.probably whipping out his ticket book.and writing me a twenty five hundred.dollar fine or something like that for.improper use of an empty pesticide.container so you got to help me out here.if the eye Commissioner comes over and.and support me because I'm going to tell.you that this is not an empty pesticide.container and why is that.no it's never been a full pesticide.container we got it from the pesticide.manufacturer as an unfilled container so.it can't be an empty pesticide container.if it's over it's never been a full.pesticide container so you're going to.vouch for me you believe it okay.everybody's happy with that all right so.the topic today is pesticides I'm going.to be switching between some overheads.and some slides so we'll have a little.multimedia presentation here.okay if any of you were around in the.1950s and happened to open up of.Saturday or Reader's Digest you would.see this ad this came from an actual ad.in The Reader's Digest in the 1950s.pesticides at that time we're just.coming into use DDT was a very popular.material had been developed during the.war and been used to protect soldiers.from external parasites and and all.kinds of things and it was our magic.bullet we were going to solve all of our.pest problems at least our insect pest.problems with DDT actually it's been a.very valuable product DDT alone has been.responsible for saving millions of.millions of lives because it was used.and as still is being used today in some.parts of the world for control of the.malaria berry transmitting mosquito so.without having used DDT many millions of.people would have died from malaria.because it was a very effective material.one of the reasons it was effective it.lasts a long time it's a very long.lasting the material like I say it's.still being used today in fact it's.being manufactured right here in.California and a few years ago they even.used a little bit in California for.control of mosquitoes in the Bay Area.because of the fear for malaria and it.was very effective.so under certain circumstances it has.been used in the US but it's basically.been banned for about Oh 20 25 years in.the US for general use one of the.reasons D.that it sticks around for a long time.and it causes a lot of environmental.contamination that we are very generous.taxpayers we're spending ten million.dollars in the in the Bay Area right now.to clean up residues of a DDT.manufacturing plant that stick around.for a long time they've got to take this.stuff out they got to remove the soil.haul it off and decontaminate it so.thank you for your your tax dollars for.helping us there.they just take it to a storage site and.store it in a place where it doesn't.leach through the environment yeah there.are other ways you can decontaminate you.can burn it incinerate it but you know.that tons of soil like that's very.difficult to incinerate okay well I gave.you the you all had the right answer.about the the proper use of a pesticide.container last December there was a.little tiny picture in the corner of a.reader of a National Geographic magazine.and I want you to take a close look at.this picture this was a toy truck model.truck is made by a 14 year old boy in.Senegal the materials at hand that he.was using who were pesticide containers.met amazing yeah I mean look at the.skill that it to think of any.fourteen-year-old boy being able to have.that kind of a skill but how tragic it.is that the materials that he had to.work with were empty pesticide.containers this pesticide is.manufactured in Italy it's used in.Senegal to control malaria mosquitoes.it's a pyrethroids it's not a totally.hazardous material it's probably one of.the safer materials to use but still in.its concentrated form being exposed to.these things and I'm sure those.containers because they don't have laws.like we have in the US those containers.weren't properly rinsed to begin with.either they work they still would have.residues in them.okay well here's the first question of.today but before I get started there let.me go through some of the handouts.obviously you all have read your manual.here at the chapter 10 on handling.everybody's read that okay I'm going to.be following some of the things in there.I wrote part of that chapter so it's.it's really coming from some of the.other publications if if I don't answer.all of your questions today I have.another book that I wrote called the.safe and effective use of pesticides.this is really as you can see 400 and.some pages very detailed I don't think.the average person needs to use this.this is primarily written for commercial.users of pesticides it's a study guide.for people who are taking the Department.pesticide regulation qualified.applicator or a certificate or license.exams but it's also written as a general.reference and so if you really are into.pesticides in one know everything you.want to know about pesticides is in here.we have sort of an abbreviated version.that is developed for growers these are.this is the California requires growers.who use restrictive materials become.certified to take an exam but they're.called private applicators and so it's a.different exam and we've abbreviated.this and made it much more simpler this.this same book is also available in.Spanish should anybody be interested in.that a couple of the other things that I.brought along commercially anybody who.is working around pesticides has to be.trained by their employer and we've.developed training guides this is the.instructors version this is the.employees version this training is.required to be given to employees every.year it's going to be specific to the.pesticides that they're using these.these are very friendly formats they're.kind of a comic book type format and.they are in English in Spanish so.there's you'll be I'll be showing some.of the drawings and stuff from this just.in my overheads because there's some.great drawings there finally I brought a.a game.and some of these are going to be.showing up on my overheads too in fact.this is one of them this is called la.lotería de los Festa sita's it's a board.game that we use when we're training.people about pesticides mostly.farmworkers and it's usually done in.Spanish it's based on a Latin American.game called La Boqueria which is a.gambling game it's played like bingo.each participant gets one of these cards.all the cards are different and there's.a caller that goes from this deck of.cards what we've done is taken a game.that's very familiar to people in Mexico.and South America and are using it to.teach them pesticide safety principles.because it bridges this language and.cultural barrier demitted a person from.Mexico sees the game they know how to.play it because we like us getting a.bingo board put in front of us we know.how to play it so it's a very fun thing.fun way for them to learn some pesticide.safety principles here okay what are.pesticides give me a definition of a.pesticide.it kills pests okay that's basically the.pesticide that's what the word means it.kills pests it's a lethal material for.pests okay not all pesticides do kill.pests oh do they what there's some other.kinds of pesticides that are pesticides.that don't kill pests.hormones something that regulates plant.growth or pest growth yeah so plant.growth regulators are pesticides but.else.anybody going hog hiking out in the.woods and get attacked by mosquitoes and.douse yourself with DEET what is DEET.it's a repellent and it's also what it's.a pesticide under the legal definition.of a pesticide anything that repels.pests or alters the growth of pests or.kills pests or pesticides another group.of pesticides that we don't think of our.defoliants growers in the cotton fields.before they get rid of to harvest.they'll spray the fields with a.defoliant they'll dry up the leaves the.tomato growers around here do that too.you'll see that put some white stuff all.over the fields and the leaves fall off.and it makes it easier for them to.harvest the tomatoes and so anything.that's applied to change the behavior of.the plant or the pests is a pesticide.any questions about that all right.well there's all different kinds of.types of pesticides and this is where I.want you to take a look at this main.handout that I've the pesticide use and.major crops I'll be referring to this.only because you know we're not going to.try it this is particularly pertaining.to pesticides that are used in in.agriculture but there's a lot of useful.information in here so if you look at.pages 8 & 9 of this handout I've put.together a list it's probably about 40.different 40 or so different items that.are our pesticides based it you know.they're the type of material is based.upon the target pest and its function on.the pest so the second item there if.you're going to be trying to control.algae you use an algaecide you want to.attract a pass to use an attractant if.you want to kill birds using a visage.why don't you want to kill birds yeah we.had a grower complaining a few years.back who had a large greenhouse.operation in San Diego County who had a.terrible bird pests in his greenhouse.and what do you suppose that awful.disgusting terrible pest was it was a.little hummingbird.now why would this little tiny cute.hummingbird be a pest in his greenhouse.cross-pollinate absolutely he was a.flower grower and it was cross.pollinating and it was ruining his.product okay put him out of business so.you know pest is in the eyes of the.beholder isn't it and we attract.hummingbirds to our home we without all.this food and stuff for them we really.enjoy them but this skewer this was.public enemy number one to him because.it was wiping him out well they didn't.like pesticides for him I think he.managed somehow or another to put some.screening up to get rid of them here but.it just just points out that you know we.all have a perception what a pest is and.other people may not have that same.perception well just look over this list.and see the various different things of.snails for example we use moleska sides.and nematodes we use nematodes new.tomato sighs yes Susan no when you talk.about a pesticide is this sort of a.generic all-encompassing term that.what you call this absolutely now this.is right that's an excellent question.there is always a lot of confusion about.you ask people if they use pest like no.I just kill weeds you know well weeds.are pests right and an herbicide that is.used to kill OE is a pesticide so.pesticide is the umbrella term for all.of these materials that herbicides the.defoliants that the plant growth.regulators that the attractants the.repellents those are all pesticides now.that that's a legal term that the.federal government that the US EPA that.regulates pesticides there's a federal.law and they're def defined in that law.that the law is called the federal.insecticide fungicide and rodenticide.Act and it doesn't talk about herbicides.and you know other things but it.encompasses all of those and for a.pesticide to be used in the United.States it has to be registered well it.used to be there's a there's a.disclaimer that but most pesticides now.have always had to be registered with.the US Environmental Protection Agency.and when they come into California they.also have to be registered in California.with the Department of pesticide.regulation before they can be sold or.used and there there are certain tests.that they have to go through to make.sure that they are safe that they're.safe relatively safe but they if they're.used on food products that the food.residues the residues on that or within.safe limits and things like that.so when we talk about pesticides I'm.talking about this big speck everything.that's on this list is considered a.pesticide and you'll notice that.herbicides are on there silversides that.are used to kill trees are on there.they're just all kinds of materials that.we wouldn't normally think of as being.pesticides better on that list but that.our fall under that law and are.regulated by both the US EPA and the.Department pesticide regulation in.California now I made this little.disclaimer because last year a law was.passed that allowed certain materials.that are being used were previously used.and registered as pesticides not to have.to be registered any longer with the EPA.and there's still a lot of concern about.that.these are low-impact materials of the.minimal health hazard type materials.things like sugar or certain types of.soaps and things like that the problem.is that some of these things are.slipping through that may have human.health concerns or environmental.concerns and they aren't being screened.because they're exempt from this.registration so there's a little bit of.concern about that and it may go back.there there are recommendations in fact.that these materials this whole group of.materials go back through the regular.registration process so that they are.tested and found to be both effective.and don't have these the side effects.that are undesirable so good question.any other questions about that okay so.there are various different types of.pesticides and not only are there.different types of pesticides but there.are different formulations of pesticides.and I'd like to see where my list is.here your distilled green sheet that I.gave you list many of them no these are.some labels off of somatic products that.I just grabbed the top one is cosine but.it's got the letters D F after it and.what that means is it is a dry flowable.the one below it says vind x50 WP it's a.50% active ingredient over wettable.powder and I put all these little.initials for what this means if you were.looking at a pesticide label and you'd.want to know what a uld was it was ultra.low volume so they actually the.manufacturers and manufacturer of.pesticides use all these little symbols.after their names they may be indicating.the type of the formulation that's being.used like a wet Abul powder here or the.D F that dry flowable up there or maybe.sometimes how it is used.the rtu is one.that we often see for for household use.ready to use our tu formulation any.they've got one here WK for weedkillers.TGF turfgrass fungicide and then.sometimes they're talking about the.characteristics of the formulation low.low volatility low odor double strength.2x something like that and then there.are some pesticides commercial use that.that have specific notations after like.P and W for they're only registered for.use in the Pacific Northwest and this.other one I've got here's the TVA -.Tennessee Valley Authority pesticides.are there register for use there so a.little bit when you look at a label you.might see some idea about the pesticide.point now the formulation is is kind of.important if you turn the sheet over.when you're using a pesticide I've.listed many of the standard common.formulations there and each one has.different characteristics as far as how.it is to be handled in the hazards that.are involved powders for example can.blow up into your face and get into your.eyes and on your skin and so they have a.higher degree of toxicity especially if.you're going to inhale them or get them.in your eyes they also most of the the.wettable powders are materials that are.bound to clay particles and clay is.abrasive and so through application.equipment and pumps and things like that.they can abrade the equipment so they.are abrasive they also don't stay in end.in in solution so if you use a wettable.powder how many of you used a wettable.powder pesticide you put it in water and.you got to keep it stirred up or it.sinks out now edible powder can be.compared to Nestle's Quik you put a.spoonful of necen stripping a glass of.milk or glass of water and you stir it.up in it you can't see through it it's a.very opaque looking solution if you let.it sit there for a while you'll see it.starts settling out and settling to the.bottom so people that use these.materials as pesticides have to be.adjective aterial to have to be agitated.all the time while you're using them.otherwise you.get a uniform application of this the.the reason they don't dissolve in water.because most pesticides are.petroleum-based.and so you know oil and water don't mix.so they have to put materials in there.to kind of get them to mix together to.stay in suspension a soluble soluble.powder doesn't have that problem because.it's it dissolves into the pesticide.into the water that you're mixing it.with and becomes a clear looking.solution may change the color but you.can see through it's very transparent.such as if you put salt or sugar in a.glass of water and you stirred it up you.wouldn't see it there anymore you know.it's there because you can taste it but.you can see through the water it doesn't.look like it's there that the liquid.form of a wettable powder is an.emulsifier will concentrate this is a.liquid material that you mix with water.and gets very cloudy how many of you.ever used Lysol in the good old days.before they change the formulation you.pour a little bit of white Lysol into a.bucket of water and it turns milky white.right that's an emulsifier will.concentrate.by the way Lysol is a pesticide did you.know that that's why you use it to kill.pests it's it kills bacteria and germs.and so it it's registered it's got an.EPA registration number on the label as.a pesticide okay.and solutions roundup is one of those if.you ever used roundup you notice it's.kind of an amber colored liquid you pour.it in with water and it is still you can.see through the water the water is still.transparent changes the color of the.water slightly but it says it's a so it.goes into solution sometimes we use.dusts as pesticides huh have you used.pesticide dusts sure yeah you sulfur.it's one of the more common ones.absolutely what's that.Beatty is not it's usually applied with.water though don't you spray.you dip out her look yeah okay yeah so.it's it and some of your snail baits and.your ant baits are that way too.okay so look at this chart just to give.you some idea that if you're applying.this some of the hazards associated with.those formulations a formulation is just.what manufacturer does to make this.product easier to handle and easier to.use question over here is for what oh.wait yeah I know buddy is registered for.watches yeah absolutely yes chlorine the.stuff you put your swimming pools even.the stuff they have under your sink has.an EPA registration number on it it's.registered as a pesticide probably the.most wise food yes right yeah people.don't think of that it's also used in.agriculture they use it for disinfecting.equipment they use it in the packing.sheds for just it's just infecting the.equipment there yeah a lot of the things.we don't generally think of as.pesticides are indeed pesticides and.they are regulated by the EPA and the.state of California yes.they formed their inmate.long shelf-life sometimes sometimes the.formulation ow with the formulation.there are materials that are put into.the pesticide when you look at a.pesticide label it'll tell you somewhere.on here active ingredients this is 41%.active ingredient in this jug right here.that means that the other 59% is what.they call inert ingredients when they.say inert on the pesticide label that.doesn't mean that it's inert okay what.does it mean it doesn't have any.pesticidal action it does not affect the.pest it's there to make this easier to.use to make a store longer to keep it.from freezing to make it stick to the.plant to make it translocates through.that either the insect or the plant.various different things like that it is.used in that way this is kind of an.interesting label this is an old roundup.I know you can't buy this anymore but it.has a signal word warning on it because.it's more toxic than or more hazardous.than the roundup that you buy today if.you bought a jug of roundup today it.would say caution on there why is that.it's the same material but they've.changed the inert ingredients at the.inert ingredients in this jug at this at.the time this was manufactured we're.hazardous to your skin into your eyes.and they've safe in that by putting.different ingredients in there and so.the new roundup does not have the signal.word warning on it so these these.materials that are called in dirts are.not truly inert.I mean benzene is often used as an inert.ingredient we all know that benzene is.not inert and benzene has been linked.with causing cancer and people there's.some concern they're phasing out or.they're eliminating the uses of benzene.as a inert ingredient or an adjuvant so.these things that are in there maybe.just water they may be oil but they also.may have some an impact on how that.pesticide works and make it easier to.work easier to store various different.things so those are called adjuvants you.can also buy digital agilent's to mix.with your pesticide too there are.companies that sell these things stick.spreaders emulsifiers D foaming agents.roundup as you know is a very user.roundup you'd shake it up a little bit.and you put water in there and it just.starts foaming up really bad and you can.put something in there that stops that.foam a D foaming agent is an adjuvant.that you add so we add adjuvant.sometimes to pesticides after they're.mixed up so that it improves the way.that pesticides can be mixed it can be.handled and applied or this.manufacturers sometimes add these.agilent's to the container as the inert.ingredients alright any any questions.about pesticide formulations both of.these just ventured to Co side up there.has the signal we're danger on it but it.doesn't have this skull-and-crossbones.symbol on it that the VIN Dex does and.that's we'll get into a little bit of.that in a few minutes but I just wanted.to point out both of these are the most.hazardous level of pesticide is.basically copper and it's got the word.danger there because if you get copper.in your lungs or in your eyes it can.cause severe burning it's really like.copper sulfate that a lot of people use.in the Bordeaux mix is copper sulfate.and hydrated lime now you buy a bag of.copper sulfate it'll have the signal.where danger on it where the VIN Dex is.that insecticide actually it's a.miticide and it is got the skull and.crossbones on there because it's very.toxic to people and it could kill you it.won't interfere with your eyes or.breathing but it could actually kill you.because it's very toxic so materials.that are very toxic have the word danger.but they also must have that signal word.or they have a skull and crossbones on.there.well let's talk about pesticide toxicity.then and and the different signal words.it sort of leads it to what I was just.saying here all pesticides are not the.same level of toxicity and there's an.old saying that the dose makes the.poison so anything in our environment.that we should be exposed to it at such.a high level or even the low level that.depending on the toxicity of the.material the dose how much we take in is.enough to either kill us or make us ill.and we know that if you ate so much salt.in one sitting.salt could be deadly it could kill you.if you ate so much salt or sugar or our.M&Ms or you know candy bars things like.that a certain level of any of these.things is toxic to us all things in our.environment are toxic to us depending on.the dose pure water if you sat and drank.gallons and gallons and gallons of pure.water would probably kill you I mean you.probably wouldn't be able to do taking.that much but pure water can be toxic at.a certain dose what we're dealing with.with pesticides are materials that have.lower or higher toxicity levels to us so.they take smaller amounts to cause us.harm.toxicity also means not necessarily.poisonous but can cause skin irritation.eye burns and things like that so it can.cause damage to us.so all pesticide labels except those new.that new group that I was talking about.earlier that is exempt that are exempt.from registration all other pesticide.levels must have one of three signal.words on them I mentioned that the word.danger being the most hazardous we.pointed out that this roundup has the.caution of the signal word warning on it.and then everything else has got caution.on it so most dangerous moderately.dangerous and then the least hazardous.materials have the word caution and so.that's the gear first when you when you.pick up a pesticide container the first.thing you should look at is the signal.word it's part of the registration every.pesticide that's registered by the EPA.in the state of California has a signal.word on it and that will give you some.idea.how hazardous it is like I said if it.has the danger plus a skull and.crossbones symbol on it it's the most.most toxic most hazardous to you handle.those with care or don't use them at all.but many of the materials we use have.the signal word warning on them those.are moderately hazardous to us most of.the stuff that you would encounter would.have the signal word caution and try to.stick with those the words if possible.always you know if you have a choice.look at the single word and try to get.one that is the least toxic now what.this means is that those materials have.been put through some sort of a test by.the manufacturer it's required as part.of the registration to do some some.testing they often test them on animals.well here I'm demonstrating rats they do.it on various different rattle animals.they may do it on some birds they may do.it on fish but what they determine is.the the ld50 which is the lethal dose.that will kill 50% of the test animals.and that's what this little red dot up.here is is the ld50 for this particular.pesticide if you go over here you say.the ld50 it's at 50% right here the ld50.is 10 that's 10 milligrams of this.material per kilogram the body weight of.the animal and I'll explain what that.means in a minute here but so the ld50.determines what the signal word is going.to be on that pesticide.about that it depends that let me just.look at this next chart here and you'll.see what that is these if you want to.fall around in your handout on pages 14.and 15 the big thick one that I gave you.the pesticide use page 14 and 15 these.charts are on there this one especially.now these are oral you know they also do.a dermal skin application and they'll do.an inhalation applet of part 8 of the LC.15 but an oral ld50 if 50 milligrams of.this material per kilogram of body.weight of the test animal kills 50% of.those test animals the ld50 is.considered it is considered to be a.pesticide that has got the signal word.danger if the if it takes between 50 and.500 milligrams per kilogram of body.weight of the animal it gets a single.word warning and if it is over 500.milligrams per kilogram of body weight.of the test animals its given the signal.word caution now that's the oral now the.lethal there's that you do an LC 50.lethal concentration in either water or.air for 50 percent of the test animals.and that that's again point 2 milligrams.per liter is enough to kill 50 percent.of the test animals and it's given the.reticular danger and then the ld50 for.dermal for applied to the skin because.many pesticides do transfer through the.skin into the internal part of the body.if it has an ld50 of 200 or less.milligrams per kilogram of body weight.of the test animal it will get the.signal with danger.so this is how they determine it I'll.translate that now there are certain.pesticides like that copper sulfate that.I was straining you there it's the.signal word danger because it has if it.gets into the eyes and causes it will.cause corneal opacity that's not.reversible in seven days and so they.tested on the eyes to see how corrosive.idioms and so if it has special hazards.like that it may not you may be able to.eat a pound of it and not not have any.effect but it gets in your eyes and.burns your eyes and and it lasts for.more than seven days and it's pretty.hazardous so they give it a single word.danger now this next sure to start off.with fifty milligrams.danger right 500.that's right the higher the number the.higher the ld50 the least less toxic the.material is the smaller the number the.more toxic and I'll show you this and.just to say to this next over here just.shows that it's also in your handout as.you can see the ones that I've colored.red up there have the single where.danger the ones that are kind of the.orange color or warning and the yellow.ones are got the single word caution the.three at the top this the most toxic one.up there has a lethal ld50 of 0.7 nine.that means.0.79 milligrams of that material per.kilogram of body weight of the test.animal would be enough to kill 50.percent of those test animals 0.7 9.milligrams per kilogram of body weight.well what does that mean I translated.that down here at the bottom for that.all de carb that for 150 pound human it.would require zero point zero zero two.ounces of that material to kill 50.percent of us in this room okay now.methoprene which is either the high it's.got the highest number here in 34.thousand six hundred milligrams per.kilogram of body weight methoprene you.know is the growth regulator that's put.in your flea spray to keep the flea.larvae from from changing from from.larvae to adult it's the adult that does.the biting and gets on your pets so it's.a growth regulator most of us have if.you've got pets and if you used a flea.spray around the house it contains.methoprene it has its high ld50 34600 so.that that means it would take you would.have to ingest 5.11 nine pounds of that.and if each of us in this room sat down.and ingested 5.19 pounds of the of this.feather cream we'd probably peel over.yeah.Oh.it's an in methyl carbon made all the.carbon it's Tim ik have you heard of Tim.ik yeah in fact do you remember the.watermelon Fiasco about 10 12 years ago.when some of you do are shaking your.heads.there was a over the 4th of July you.know everybody buys watermelons over the.fourth of July and people were eating.watermelons and getting sick and being.rushed to the hospital and they started.checking around trying to figure out.what was going on all the carb is an.insecticide it's used to control insects.it works systemically it's put into the.soil and it comes up through the soil.picked up by the plant and it keeps.protects the plant from insects that.feed on them it's not registered for use.in watermelons and so people didn't.think you know the people are getting.sick from Walder Carver why they ate one.of owns why would they be getting sick.but finally they put it together there.were some unscrupulous growers having.the knowing and scrupulous growers who.were trying to make an extra buck and.they well of all the carbon also has.another effect on melons it causes them.get bigger and so they're these growers.were applying the the alder carb in the.soil it was being picked up by the.watermelons and it didn't break down.like it was supposed to and they got.caught it seriously cause people get.very sick fortunately in Bethel.carbonate poisoning is readily.reversible in the body so by the and.that was another thing that took him a.while to figure out what was happening.because by the time the person who was.violently ill at home got to the.emergency room and they got him settled.down they couldn't find it it had been.tab alized in their body and they.couldn't trace it and also had broken.down to another compound that they.weren't looking for so it took a while.for him to figure it out but they traced.it back they found out it was the in.methyl carbonate.all the carb that was applied to the.melon fields which is really was.supposed to be put on cotton fields but.you know so they you know they caught.the people they'd find them they didn't.have laws at that time to find them.heavy enough I think it was twenty five.hundred dollar fine or something like.that now they've got to change the laws.they got nasty fines for people that do.that bacillus thuringiensis everybody.mentioned that has at ld50 of fifteen.thousand that's fifteen thousand.milligrams per kilogram of body weight.so it's you know fairly non-toxic.the bigger the number the less toxic if.the material is questionable.they are similar yeah they're the.phenoxy herbicides phenoxy herbicides.yeah pardon yeah because it has that.doesn't mean that they're safe you know.there could be a lot of probably things.like I say in the amount of exposure.that you get to them can be harmful to.you even methoprene if you ate five.pounds of it you know obviously nobody's.going to surrounding eat five pounds of.meth right now this is the active.ingredient in these things this isn't.this isn't like the roundup roundup bug.on here is it's kind of it's glyphosate.there it's got four thousand three.hundred that's only active ingredients.so this is only forty percent active.ingredient in here so that means you'd.have to gobble down a lot more than just.the active ingredient because it's mixed.question over here.countries and their regulation do we get.a lot of that identity.okay the question is when we buy produce.that it's brought in from other.countries is it is it safe to eat.oftentimes the the pesticides that are.used on those produce in other countries.are not registered for using in the.United States or in California but there.is an inspection that takes place when.they are brought into the US for -.looking for residues and that's what.we're really concerned about is that is.that thing that Apple or the Oh Ranger.that the peach or whatever is coming in.have residues of some pesticide on it.that's above what is are known to be.known tolerance and as long as it beats.that residue tolerance level and it is.something that's not banned in the.United States now most remember most.produce that you buy in the marketplace.even it's been grown with pesticides.does not exhibit any residues by the.time it gets to you about probably I.think that the USDA has done tests on.this and about 80 percent of all the.produce in a grocery store no matter how.it's grown will not have pesticide.detectable pesticide residues on it so.it's difficult then to tell what's been.put on it but is that clear that okay so.when when Railly says we have we will.only sell pesticide they have no.detectable residues on we only sell.produce it has no detectable residues on.it doesn't mean it has been grown.without pesticides it means that when.they gets to the store they don't have.any detectable pesticide residues on.them it may be grown without or they.could have used a whole lot of things on.it but these things break down at.different rates of course you break that.was my question yeah.grossly corporation yes yeah there are a.lot of cup of markets like Raley's I.think they have their own testing where.they test the produce to see if they can.detect residues questions here you're.not allowed using this car because I.live in the tropical country where we.get great things from that's right David.detect them out if that if that comes.because DDT doesn't break down very fast.and so it be detectable and say it would.not be allowed in this country if it had.DDT residues on at all and my question.is also.well they're dusting the camel with me.has shown up inside.is it possible.the BDT that we were.so somebody.sitting back in our.okay I'm going to not answer that.questions because we're going to we're.going to demonstrate that in a few.minutes okay that's a good segue into.another part of the thing but you'll get.that question answered before the end of.the day okay any other questions it was.a great question.just came with the wrong time okay so.everybody understands what ld50s are and.what they mean okay so the lower the.number the more toxic the material is.okay we now we talked about how.pesticides work this is another thing.that there's a the white handout that I.passed out here that the white sheet.pesticide chemical groups you all have.that okay here again we use the word.pesticide remember it's a big umbrella.term it means a lot of different.compounds they all have different modes.of action and what we're talking about.here how pesticides work is how they.kill or cause changes in that pest.that's the mode of action we have a.group of pesticides that are have been.widely used after DDT was banned we.switched to the organophosphates and the.in methyl carbonate insecticides these.are nerve poisons and so they interfere.with the nerve conduction from the brain.to the muscles and if you've ever used a.cockroach spray and you see the.cockroach flipping over on its back and.wiggling its legs and you've got to a.central nervous system and you've.interfered with its nervous system and.if it happened to you if you've got a.big enough dose that would be exactly.what would happen to you you'd flip over.in your back and be convulsing and.wiggling your legs in the air because it.does interfere with nerves and so.they're listed here as a central nervous.system and synaptic poisons and so when.we when there's a signal coming from our.telling us to move our arm our nerves.are not like electric wires they're.they're organic materials that the cells.where the nerve signal moves from from.part of the cell to the other and there.are junctions between nerves and between.nerves and muscles and there's a.chemical reaction that takes place at.that Junction so that when the nerve.signal gets to that Junction it sends a.chemical reaction so it transmitted goes.across that space there's a little tiny.space.this chemical goes across that space and.causes the muscle to react or the next.nerve on the line to send a signal on.down and there's a chemical called.acetylcholine that's produced that that.sends that signal from one nerve to the.other from a nerve to a muscle and many.of these pesticides that are nerve.poisons interfere with that in order for.that signal to be discreet there's.another chemical that the body produced.called cholinesterase and that erases.that so if we didn't have that on/off.switch when when your brain told you to.flex your arm your arm would flex that.you would be standing there flexing all.the time you couldn't let go.and so it's cholinesterase that comes in.any races that acetylcholine and allows.it to flex so there's a pulse of this.and then there's a siedel choline comes.in there and when the cholinesterase.destroys it what these materials do are.interfere with the action of the.cholinesterase okay so basically what.happens is that you lose control when.you go to flexor muscle it contracts and.it doesn't relax you get convulsions.your pupils of your eyes dilate you.start sweating you get stomach cramping.all kinds of things happen like that.these are central nervous system.components and so they work on insects.and they work on people and and most of.the animals have cholinesterase and.acetylcholine patterns in their bodies :.ester ACH o li n est Ras e.cholinesterase and we have blood tests.it's the only pesticide that we have.right now that can be too you can do a.blood test to find out.if you've been exposed to some of these.pesticides some of the organophosphate.are in ethyl carbamate pesticides and.that blood test measures the.cholinesterase level in your blood.usually we have a certain baseline level.if that suddenly drops it indicates that.you may have been exposed to this other.things in the environment will also.lower that alcohol consumption heavy.alcohol consumption will lower your.cholinesterase levels but people who.handle these materials in fact it's a.state law in California if you handle.these materials for more than seven days.in in a 30 day period you have to be.monitored by a physician and have your.cholinesterase regularly monitored and.if your level drops they know that.you've probably been exposed to a.certain you know harmful level and they.take you you cannot use those materials.for a while so employers have to keep.records and keep their employees.monitored it's one of the very few tests.we have for immediate detection of.exposure to some of the pesticides.there's only the only this one group of.pesticides.so this this is for your reference if.you want to know how these things work.I'm not going to go into all of it.because the some of them are fairly.technical but typically the questions.are very good all the lines of.measurement and it's got the student.blog and sonic voice okay that's a nerve.where the axon is the nerve that goes.from the muscle for the brain to a.muscle and so it does interfere with.nerve conduction yeah at the time that I.put this together there was no.information on how they react and and.sometimes that's true you know they know.it works but they don't really know what.the mechanism is yeah antibiotics yeah.is that a high I'd just it just because.it's a different group I'd say I've got.them good done by insecticides.herbicides phase and anti biotics it's a.different group thank you absolutely.yeah if it's skewed it because germ.Factory a virus is a pest like the.chlorine is used to kill those things.absolutely yeah.right anything that's used to control.the pest off some pesticides that are.used medically you're given about an.antibiotic to kill a virus or a bacteria.in your body they're not registered by.the US EPA because they are a medicine.so that USDA are us that the is at the.drug FDA the FDA is is the group that.regulates that veterinary materials are.also regulated by other groups but if.it's applied to it externally to control.a virus a bacteria or some other.microorganism externally then it comes.under EPA registration.however right right okay how are you.doing here okay who uses pesticides tell.me in the room use pesticides now that.I've redefined pesticides for you valve.collars all use pesticides right okay.well this is a where we can go and take.a look at some of the slides let's stop.here for a minute and turn on the slide.projector.okay well driving up and down the.Central Valley you've probably seen this.or even around here everyone small.growers is a tomato field actually it's.being sprayed I think in Yolo County by.an aerial aircraft what they're doing is.really putting on the disorient to to.defoliate the tomatoes before they're.being harvested as you'd see if you.looked at it really close you could see.they're ripe in there this is in the.Salinas Valley this is lettuce this is.your lettuce crop shortly after being.planted and it is being sprayed before.both fungus and insecticides it's being.done at night as you can see that the.lights are on in the tractor because.that's when people are out in the fields.it's a good time and in that area the.wind has died down about this time of.day this is an orchard application very.typical way people apply pesticides and.orchards using this air blast sprayer.there's a very powerful fan.a great big fan about this big it puts.air out out at about a hundred miles per.hour and there's nozzles all the way.around the edge of that fan you can see.these nozzles and it shoots the spray up.into the trees because some of these.trees you know big walnut trees are very.tall and you have to get that air moving.up there you get a question here oh no.man it must be going away it's driving.away from us yeah yeah now that this is.behind the driver sometimes pesticides.are applied in irrigation water here's.another tomato field actually I'm not.sure that this was it's being applied at.this time it's just showing the type of.irrigation that's taking place but it's.very common for growers to put certain.pesticides in the irrigation water when.they're doing an irrigation because it's.an efficient way to apply them and it's.one of the first things when we're.training people who work in the fields.is not to drink or bathe or anything.with the irrigation water because they.don't know what's in there it may be.fertilizer too a lot of fertilizer goes.through the irrigation water you had a.question here so the action must be do.this this would be more like a.systemic and the others my feet were.hunted that's right yeah yeah where they.gets into the soil it's something like.that.all the carb would be one of those.although alder carp is not usually.applied through the integration system.it is put in as granules on the ground.and pesticides are applied as fumigants.and we've all heard about methyl bromide.this is a methyl bromide application.where the it's a gas and so it's it's.it'll dissipate into the air unless you.cover it so as they apply it they put.down this plastic sheeting and it's held.on the soil for a certain period of time.and then after 24-48 hours they take off.the plastic plastic sheeting and allow.this stuff to off gas so that's one of.the big controversies right now because.methyl bromide is a ozone depleting and.so there it's being phased out for that.reason this is Crick carnations I'm.sorry in a greenhouse beads no.greenhouse operations oftentimes because.of the nature of the intensity at the.close planting and everything a lot of.diseases a lot of insects get in there.and so they have to for for flower.growers have to use a whole lot of.pesticides to keep the flowers from.dying before they get to market this is.one that's not done this way anymore but.maybe this is what you're thinking about.in your livestock that this is an.old-fashioned photo but I just like to.put it in knowing four well we don't do.it this way anymore but we do use.pesticides on livestock to control.external parasites and I don't know.whether you've ever seen nose bot and.these are flies that go up into the nose.of animals and they're really painful.and uncomfortable for the animals so.they protect the animals from these.insects by putting on some type of.pesticide and oftentimes we're doing.that with our pets at home if you've got.a cat or a dog and you use the new.little things that you put on the back.of their neck to control fleas and.control hardware.like that that's the same idea in fact.we they use some pesticides medicinally.I have ear suffered from motion sickness.and use the little pad behind your ear.that's an organophosphate material nerve.poison and it works because it does.poison your nerves I mean what it's.doing is being absorbed through the skin.and it's it's an acetylcholine inhibitor.it stops this reaction so it's doing the.same thing that it would be doing if you.were exposed to pesticides so what's.that maybe you know it's not a verb it.should know it is it is a.organophosphate insecticide an.insecticide but it's that's what is used.in that patch so sometimes it has good.uses too you know very often we we use.pesticides around the home call in bug.man pest control or some other company.and to spray for ants or you know.various different pests around our homes.a lot of pesticides are used there and.then we get off the counter rate or.whatever it is for our own used to.control the ants and whatever now.cockroaches used to be the number one.pest in homes for many many years when.you look at you rated that the top 10.pest cockroaches were always the number.one pest in homes and they've lost that.space in fact they're down to number 10.now what do you think number one is.which an absolutely everybody knows that.don't have to tell you that you know.that don't you you know.yeah they still number one I understand.that throughout the state they've really.dropped their and most of the control.for cockroaches is non-chemical it's.it's sanitation and it's excluding them.and and if they do use chemicals they're.using things like boric acid which is.yeah is a pesticide again auric acid.used for cockroach control is pest and.these little sticky traps and things.like that they're very effective and we.used to use flea collars on pets but now.I think most people have refrain from.doing that flea collars are impregnated.it's a plastic that's impregnated with a.pesticide that protects the pet.permanently we also have any people.still give their pets the pills for dog.heartworm and that's a pesticide dog.hardware many of you have dogs that you.treat for dog heartworm and dog it when.you talk about malaria and you talk.about dog heartworm it's is a very.similar process that the dog heartworm.is transmitted by mosquitoes it's a.filarial worm yeah and these things live.in the circulatory system and the heart.and lungs of the animals and you know.used to be it took a long time and.especially in this area with the.veterinarians who were not familiar with.the life cycle of this filarial worm.they would take a blood test of the dog.and they wouldn't find it but the dog.was exhibiting terrible symptoms and so.we're trying to figure out what what's.going on here these things are well.adapted to the feeding cycles of the.mosquitoes so when you take your dog to.the bed at 10 o'clock in the morning or.2 o'clock in the afternoon they take a.blood test they can't find the micro.filari or in the blood but if you go at.6 o'clock at night or 7 o'clock at night.and took blood tests on the same dog.you'd find them now why is that because.he's saying stay in the central part of.the heart and lungs until the feeding.time of the mosquito then they come out.to the peripheral blood vessels.just like malaria that's exactly like.malaria no in malaria.you know malaria is cyclic people have.24-hour malaria or 48-hour it's always.on it on even and it's a geared to the.feeding cycle of the mosquitoes and.amazing so the the pills and the.medications that we give our pets for.dog heartworm destroy these micro.filarial worms now they grow up and they.get really big if it's untreated these.things these things can get you know two.or three feet long wound up in the heart.and lungs of the animal questioning back.mosquitoes feed on the dog and the.mosquito transmits the biko filarial.worm from from a previous host it feeds.on a dog or a coyote or a fox or.something like that that is carrying.this heartworm picks it up in its the.system and when you go to seeds on that.your your dog it'll drop a few of those.little micro floor worms on the skin of.the dog and they'll go in through the.skin through the puncture wound and.infest the dog the worst anxiety stage.that they don't they go out to the.peripheral blood vessels they stay in.the circulatory system yeah I have a.question over here.okay yeah here's why no they go for cats.there's a lot right now there's a higher.incidence they're starting to see more.and more dog heartworm in cats I.personally have a cat that's been.treated for dog heartworm should have.you yeah it they are usually the.material that can remember with what's.the material that you put any drop on.the back of it is advantage it is for.control of heartworm and fleas both on.cats and dogs there's another one.there's a revolution okay alright thank.you yeah that's the one we just got for.our cation.it was unheard of in cats before and now.the last several years they're starting.to see more of it well I thought I'd.like to show you this now this came from.the Department of pesticide regulation.it's they tracked the pesticide use in.California and the where all of our.pesticides are being applied and these.are the top ten uses in the state of.California in the year 2000 it's very it.you know stays about the same every year.so you'll see wine grapes and table.grapes are the number one users number.one and number two users of pesticides.in California this is based upon per.pound of active ingredient and what do.you think the most common pesticide used.on grapes is sulfur and it's heavy and.they use its 100% active ingredient when.they put it out there as a dust or a.spray so obviously that's why it gets.that distinction they use a lot of other.pesticides on grapes as well but almonds.are number three processing processing.Tomatoes at number four cotton with five.oranges six strawberries or seven carats.or eight Rice's number nine this is in.that year and look at number ten that's.our homes number ten is our homes the.ten number ten user of pesticides in the.state or homes now we grow 350 crops in.California and homes are in number ten.here so there have been some studies.where do you think most pesticides are.used on a per acre basis in your home.yeah a grower if you compared on a per.acre basis any of these crops through a.home a homes are using four or five.times more active ingredient per acre.than any of these other crops here.and it said yeah it's contained we are.most of the truly toxic pesticides they.use.because the sulfur which I don't think.is all that toxic sort of distortion.yeah it depends on whether you're.talking about toxic in the number of.cases of injury and illnesses that occur.from those pesticides or toxic in just.the toxicity ld50 of the material of.course probably I would say cotton.that's a cotton probably be the way to.have the most toxic pesticides as far as.potential harm to people so this is.where.pest aware people who are using.pesticides that's where the top 10 are.the year before this actually structural.was number 9 so it's somehow dropped a.little bit taken drop down a little bit.now most of the pesticides that well not.most but many of the pesticides used in.agriculture and these other crops are.also used around the homes but there is.a difference when we go out and buy the.pesticide at Walmart versus going to.John Taylor fertilizers or someplace to.buying that and it is the active.ingredient you may go down to Walmart.and buy some roundup but it's not going.to say 41 percent active ingredient you.know it may say 0.1% after you've.ingredient is it 11 percent active.ingredient okay where this is 41 percent.active ingredient and you're going to.pay a lot more for the material in.Walmart but the put what is a purple cap.site that's 41 percent okay can you get.that at Waller.we're just applying out you know pardon.for a pint this this jug here would cost.two hundred bucks two and a half gallons.for 200 bucks and you're getting 41%.okay yes.yes but the reason reason you don't want.to go down to to John Taylor and buy.your pesticides because it is more.hazardous because you remember 41% or.52% but active ingredient versus what.you would do in a home is is much more.hazardous more dangerous to work with.you need to more protective clothing to.handle it properly you know it's.amplifies the minimum you can buy you.know is two and a half gallons and why.why do leverage you use two and a half.gallons worth of roundup for practically.a lifetime supply around a home you're.having to store it anything okay pardon.well I'm thinking of some friends of.mine right oh yeah for for something you.know more commercial.my name is it bro right yeah.three of them got together about that.yeah when they're using it in that way.multiple people are using it over a.larger area so it's it's safer for for.homeowner use to ki stay with the.homeowner package material even though.you're paying more per pound of active.ingredient a lot more it's still safer.to handle a lot of times it's a lot of.the roundup you can buy is ready to use.it's in the spray bottle squirt bottle.and it's already mixed you don't have to.to expose yourself to the concentrated.materials to mix it up any questions.about that.let's run back to the slides for a.minute and look at why we use pesticides.as well well if the tomato you had in.your sandwich today looked like this.this is the tomato fruit worm feeding on.a tomato and everybody knows what the.black stuff is around there right that's.the frass we call it Fras it's what.comes out the other end when they feed.on the tomato and you know I don't know.a single grower that could sell a tomato.that looks like that right but that's.the same insect actually this is the.corn earworm but it's it's called the.corn earworm when it's in your ear of.corn it's the tomato fruit we're rinsing.and it's called it the cotton boll worm.when it's in the cotton and you see this.nice little pest eating on somebody's.orange that's another reason why people.use pesticides do you know what this one.is the Mediterranean fruit fly the.infamous fruitful emit bed fly here now.this is a really interesting insect.anybody grow walnuts around here I'm.familiar with the walnut husk fly.they're very closely related they have.very similar life habits the walnut.husks fly is well established in this.area the fruit fly we're trying to keep.out but this this fly at this point it's.probably on it looks like it's on an.orange it's laying an egg in that range.and that larvae that egg will hatch out.into a larvae will feed on the inside of.that orange and when it gets time for it.to pupate its going to drop off and bury.itself in the soil two or three feet.maybe five feet below the surface of the.soil.her.and it's going to stay in the soil.probably over the winter it's going to.stay there and it'll little-a pupate and.then it's going to emerge as this adult.Nate real quick lay some eggs and die so.the very short period of time when it's.available for being controlled by.anything actually before the female can.lay eggs she has to mate and she belongs.to the group of insects called dipped er.which are flies in mosquitoes and they.all have to take a protein meal to.produce their eggs that's why the female.mosquitoes are feeding on you the male's.don't feed on you so females that feed.on you to get the protein to lay eggs.same way with this the fruit fly they.are the met fly they go around looking.for some protein material to feed on so.they can produce the eggs lay them in.the fruit and then they die and so.spraying the fruit after she lays the.eggs isn't going to control those larvae.that's in there is it when they drop off.and pupate and they're five feet on the.low the soil you're not going to be able.to get anything to them to kill either.so you've got to catch the this female.that's getting ready to lay eggs and so.what they do when they fly over San Jose.with the spray plane so it was a 10-15.years ago they were spraying malathion.which is an organophosphate material and.a protein bait most of what they were.spraying the sticky stuff that got on.people's cars that were making and.really angry was the protein bait it's a.sticky gooey stuff it's attractive to.the Flies they feed on it keel over and.die and they don't lay eggs so it's a.protein that attracts them the same.process is being used to control husk.fly in walnut orchards if you ever seen.what a husk fly does if you the wall.that grows with a green husk around the.outside that has to be removed in the.wall that is inside in the shell this.husk fly feeds just on the outside it.doesn't go into the nut but it feeds on.that husk and it turns the husk a really.gooey awful ugly black color and you.can't get that off so when they harvest.the Nets that's an auth grade and it.also promotes sunburn for the nuts so.they get darkened and even.that you were able the nuts in there it.hasn't been harmed but it turns dark and.that you can't the shell is a real black.color so you can't sell it so they go.out they don't have to spray the trees.they can spray the ground the weeds.whatever is with this protein bait with.a little bit of malathion in it and the.husk lights come along and they feed on.it and they die they don't lay eggs into.the nuts same way with a Mediterranean.fruit fly so that's what the process now.with the the fruit fly they have develop.it out that if they mate with a sterile.male fruit fly they won't lay viable.eggs so it doesn't up so there are.laboratories in Mexico and in Hawaii.that are radiating the males because the.husk flies are established in Mexico in.Hawaii that's why they do it in those.laboratories they radiate the males to.make them sterile and they bring them.over here to California they turn them.loose thousands millions of these things.and they compete with the other males.and they mate with the females and they.are the females of basically infertile.so that's a non chemical control.although it requires radiation of the.males but they do that in Hawaii and.Mexico no because they're having they.don't want any fertile males imported.into the u.s. they have to be tested for.infertility before they're shipped over.anybody recognize this pest starthistle.yeah it's one of the Bane's of our.existence sometimes so that's that's.another pest that causes use birth and.this cute little guy of course various.rodents or pests around homes in.strawberry fields and you know various.places California almond growers.exchange runs it add quite regularly.they once you eat a can a week of.almonds you heard that at everybody's.were that add well these guys were the.add to.and they really went into it they they.eat a canid a once girl once girl can.you two can of almonds a day the only.problem is they don't buy them you know.they the floods we had up in Yuba City.that the few years back from the really.bad floods the ground squirrels were.responsible for some of that because.they're burrowing into the levees and.weakening the levees and causing love.Easter break so they're pretty.destructive they're cute guys right but.in fine main retreats for poisoning them.yeah anybody recognize this pest these.are nematodes that you aren't seeing the.nematodes but you're seeing or that the.knots that that the this is the.root-knot nematode and they make these.little cysts on the roots of the plant I.think this might be a fruit tree of some.sort and they don't often kill the.plants but they certainly do weaken them.and cause a lot of problems and that.that field that we shall being fumigated.with methyl bromide earlier was being.treated for nematodes how you recognize.this one yeah this is a good old scale.this one didn't need any pesticide I.don't know you can see these little.holes up here those are exit holes from.the parasitic wasps that went in and.killed the scale so that was controlled.naturally and we talked about birds.here's a very typical in in addition to.the terrible little hummingbird down in.San Diego County.have other birds and your problems here.and of course everybody understands what.this Fest is now I'll air again I the.pest is in the eyes of the beholder when.I was in graduate school I study spiders.and the spiders were my friend they.still are I like spiders I really relate.to them and I still killed black widows.when they're in my basement yeah fine.yeah the incidents at black widow spider.bites in California - decreased in the.1920s when bathrooms moved indoors.really significantly so just a little.bit of information there may be some.cryptic and you're gonna be your.imagination can go but yes like black.widows are venomous or their venom has.been characterized as 20 times more.potent else per ounce than rattlesnake.venom but of course they have a very.small amount of venom compared to.rattlesnake ER the other thing about.black widows they have to get on a very.thin part of skin they they their fangs.that they use to inject the venom and.despite these spiders have fangs that.sort of opposed like this when they go.to bite you and they're less than 1/16.of an inch long and so if your skin is.thicker than 1/16 of an inch they can't.penetrate the skin and really caused it.by children and are probably most.vulnerable to black widow spider bites.and that's why we want to protect our.children from black little spiders then.there are also natural predators a.natural predator of black widows if you.want to give back black widows.biological control or alligator lizards.that they love to feed on black widows.they've done studies finding looking at.the stomach contents of alligator.lizards and find that their that's their.number one food choice.and here's our now number 10 pest the.cockroaches that invade us they invade.our homes anybody recognize this one.yeah this is the cat flea that you find.on your dog now I don't want you to.embarrass your dog and tell your dog.that he has kathleen's but that's really.what the kind of flea the dogs have cat.fleas are the most common flea around.here and this is a graduate student that.volunteered to be photographed getting.his arm bitten by a flea in your handout.book that the big one that I gave you on.pages 21 through 27 I've listed three.major crops in California grapes almonds.and cotton and what I want to put this.together to point out that that there.isn't just a couple of pests on in any.one of these crops this is coming from.the IPM pest management guidelines and.you'll notice that they're for each of.these pest groups there are a lot of.insects diseases mites.weeds nematodes and you know you can get.our our project I'm part of the.statewide IPM project you married Louise.Flint spoke with you a few weeks ago I.guess and we're both in the same project.and our whole purpose of existence is to.reduce pesticide use in California by.developing non chemical or alternative.methods to control pests and only using.pesticides when they're absolutely.necessary and so there's a lot of.research going into that the research.for a web-spinning spider mite is going.to be totally different than the.research for leaf hopper so each one of.these pests require just massive amount.of research to find out how to control.these things with a reduced amount of.pesticide since we haven't done that all.yet so we can do IPM for some pests but.we haven't got all the solutions for.some of the other we can get a.biological control and we were getting.pretty good at controlling mites with.biological control using predatory mites.and cultural practices but you know here.we now have the glassy wing sharpshooter.in grapes and.we're still trying to figure out how to.control these things so all of the the.point here is just that there's a lot of.different pests that we're all.confronted with and each one of those.pests is totally different than all the.others in the control for them is.totally different and so in the meantime.in order to grow these crops people have.used some pesticides okay can we get the.rest of lights on I'm going to do a.little bit of it I talked about.pesticides getting into the environment.and we're going to do this in a more.practical way here and it's going to.also answer some of the questions that.came up earlier it's my props here this.is an interactive activity so you all.have to participate no this is so you're.only going to eat some pesticides we're.going to features and pesticide here.where it's actually going to be DDT I.brought some didi I got a really special.formulation of DDT but hey it kind of.looks like tootsie rolls.but okay so I like it either is about.room for 15 people per bag here so we'll.start passing these things out I think.we've got enough I've got extra zipper.that's all right let's see excuse me now.you're going to have to use your.imagination here this is going to be.very imaginative somebody down the road.yesterday sprayed a little bit of DDT.they weren't supposed to put they did it.but it wasn't very much didn't you know.really amount to much but we're sitting.here in this pond this is a pond right.okay everybody's sitting around here in.the pond and you're all little organisms.living in the pond and I want you to.take one of these little slips of paper.and so that there's Chum but somebody.should have everybody should have one of.these little slips pay now when you get.your DDT I want you to don't want to eat.it yeah please don't.okay you'll ruin the whole experiment at.this point all right well you'll get a.chance to eat it before the thing is.overly okay take one of these pass it on.you're going to get it identification.nothing here if you're if you're.life-form didn't turn out what you.thought you should achieve in life I'm.sorry no it's just wait it is you know.that's life right what we are going to.be doing is bio accumulating have you.ever by you accumulated before okay this.is yours you're going to be buying you.yeah actually you do it every day okay.we're going to be bio accumulating with.a special form of DDT so as soon as.everybody has their identification and.their DDT in hand see the T and DD T.stands for tootsie roll right okay.okay the rules are we're going to be.swimming around in this pond and you're.going to be carrying your DDT in one.hand because that's what you pick up.this little molecule of DDT that was.sprayed down the road did you get some.DDT in some fun did you get some over.here.oh no you guys we gotta get everybody in.this chair everybody got DDT in a life.form they're they're identified okay I.want the plankton to get up and swim.around in the pond and you can move all.over the place here come on.look at your drawing I can have these.little silly along the side so they can.go up and down also living in this pond.our small fish not yet whether it here's.a chance here there's some small fish.living in this pond and what a small.fish like to eat for lunch okay so you.small fish swim around find a plankton.and take away their Twitter roles.once you lose your to achieve all sets.down okay that the small fish are.swimming around in the pond and they're.pretty happy too you know right.but what of what eat small fish for.lunch large fish okay large shows up and.atom [ __ ].all right now look at these both these.large fish here they're not quite as.aggressive as they used to be they're.getting a little green behind the gills.right because look at all the DDT they.have in there their bodies.okay flying overhead however is a brown.pelican or - where are my brown pelicans.Oh.and they're having lunch on the big fish.right.come on pelicans lunchtime get up here.okay okay where are my brown pelicans.hey brown pelicans come up here now.bring a DDT you guys are history okay we.got some problems here folks look at the.DDT that they've accumulated in their.bodies here from that little bit of DDT.that that came in this pond here they.got a real more serious problem you know.now when they lay eggs and they sit on.their eggs their eggshells are too thin.and they crack you've had that problem.okay all right so you guys go extinct.I'm sorry.you're becoming semantics when you go.extinct you put your DDT back into the.environment so you share got a share.okay so you bio accumulated this DDT.through the food chain and it is.concentrated to a level where it's.causing some harm where it was applied.where drifted over into this pond it.wasn't causing any harm in that.concentration but that the organisms you.all who were living in that pond.actually concentrated it so it's called.bioaccumulation it's one of the things.without DDT that is has happened in the.world now to answer your question about.the EDT in your body even before you're.eating a tootsie roll if you or anyone.in this room went down to a lab and had.our fat fat cell from your body examined.guess what they'd find in it I'm they.find lots of stuff but they would.actually find DDT in there that's all.any one of us in this room every.actually one of us in this room now.whether whether you've ever been exposed.to DDT have eaten it and have applied it.or whatever it's it's so prevalent and.it has an affinity for fat and so it.absorbs into the fat cells of our body.and usually and that's that form it's.not harmful because it's tied up is not.causing any problem.now told us late.it releases liquidity too right.so Eddie there are two things about DDT.yeah question here when I was in the 70s.we have a festival in our house mm-hmm.and I think the controversy about Zika.fever.our pest control man.now see this.sure yeah a lot of people have done ad.there was a famous professor who would.every day drink eat a spoonful of DDT.powder and he lifted ninety seven years.old or something like that no please.no fleas that's right yeah.the thing about DDT it has low mammalian.toxicity I mentioned earlier that during.the war soldiers were asked to take off.their clothes and they were dusted with.DDT powder to control external parasites.body lice and other parasites and they.went through this on a weekly basis when.I was a kid they used to spray DDT with.a spray can in my house and the walls.and everything to control mosquitoes oh.yeah yeah yeah there there is now some.concern about DDT are there other DDT is.a class of pesticides called the.organochlorines or chlorinated.hydrocarbons this is another class it's.on your list there these are long.lasting materials that are low mammalian.toxicity and that there's one that.probably law all of you or many of you.have used around your homes for termite.control and ant control it's called.chlorine it's same thing you know but.it's gone to there's some concern.because these things I know when you've.ever heard of endocrine disruptors the.new problem that's coming up in.in human health studies DDT and the.chlorinated hydrocarbons are indicated.as being independence reparations in our.environment are being indicated to be.are implicated to be indican disruptors.the plasticizers and plastic bags.actually that these plastic bags here.things that make them flexible like this.are called plasticizers and they are.being implicated as indican disruptors.too so a lot of things in our.environment or are doing that and.indican disrupt the indican glands in.our bodies of the glands like the.pituitary the the thymus the virally.thyroid yeah the ovaries the testes.these beasts and chemical signals from.one part of the body to the other and.require the body to to react in some way.so when you go into shock.that's an enduring condition this when.something happens and you get really.keyed up and it's called the flight or.fright mechanism you these are.independent disruptors can disrupt this.process by imitating those chemicals.that the endocrine glands produce and.then causing your body to react when.it's not supposed to and inappropriate.reaction or it can block the site where.these chemicals are supposed to react.upon to prevent that from happening so.there's some concern about these.materials and and with the chlorinated.hydrocarbons are being implicated in.fact the US EPA is screening every.pesticide that's being registered for.its potential to be an endocrine.disruptor because they're so concerned.about that there's some the indican.disruption is being implicated in the.increase in breast cancer and women and.testicular cancer in men so that's a.very serious concern not just pesticides.but many.being screened for that.the preceding program was part one of.two parts each 90 minutes long there is.support material available at this.website including quizzes handouts and.lecture outlines for all presentations.consult the uctv programming guide for.the date and time part 2 and other.lectures in the series will be shown.it's the definitive guide to gardening.produced by the University of California.the California master gardener handbook.contains over 700 pages of in-depth.information on topics such as selecting.varieties planting growth cycles pruning.irrigation and harvesting the California.master gardener handbook is available.along with other gardening publications.on the a in our catalog website at a and.are cataloged on UC Davis edu.

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Pest Management Maintenance Record Dd Form 1532 1 FAQs

Some of the confused FAQs related to the Pest Management Maintenance Record Dd Form 1532 1 are:

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Why should it be so complicated just figuring out how much  tax to pay? (record keeping, software, filling out forms . . .  many times cost much more than the amount of  taxes due)  The cost of compliance makes  the U.S. uncompetitive and costs jobs and lowers our standard of living.

Taxes can be viewed as having 4 uses (or purposes) in our (and most) governments: Revenue generation (to pay for public services). Fiscal policy control (e.g., If the government wishes to reduce the money supply in order to reduce the risk of inflation, they can raise interest rates, sell fewer bonds, burn money, or raise taxes. In the last case, this represents excess tax revenue over the actual spending needs of the government). Wealth re-distribution. One argument for this is that the earnings of a country can be perceived as belonging to all of its citizens since the we all have a stake in the resources of the country (natural resources, and intangibles such as culture, good citizenship, civic duties). Without some tax policy complexity, the free market alone does not re-distribute wealth according to this "shared" resources concept. However, this steps into the boundary of Purpose # 4... A way to implement Social Policy (and similar government mandated policies, such as environmental policy, health policy, savings and debt policy, etc.). As Government spending can be use to implement policies (e.g., spending money on public health care, environmental cleanup, education, etc.), it is equivalent to provide tax breaks (income deductions or tax credits) for the private sector to act in certain ways -- e.g., spend money on R&D, pay for their own education or health care, avoid spending money on polluting cars by having a higher sales tax on these cars or offering a credit for trade-ins [ref: Cash for Clunkers]).Uses # 1 & 2 are rather straight-forward, and do not require a complex tax code to implement. Flat income and/or consumption (sales) taxes can easily be manipulated up or down overall for these top 2 uses. Furthermore, there is clarity when these uses are invoked. For spending, we publish a budget. For fiscal policy manipulation, the official economic agency (The Fed) publishes their outlook and agenda. Use # 3 is controversial because there is no Constitutional definition for the appropriate level of wealth re-distribution, and the very concept of wealth re-distribution is considered by some to be inappropriate and unconstitutional. Thus, the goal of wealth re-distribution is pretty much hidden in with the actions and policies of Use #4 (social policy manipulation). Use # 4, however, is where the complexity enters the Taxation system. Policy implementation through taxation (or through spending) occurs via legislation. Legislation (law making) is inherently complex and subject to gross manipulation by special interests during formation and amendments. Legislation is subject to interpretation, is prone to errors (leading to loopholes) and both unintentional or intentional (criminal / fraudulent) avoidance. The record keeping and forms referred to in the question are partially due to the basic formula for calculating taxes (i.e., percentage of income, cost of property, amount of purchase for a sales tax, ...). However, it is the complexity (and associated opportunities for exploitation) of taxation legislation for Use # 4 (Social Policy implementation) that naturally leads to complexity in the reporting requirements for the tax system.

What is the sales tax on a used car in Phoenix?

The other answer does a good job of providing the details if you buy from a dealer either new or used. There is no sales tax if you buy a used car from a private party. That said, the Vehicle License Tax still applies every time you renew your registration and it goes down each year as the car gets older. The VLT is based on the MSRP of the car when it was new.

I’ve been out of work for a month. I need to file a disability claim signed by 1 doctor. I have seen 4 doctors and spent 2 days in the hospital. How do I consolidate all records, so 1 of my doctors can review and sign my disability claim form?

Your Primary Care Physician should be your central point of contact for all other doctor’s specialist, hospitals etc. You should always ask that a copy of your discharge summaries be forwarded to them so that they can be kept apprised of your overall condition.

Does Arizona charge sales tax on used vehicles?

Sales tax is a transcriptional tax. It is due whenever a taxable transaction takes place. It generally does not matter if an item is new or used. In fact in many states people who hold garage sales are supposed to collect sales tax. Most don’t- but technically they should.

How much are taxes and fees on a used car in Arizona?

It depends who you ask. There are weird one-off outlier data points for the car. Like for any car. And some writers cut and paste those data points at every opportunity. It's a weird hobby. But they're out there. And in here. Consumer reports acknowledged that the drive train is far superior to 20th century ICE cars. They also accurately point out that panel gaps may be 4 or 5mm off from one side to the other. If you have ever gone car shopping with a micrometer, then that may matter to you. So, if the car fits your needs in a general sense, you'd be hard pressed to find a competitor that is bette Continue Reading

Do you pay sales tax on a private car sale in Arizona?

You betcha! When you go to title and register the vehicle in your name you will be required to pay title transfer and registration fees as well as sales tax.

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