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[Music].welcome to train engineers newsletter.live program I'm Jeannie Harshaw and.today we'll discuss demand control.ventilation changing occupancy levels in.different areas of a building post a.ventilation challenge we need to bring.in enough outdoor air to ensure good.indoor air quality but we also want to.avoid wasting energy by not bringing in.too much demand control ventilation is a.control strategy that varies the rate at.which outdoor air is delivered to a zone.based on the number of people currently.in that zone it's important to note that.the goal of this strategy is to save.energy during periods of partial.occupancy not to improve indoor air.quality if your goal was to improve.indoor air quality you would keep.outdoor air flow high at all times.rather than reducing it during periods.of partial occupancy on today's program.we'll start with a review of recent.changes to energy standards and codes.then we'll discuss common technologies.used to implement demand control.ventilation and finally we'll describe.how to implement dcv in various types of.ventilation systems today we have.trained application engineers Erik Sturm.and John Murphy to walk us through these.topics so John can you get us started.sure ash forests and 62.1 the.ventilation standard permits an HVAC.system to dynamically reset the outdoor.air intake flow as operating conditions.change and it specifically mentions.demand controlled ventilation as one of.the permitted strategies as Jeanne.mentioned the goal this strategy is to.save energy during periods of partial.occupancy so while standard 62 allows.dcv ASHRAE standard 90.1 the energy.standard requires demand control.ventilation for certain high occupancy.areas in most recent versions of this.standard published in 2013 and 2016 the.manual ventilation is required in spaces.that.are larger than 500 square feet with a.design occupancy of at least 25 people.per thousand square feet if that space.is served by a system that has either an.air economizer.or some other means for modeling outdoor.damper or if the design outdoor air flow.exceeds 3000 CFM like other sections of.the standard there are several.exceptions to this requirement for.example if the system is equipped with.exhaust air energy recovery it's exempt.from also having to implement manual.ventilation or if the design outdoor air.flow rate of the system is less than 750.CFM then it's also exempt and there are.certain space types that are exempted as.well listed on the slide here under.exception five over the past decade.standard 90.1 requirements for demand.control ventilation have beginning more.stringent back in the 2004 version dcv.was not required until the design.occupant density exceeded a hundred.people per thousand square feet then in.2007 the threshold was lowered to.include spaces with more than 40 people.per thousand square feet and then as I.showed earlier the most recent versions.now required manual ventilation when the.space is designed for 25 or more people.per thousand square feet what this means.is that the manual ventilation is now.required in more types of spaces than in.the past this slide shows the occupancy.categories listed in standard 62 for.which the default occupant density is 25.people per thousand square feet or.greater so these are the spaces where.demand troll ventilation might be.required.those bolded in blue were added to this.list when standard 90.1 lowered the.threshold from 40 people to 25 for.projects complying with the.International Energy Conservation code.the requirements for DC V are the same.but there are a few differences in the.exceptions I've included the excerpt.from the IECC your handouts for.reference.all right so Eric how do we determine.population in a space for demand control.ventilation not only does standard 62.1.allowed two main control ventilation but.the authors also listed several.technologies that can be used for it.that list includes occupancy schedules.people counters occupancy sensors and.carbon dioxide sensors there are a.variety of considerations that come with.each technology let's have a look at the.technologies starting with time of day.schedules most building automation.systems already have a scheduling.feature to tell the system when the.building is occupied or unoccupied a.time of day schedule can be used to tell.the automation system what the expected.zone population is at a given time this.is a good strategy for space types that.have predictable occupancy let's take a.look at an example high school cafeteria.because the number of students is.predictable and the school schedule is.relatively constant this becomes a good.application for a time of day schedule.on this chart you can see time plotted.along the horizontal axis and population.along the vertical axis the blue line.indicates the actual population the.green dotted line shows the BAS input.you can see the operator did take some.Liberty with the entered schedule the.students enter the cafeteria at 7.o'clock a.m. when the school is opened.it's a brief rush as the breakfast crowd.moves on at 8 o'clock and the population.decreases then the lunch crowd begins to.show up at 11:30 but the BAS operator.actually entered an earlier time.approximately 11:15 a.m. to have more.fresh air in the cafeteria as students.arrive now the actual peak lasts until.1:30 p.m. but the operator extended it.to 2 o'clock as the day goes on the.actual population decreases but the.operator has assumed a constant.population through the end of the school.day for those students and faculty.let's stay behind for after-school.activities finally at 7 o'clock p.m. the.actual and bas entered population goes.to zero so this technology offers the.owner a lot of freedom and to configure.the scheduled population in a way that.suits their needs as Eric stated for.those spaces were the octave C pattern.is predictable the time of day schedule.is a good option for implementing demand.control.it's simple reliable and likely already.included in the building automation.system so no additional sensors are.required just a little bit of time to.configure and set up the schedule ok.let's talk about people Connors next.time of day schedules tell the BAS a.predicted population based upon operator.input an educated guess people Connors.on the other hand determine the current.population in real time building owners.might want to know the current.population many of these technologies.have been driven by the retail industry.where systems are used to compute how.many customers enter a store and how.long they stay to shop the possibility.exists to integrate these systems with.HVAC automation systems these people.counting systems are actually a broad.category because there are a variety of.technologies that can be used including.infrared systems camera systems thermal.imaging point-of-sale integration Wi-Fi.and Bluetooth connections and others one.of the earliest ways to measure.population was through the use of.infrared beams at the entry to a space.here an infrared beam is installed and.used to determine when a person enters.or exits a space by measuring when the.beam is broken two beams aligned.side-by-side are used to determine.whether a person is walking into or out.of a space more recently camera systems.can be used with software to compute the.number of people within their field of.view stereo camera systems can be used.to compute people and their location.within a space thermal imaging camera.can sense the number of people in their.field of view by detecting the.temperature changes of people compared.to the environment around them here you.can see a thermal image of several.people at a coffee shop where they're.distinguished from their surrounding.some businesses use point-of-sale.systems and sell tickets to gain.admission these ticket sales can be used.to determine the population in a space.at a given time consider a movie theater.where tickets are sold to enter the.theater and watch a film.the theaters point-of-sale system can be.tied into the bas and the space will.then be ventilated for the number of.tickets sold here's an example of how.this might work.Acme cinemas has a matinee showing the.latest science-fiction space opera in.one of its 200 seat theaters which.happens to be 2,400 square feet the.people based rate is 5 CFM per person.and the area based rate is 0.06 CFM per.square foot the design ventilation rate.for the space visa BZ is computed to be.1140 for CFM based upon the standard.62.1 ventilation rate procedure the bas.periodically pulls the point-of-sale.system the theater point-of-sale system.indicates that 63 tickets have been sold.with 25 minutes before show time the bas.then calculates the current ventilation.requirement for 63 people and determines.that 459 CFM of outdoor air is needed.that's about 40% of the design.outer air requirement the integration.with the cinemas ticket sales allows the.automation system to ventilate for the.current population in the theater.without implementing any other sensing.technologies a newer and more advanced.technology called time of flight is used.by the retail industry to count and.determine the position of store.occupants similar to radar this.technology emits a pulse of invisible.light and tracks the reflections created.by people a sensor records the.reflections and software compute.in real-time to determine the quantity.and movement of people the last type of.people counting I'd like to mention is.Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connections to.mobile devices designers can install.hardware that uses wireless radio.connections to compute how many mobile.devices are in a given space at any one.time knowing this the system can then.ventilate for that quantity of people.like time-of-flight sensors this is a.relatively new technology and has been.pioneered in the retail space the use of.people counters still seems to be.somewhat rare we mostly see it in spaces.where there's already some technology.being used to count people that is if.people Connors are being used for some.other business purposes with some.integration work that data could also be.used for demand control ventilation Eric.mentioned that the retail and.entertainment industries are really.pioneering these technologies a simple.occupancy sensor can be used as well.unlike people counters which provide.some quantity of people in a space at a.given time occupancy sensors return more.of a binary output occupied or.unoccupied no quantity of people is.known when the space is occupied it will.be ventilated at the design people-based.rate plus area based rate and when.unoccupied.it'll be ventilated at the area based.rate only so here's an example.conference room the design ventilation.rate for the space is computed to be 61.CFM and when the occupancy sensor.doesn't detect any motion the space can.be ventilated at 41 CFM when people.return the ventilation rate will be.increased to 61 CFM now this was changed.in the 2016 update of standard 62.1 the.committee added something called.occupied standby mode which allows the.space ventilation rate to go to zero.when unoccupied if the space type is.listed in the minimum ventilation rates.table the same table that provides.people and area based ventilation rates.this is allowed if the vent.can be restored to the breathing zone.ventilation rate when occupancy is.detected so in our conference room when.people go away but the building is still.occupied the ventilation rate can be.zero CFM but when people return the.space must be automatically ventilated.at 61 CFM again occupancy sensors are a.great choice for private offices or.spaces that are sparsely occupied.they're simple inexpensive and may.already be in the building for lighting.control finally there's the co2 sensor.this is probably the most commonly used.sensor type when demand control.ventilation is being used the procedure.described in appendix D.of Sanders 62.1 gives us a method to.relate carbon dioxide and ventilation.equation d1 shows that the difference.between indoor and outdoor carbon.dioxide is equal to the carbon dioxide.generation rate per person divided by.the outdoor air ventilation rate.expressed in CFM per person that.generation rate n is based upon a.variety of factors when people exhale.they add carbon dioxide to a space since.this gas is a byproduct of respiration.it can be monitored as a tracer gas to.determine occupancy using this.information the BAS can change the.amount of ventilation delivered as a.function of measured carbon dioxide so.unlike the population counters we just.saw a co2 sensor is measuring carbon.dioxide not people the standard 62.1.Committee is now in the process of.revising this procedure to determine how.much carbon dioxide is produced by.people outer air generally has a steady.concentration of carbon dioxide.somewhere between 350 and 450 parts per.million within a space people add carbon.dioxide as they exhale so the.concentration should be higher when.compared to the outdoor air the co2.sensor is used to measure indoor.concentration the.difference between indoor and outdoor.carbon dioxide concentration is.proportional to the ventilation rate per.person on this chart you can see indoor.and outdoor carbon dioxide concentration.plotted over the course of time for a.room when a person enters the room they.begin increasing the carbon dioxide.inside the room until it reaches steady.state some time later.this indoor concentration shown in the.blue line corresponds to a room.ventilation rate at fifteen CFM per.person as people come and go the indoor.carbon dioxide level will change using.co2 for demand control ventilation is.certainly not a new idea but its.reputation has suffered because the.quality accuracy and repeatability of.co2 sensors has varied widely over the.years in 2009 the Iowa Energy Center.published a report after testing.numerous sensors and the results weren't.very encouraging but over the past.decade there have been several.advancements in co2 sensing technology.now most the industry has standardized.on infrared technology for co2 sensing.when infrared light is passed through a.sample of air part of that radiation is.absorbed by the co2 molecules so I'm.measuring the amount of radiation.passing through that air sample you can.calculate the concentration of co2 this.sensing technology provides good.accuracy and a wide operating range with.respect to temperature pressure and.humidity but historically it has.required frequent recalibration as the.lamp and reflective materials degrade.over time but now new technology useful.a light source and new materials are.much more stable this has led to sensors.available in the marketplace now that.require no recalibration for the life of.the sensor sometimes up to 15 years so.there are a variety of sensors available.in the marketplace and designers can.choose the sensor that best fits the.space type it's serving time of day.schedules for space.with predictable patterns occupancy.sensors for spaces with minimal.population variation like in closed.offices people counters for spaces with.highly variable populations and consider.integrating existing people counting.systems if possible and co2 census for.densely occupied spaces with highly.variable populations.I mentioned that ASHRAE 62.1 permits.demand control ventilation to be used.however that standard does not allow co2.to be used for demand control if there's.a source of carbon dioxide in the zone.other than the occupants or if an air.cleaner is being used it removes co2.both of these situations would make co2.an inaccurate indicator of occupancy.thanks guys for the remainder of the.program we'll discuss how to implement.demand control ventilation into various.types of ventilation systems starting.with single zone systems Eric in a.single zone system like a packaged.rooftop unit the sensor used for demand.control ventilation is typically mounted.in the occupied space on a wall or.column the sensor itself often looks.like a normal zone temperature sensor.any sensor type I mentioned earlier.could be used but in this case I'm.showing a co2 sensor because it's the.most common there are some manufacturers.who created zone sensors that sense.temperature humidity and carbon dioxide.all in one housing alternatively some.designers will mount the co2 sensor in.the return air duct of the unit in a.single zone constant volume system the.outer damper can be modulated in.proportion to the changing carbon.dioxide concentration in the zone.Appendix A of the standard 62.1 user's.manual describes a proportional control.sequence that can be used to apply.demand control ventilation in a single.zone system to explain it let's use an.example 1,000 square foot lecture.classroom with a peak population of 65.and a carbon dioxide generation rate.that's typical for people doing light.office work.the first step of the process is to.calculate the outer air flow required at.both peak population and with zero.people using the rates required by.standard 62.1 for this type of space our.example classroom needs 550 CFM of outer.when all 65 people are present but it.only needs 60 CFM when the zone is.unoccupied and the ventilation system is.still operating the next step is to.calculate the carbon dioxide.concentrations using the steady-state.equation.found in the standard and shown earlier.for our example assuming an outdoor.carbon dioxide concentration of 350.parts per million the indoor.concentration that corresponds to peak.population is 1600 parts per million and.the concentration at zero population is.350 parts per million the same as the.outdoor air these values define the end.points for a proportional control.sequence here's what it looks like when.it's plotted the vertical axis shows.outdoor air flow and the horizontal axis.shows indoor carbon dioxide.concentration when the space carbon.dioxide concentration equals 16 hundred.parts per million or higher the outer.air damper modulates to bring in the.design outdoor air flow 550 CFM when the.concentration is 350 parts per million.or less the damper modulates to bring in.60 CFM which is the area based component.of the ventilation rate and when the.carbon dioxide concentration is between.these limits the controller modulates.the outdoor air damper proportionally.between 60 and 550 CFM so here's the.entire sequence put together when the.indoor carbon dioxide concentration is.350 parts per million or less 60 CFM of.out air is brought in.and when the concentration is 1,600.parts per million or greater 550 CFM of.out errors introduced and when the.carbon dioxide concentration is between.these limits the controller modulates.the outer air dampener proportionally.between 60 and 550 CFM now this would be.enough to implement in a constant volume.system when using demand control.ventilation with single zone VV things.are a little more complicated in this.system the supply fan speed is modulated.in response to changes in space load and.with demand control ventilation the.outer air damper needs to modulate to.vary the amount of outdoor air brought.in if a flow measuring device is.installed the system is controlled to.the current CFM setpoint but if a.proportional damper control without a.flow measuring devices being used it.makes it takes more engineering of the.controller in a single zone VV system.the fan operates at different speeds.shown here as minimum and maximum speed.along the horizontal axis the vertical.axis shows outdoor damper position let's.start with the design outer air 550 CFM.at a maximum carbon dioxide.concentration of 1,600 parts per million.here at position one the outer air.damper is further open when the fan is.at its minimum speed and when the fan.speeds up the pressure on the back side.changes so more outdoors drawn in to.regulate this the outer damper is closed.down to position two so what's changed.between operating points one and two the.required outer air flow has not changed.it's 550 CFM because the carbon dioxide.level in the space was at 1600 parts per.million what has changed is the speed of.the supply fan and as a result the.damper needed to change positions to.maintain the current outdoor air intake.at 550 C.so what about the DCB minimum again.there are going to be two positions.shown here as points three and four.point three represents the damper.position to bring the minimum amount of.outer 60 CFM when the fan is operating.at minimum speed and position four.represents the damper position when 60.CFM of outer supplied at maximum fan.speed Eric what I noticed this requires.a few extra steps when the system is.being installed that's right four units.with constant speed fan control and no.demand control ventilation the Installer.sets one day upper position and they're.done but for a unit with variable speed.fan control and demand control.ventilation there are more steps these.for damper positions need to be.determined during balancing then.configured or programmed in the.controller now here's where the.proportional control aspect comes in the.fan is operating at part speed halfway.between minimum and maximum that speed.has been determined by the unit.controller to maintain space temperature.at the same time the space carbon.dioxide level is 1215 parts per million.or about 3/4 of the design carbon.dioxide level so the damper will be.adjusted to operate at this position.where the blue horizontal line.intersects the vertical axis in this.case it looks like the damper is going.to be slightly above half open as the.fan speed and indoor carbon dioxide.levels change the controller runs.through these calculations again to.determine the new outdoor air damper.position and all of this is done without.outdoor air flow measurement a simple.single zone system with demand control.ventilation isn't so simple anymore.that's right.with demand control ventilation intake.air flow is reduced during partial.occupancy so.it's important to consider how this.affects building pressure control if.there's a relief fan pushing air out of.the building when demand control reduces.intake air flow that relief fan may need.to reduce its capacity to prevent.negative pressure in the building and we.discussed various approaches to building.pressure control on our 2016 program.line airside economizers.it's listed in the bibliography if you.want more information on that subject.and on that subject.when using air site economizing and.demand control in the same system some.coordination is required.remember DC V is trying to reduce.outdoor air flow in effort to save.energy but what is mild outside the.economizer is trying to increase outdoor.air flow again in an effort to save.energy.prevent them from fighting each other.air sight economizing should be allowed.to win if outdoor conditions are.favorable for economizing it's more.efficient to bring in more outdoor air.so DC v should be disabled when the.economizer is enabled okay so let's talk.about another ventilation system type.dedicated outer air systems here.ventilation air is cooled and.dehumidified then delivered either to.each space or to another unit here's an.example dedicated outer air system the.outer enters the unit passes through a.total energy wheel shown in green then.through a cooling coil heating coil and.the fan circulates it to the spaces in.this example building exhaust passes.through the other side of the energy.wheel there are a variety of ways outer.air can be delivered to the breathing.zone in the first zone cool dry air is.ducted into the space also in the space.there's a separate system fan coil water.source heat pump vrf terminal are.similar to handle additional sensible.cooling and heating in the second zone a.sensible cooling terminal unit is.installed fresh outer air is ducted to.the terminal unit and mixed with.returned air.that's passed through a sensible cooling.coil this mixture is sent through a.heating coil then into the space by a.small terminal fan in the third zone.recirculated air passes through a.terminal unit something like a fan coil.or water source heat pump and is mixed.with outer air in the supply duct before.being circulated into the space and.finally the outer air is ducted to the.plenum space near the terminal unit in.the fourth zone.notice that the doctor is not physically.connected to the terminal unit this is.more commonly used with multiple.terminal units that are fed outer air.with a single duct now the standard 62.1.Committee has specific guidance when.using this configuration to ensure that.fresh air reaches the space figures 5d.and E of the standard 62.1 user's manual.show correct and incorrect.configurations of a plenum delivery.system the fresh air duct must discharge.near the terminal unit and some kind of.balancing means must be provided to.ensure the correct amount of outer air.flow reaches each space so designers.have a lot of freedom to configure the.fresh air delivery each with certain.advantages and drawbacks these are.summarized in the Trane application.guide dedicated outer air systems so.let's now apply demand control.ventilation to a dedicated outdoor air.system in the first layout fresh air is.delivered directly to each space through.ductwork in the first zone demand.control ventilation will be implemented.by measuring carbon dioxide and.modulating a pressure independent damper.with a flow measuring device as carbon.dioxide concentration levels change in.the space the damper will modulate to.regulate the amount of fresh air.entering the space but what about spaces.that don't use two main control.ventilation as the first zones damper.closes in response to space carbon.dioxide levels.down the upstream pressure that is the.pressure in the duct before the damper.goes up and forces additional fresh air.into the other spaces so the other.spaces need pressure independent dampers.to maintain the design flow of.ventilation air as other dampers change.position with DC V being used the.dedicated outer air system will likely.use a variable speed fan with a pressure.sensor somewhere in the supply duct to.vary the amount of out air supplied and.as the pressure in the supply duct.increases the variable speed fan inside.the dedicated outer air unit should be.modulated to reduce pressure.automatically now in the second.configuration fresh air is ducted into a.terminal device mixed with return air.and distributed into the space in the.first space a co2 sensors being used.with demand controlled ventilation.this requires a pressure independent.damper or a terminal unit with a.controllable damper and flow measuring.device likewise in the other spaces.pressure independent dampers are needed.to prevent over or under ventilating as.Eric mentioned implementing the manual.ventilation in a dedicated outdoor air.system requires pressure independent.dampers in the ventilation duct work.this ensures proper ventilation to those.zones with demand control and avoids.over ventilating the other zones so you.actually do bring in less outdoor air.and get the energy savings you're after.also the dedicated outdoor unit requires.a means to vary the airflow delivered.and don't forget about building pressure.control with this system either when.less air is brought into the building.less air has to leave the building now.the final type of ventilation system.will discuss is the multiple zone.recirculating system in a multiple zone.Vav system air from more than one zone.returns to the central air handler where.some of it is recirculated and mixed.with fresh outdoor air.this mixture is then cooled or heated.before being supplied to the zones so.the air handler delivers the same.fraction or percentage of outdoor air to.every zone the result is that some zones.are likely to be over ventilated in the.attempt to properly ventilate the.worst-case zone now although multiple.zone VV systems can include more than.one ventilation path as may be the case.with a dual duct or fan power terminals.for example today we'll just focus on.single path Vav systems over the years.various approaches have been suggested.for implementing demand control.ventilation in this type of system and.we'll discuss a few of those today let's.start with the sensor in every zone.approach this example shows a central.air handler serving four Vav terminals a.co2 sensor is installed in every zone.the building automation system monitors.all these sensors and determines the.outdoor air damper position needed to.satisfy the ventilation requirements of.every zone reducing intake air flow at.the central air handler reduces the.amount of outdoor air delivered to every.zone so you need to make sure it's the.worst case zone that actually controls.the damp position but this gets.complicated since the target co2.concentration is different for different.space types earlier Arik calculated the.target indoor concentration for a.lecture classroom in that example 1600.Parsa million correspond to the required.ventilation rate for that space type but.what if this same system also serves.offices and a conference room.the ventilation rates and occupant.densities differ for these other space.types which results in different indoor.co2 concentrations in the office.the target is 970 parsh million and the.conference room is 2100 so if the system.serves zones with different accuracy.categories this gets complicated it's.not as easy as just keeping all zones.below a thousand parts per million.now there's a variation to this approach.that sometimes used rather than opening.the outdoor air damper in the air.handler when the co2 concentration in a.zone gets too high the Vav controller.first responds by driving its damper.further open this increases the primary.air flow which does result in more.outdoor air flow delivered to the zone.but increasing the flow of cold air.causes the zone to / cool which means.the reheat coil turns on the hope here.is that the increased reheat and fan.ergy is more efficient choice than.opening the outdoor damper further this.is probably true during very cold.weather or when it's hot and humid.outside but if it's mild outside maybe.not if any individual VV damper reaches.a hundred percent wide-open and co2 in.that zone is still too high then the.outdoor air damper in the air handler is.open further a system could be designed.like this but all those sensors mean.that the installed cost is higher when.you consider that co2 levels may be.fairly constant in zones with more.steady population there will likely be.several non-critical zones where the.sensor doesn't add any value now as John.mentioned the automation system needs to.pull all those sensors and be smart.enough to know which zones need more.ventilation and the air handler must.include some means of maintaining at.least the minimum intake air flow.required another approach has been used.is just install a single co2 sensor in.the common return air duct and use this.single measurement to vary the amount of.outdoor air brought in at the air.handler this certainly reduces install.costs by getting rid of all those.sensors but in a multiple zone system.like this that single sensor measures.the average co2 concentration of all the.zones served so some zones will be under.ventilated while others are over.ventilated as an example if there's a.meeting in the conference room the co2.level could rise to 2,500.Parsa million or more while in the.adjacent offices it may drop to only 500.parts per million because many of the.occupants walked into the conference.room to attend that meeting since return.air comes from both the conference room.and the offices the resulting mixed co2.concentration might be only a thousand.parts per million this value might.suggest that ventilation is adequate.even though the conference room clearly.needs more outdoor air certainly with.only one sensor installed cost is much.lower but this measures the average co2.concentration if all the zones are.served by a system are fairly similar.some engineers believe this approach is.adequate others do not the third.approach for a multiple zone Vav system.is combined demand control ventilation.at the zone level with a concept called.ventilation optimization at the system.level starting in its 2010 version.ASHRAE 90.1 has required this.ventilation optimization strategy be.used in a multiple zone Vav system this.involves using the equations from.Appendix A in standard 62.1 to.automatically calculate and adjust.system intake air flow in response to.the changing system ventilation.efficiency to explain I'll start at the.zone level Vav box controller this.approach uses a co2 sensor in only those.zones that are densely occupied and have.a widely varying population in these.types of zones where demand Trull.ventilation is most valuable zones that.are not densely occupied or don't.experience significant variation in.population might use an aqua D sensor or.even a time of day schedule to just.ventilation for those zones with the co2.sensor installed the VV controller reads.the measured co2 concentration in the.zone and uses that to calculate the.outdoor air flow currently required for.that zone the Vav controller also.includes an air flow sensor to measure.the primary air flow currently being.supplied to the zone.from the central air handler.then it calculates the current zone.outdoor air fraction or Z sub P Z this.is the current outdoor flow required.divided by the current primary air flow.being delivered for example if a.thousand CFM of primary air is being.delivered to this zone and the co2.concentration indicates that the zone.currently requires 400 CFM outdoor air.the outdoor fraction for this zone is.0.4 that is 40 percent of the air.delivered to this zone.needs to be outdoor air each Vav.controller is doing this calculation for.the zone it serves then periodically the.system controller reads the outdoor.fraction from every zone looking for the.highest value that's the zone that.requires the highest percentage of.outdoor air right now the system.controller then solves the equations.from Appendix A in ASHRAE 62.1 to.calculate the current system ventilation.efficiency and how much outdoor air must.be brought in at the central air handler.to satisfy the current ventilation.requirements of all the zones.that's v-sub-oh teeth finally this new.system intake air flow set point is.communicated to the air handler or.rooftop unit controller there a flow.measuring outdoor air damper is used to.control the CFM of outdoor air to this.new setpoint this approach results in.exactly the right right amount of.outdoor air delivered to the worst-case.zone and minimizes excess ventilation in.all the other zones.now there's an enhancement to this.sequence also the system controller can.place a limit on the amount of outdoor.air it wants to bring in at the air.handler at any given time one way to do.this is to dictate a maximum outdoor.fraction as before the VV controller.calculates the outdoor fraction for its.zone but if this value is higher than.the maximum limit dictated by the system.controller the Vav controller responds.by driving its damper further open this.increases primary airflow which does.result in more outdoor air delivered to.the zone.but again increasing the flow of cold.air causes the zone to over cool and.activate read this provides the most.energy benefit when it's either cold.outside or hot and humid if it's mild.outside opening the outdoor damper a.little further doesn't impact energy as.much.so with those mild conditions it's.likely more efficient to avoid adding.the reheat and the extra fan energy this.third approach allows you to implement.domain control ventilation and only.those zones where it provides the most.benefit so it's lower installed cost.than installing a sensor in every zone.this approach also requires some means.to measure and control outer airflow at.the air handler or rooftop unit and if.you're doing a LEED project this.approach meets the requirements for.achieving the enhanced IQ strategies.credit that credit requires installing.co2 sensors in only the densely occupied.spaces where DCB provides the most value.anyway and installing a direct outer air.flow measurement device in the central.air handler the final approach I'll.discuss is really in its infancy.ASHRAE recently completed research.projects 17:47.which developed new sequences for.implementing demand control ventilation.in a multiple zone Vav system now.there's been some confusion in the.industry about this so let me see if I.can clarify there was an earlier project.15:47 that developed DC B's control.sequences also now while that project.laid a good foundation the sponsoring.ASHRAE committee believed the resulting.sequences were not practical for real.life control systems so a second project.17:47 was launched to make the sequences.more practical and then test them in a.real-world environment so you may see.references to 15:47 in some articles or.publications but 1747 is the improved.more practical version conceptually it's.very similar to the last approach I just.described.first the VV controller calculates the.current outdoor air flow required for.that zone using either a co2 sensor or.occupancy sensor installed in the zone.the difference difference is that this.sequence uses an additional co2 sensor.installed in the common primary air.stream tomorrow accurately determine the.current ventilation airflow being.delivered next the system controller.Calkins the current system intake air.flow required using those equations from.Appendix A in a three 62.1 and finally.the Vav controller dynamically adjusts.its minimum primary airflow setting.based on the richness of the primary air.that is if the primary air from the.central air handler is rich with outdoor.air like it is when economizing for.example the Vav controller then tries to.adjust its minimum primary air flow.setting as low as possible otherwise the.Vav controller will reset its minimum.primary air flow setting upward when co2.level is high just enough to ensure that.the system intake air flow never exceeds.the design rate like I said this.sequence is fairly new so I suspect you.will start hearing about it more over.the next few years this new sequence has.similar benefits and requirements as the.previous approach it should result in.more energy savings but does require an.additional co2 sensor installed in the.primary air stream and it requires.measurement of total intake air flow.including the additional outer air.brought in when economizing thank you.gentlemen to wrap up today John showed.that ASHRAE standard 62.1 allows demand.control ventilation to reduce outdoor.air flow during times of partial.occupancy and he reviewed ASHRAE.standard 90.1 requirements for DC V and.densely occupied spaces and showed how.this strategy is being required on more.space types than in the past.Eric highlighted several technologies.used for DC V as well co2 sensors should.be considered for densely occupied zones.with widely varying population.while other technologies like occupancy.sensors time of day schedules and people.counters should be used where they make.sense and finally we talked about ways.to implement demand control ventilation.in different types of ventilation.systems while correctly integrating it.with air sight economizing and building.pressure control we hope you enjoyed the.C&L program and that you found it a.helpful way to learn about demand.control ventilation as always the.bibliography included in your handout.provides more information on where to.find a number of resources related to.today's topic or contact your local.trained Account Manager for specific.information on trained controls for.those of you seeking continuing.education credit be sure to check out.our continuing education programs which.include many pasty and else all free and.on demand.please remember to fill out a survey and.let us know what you thought of today's.program AAA members remember to turn in.your information to your local site.coordinator and finally please ask your.local host about details for engineers.newsletter live programs planned for.next year thanks for your time today we.look forward to seeing you next time.[Music].

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