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so.so.so.all right are we live i guess we're live.i don't know what i was doing.um.okay so we're gonna start today with um.introduction to welding.we're gonna dig through um.uh steel worker u united states.navy steel worker manual 1 4 250..um we're going to do chapter 2 today.we're going to talk about basic heat.treatment.if you get a chance visit my.website or a website that i've been.dealing with.[Music].train eng.com for pdhs we got a couple.of cwi courses on there.um some other material um give it a.give it a look uh if you're looking for.a.reasonable.uh program for taking the cdwi exam.sorry i can't talk today.so anyways let's talk about heat treat.today.so welding and cutting or even grinding.on metal.produces heat which in turn has an.effect on the structure of the metal.so as if we're dealing with welding a.lot of the time.this is things you need to know because.at some point you're going to come.across.you're going to come across the terms.for.pre-heat post-weld heat treat does it.need stress relief does it need.to be annealed does it need to be.normalized quenched and tempered.whatever.so that's the basics of this little.chapter here we're not going to get.super in depth but we're going to hit.some of the.main vocabulary for it.so the objectives when you've completed.this chapter you should be able to do.the following.describe the heat treatment theory.identify the stages of heat treatment.um recognize heat treat colors.associated with steels.we're not going to get too much into.that um describe the different types of.heat treatment.and we're going to talk about a couple.of the different quenching medium.okay so when we get into talking about.metallurgy and heat treatment it all.gets back to carbon.and carbon is the most important.alloying element.in in metallurgy.of ferrous materials remember we talked.about ferrous materials yesterday.um.we talked about carbon and it it causes.uh the strength of the.material to go up.so that's what we're looking at here.so sorry about that i got a dog here.um it's an interstitial element so that.tells us that carbon.plays a role and it um goes into the.uh spaces in between the iron.so it it helps to harden the material.and it um also controls the magnus.maximum.uh allowable achievable.uh hardness in the material.so what we're talking about when we're.talking about phil physical metallurgy.is we're talking.with iron iron at room temperature is.base centered cubic that's this guy up.here in the corner.this bcc that's base centered cubic.when you heat iron up it goes into a.face centered cubic situation and.all the atoms rearrange and that's.called a transformation temperature.so it goes through an allotropic phase.transformation.so you can see we've got it's body.centered cubic.if we heat it up it goes to face center.cubic here we've got hexagonal close.pack.and that's just for um you know.materials like titanium and.zirconium they've got a different.crystalline structure we're not going to.talk about that.the ones we're worried about are body.centered cubic and face centered cubic.so when we're when we're heating.materials up.we're taking it from a body centered.cubic to a face centered cubic.and then on the way down we might slow.cool it and so in a normal.situation your iron would go from a.body-centered cubic to a face-centered.cubic.back to a body-centered cubic structure.well if we go into like uh if we're.let's say we're making a sword like back.in the old days.um you'd take it from body centered.cubic.to face centered cubic to and then you'd.quench it.and it would go to body centered.tetragonal.so that's what we've got over here and.that's what we're talking about when.we're talking about martensite.um so you can see that it's got a little.different.uh crystalline structure than body.centered cubic.um so here we've got martensite.martensite.is um formed by the rapid cooling and.quenching.of uh.austenite which traps carbon atoms that.do not have time to diffuse out of the.crystalline structure.the martensite reaction begins during.cooling when the austenite reaches the.martensite's.start temperature and the parent.austenite becomes mechanically unstable.at a constant temperature below ms a.fraction of the parent austenite.transforms rapidly so what's going to.happen is this thing is going to cool.down.and it leaves some tension in this is my.version of it.but it leaves some tension in the in the.material so it makes it harder so you're.going to have to have carbon.so the more carbon you have in a.material the easier it is to get.martensite to form.um all right so we're going to start out.i'm.running off of where are we at here.um basic heat treatment topics.and this is in u.s navy.14 250 which is a steel worker manual.so as you can see yesterday or the other.day we did introduction to types and.identification of metals.today we're going to do basic heat.treatment.and then we'll work our way into.introduction into metals.so all heat treatment processes are.similar because they all involve heating.and cooling of metals that's what it.boils down to.but there's differences in the metals in.the.in the methods used such as heating.temperatures cooling rates quenching.media.necessary to achieve the desired.properties.so um hold on a second i gotta get this.dog out of here.mike come down here and watch.joy isn't working at home dealing with.the dog sorry my apologies.um so the.we're going to talk about um heat.treatment.of ferrous materials of iron.because that's the most popular material.you're going to work with is.irons and steels so you're going to have.to get.familiar with annealing normalizing.hardening or tempering.quenching some of this terminology most.non-ferrous metals can be annealed but.never tempered normalized or case.hardened.and that's due to the fact that they.don't have that.um mechanism of carbon in there.in with the in the interstitial sites.causing it to get.harder and stronger.so all right where are we going next.here.next slide um heat treatment equipment.you know this is just telling you um if.you're going to do.heat treating of any sort you should.probably have the equipment.um everything for heating and cooling.you're going to need the size of the.furnace depending on what you got going.on.a lot of times in welding you're going.to use um.you know for post weld heat treatment.you're going to have.coils wrapped around a piece of tubing.there's going to be.different equipment that's or a furnace.depending if you're doing big castings.or whatnot you could be using a furnace.the furnace atmosphere is going to.affect the.material too.and what you've got going so um.so.so.i don't know this whole thing is just.killing me.i don't know if i'm still going or not.but i guess we'll keep plowing on.my bad all right um.to successfully the furnace atmosphere.is going to affect things.so that's why a lot of times in a.fuel-fired furnace you got to worry.about the atmosphere.mix your gases and air.the fuels combustion you can have.various things going on in there.and i'm not an expert i just know that.you can put carbon monoxide in there.carbon dioxide.hydrogen nitrogen oxygen water vapor.and other hydrocarbons to get.the heat treatment that you want and.you can vary the proportion of air and.fuel and.you know fuel fired furnaces to get what.you want so you can have oxidizing.reducing and neutral.um atmospheres and a furnace to get what.you want.so all right where's our next slide.okay so here's the big thing is when we.talk about stages of heat treatment.so on stages of heat treatment you're.going to have a heating stage.you're going to have a soaking stage and.you're going to have a cooling stage.so your heating stage is how fast you're.heating this thing up.we're taking it from you know.room temperature let's call it 70.degrees up to.a thousand degrees so you're going to.have various.rates on these heating stages.this is something that if you're ever.sending something to a heat treat oven.or the heat treater you want to make.sure and give them directions and say.hey.use this rate to you know 250 degrees.per hour.because you don't want to just throw.something from room temperature.especially if it's a.thick piece of material you don't want.to just throw it in an oven.and go from you know.room temperature to 1500 degrees and.you know 30 minutes or whatever because.you'll just crack it or.you're going to end up damaging the.material so that's what we talked about.the heating stage and we'll cover this.in a little more detail um soak is.you hold the metal at a given.temperature for a given time.so that's telling you how long you're.you're cooking your pizza.you know how long you're letting it um.heat up and.or not heat up but sit there and soak.it's like throwing something in a smoker.or something kind of.how long it's in the oven make sure that.the turkey is cooked all the way through.or whatever.um analogy you want to use.and then to cool cooling is the cooling.stage the cooling rate.how long does it take to cool this thing.down to room temperature.that's what we're talking about when.we're talking about the cooling stage.the heating stage in the heating stage.the primary objective is to heat.uniformly and attain.and maintain uniform temperatures by.slow heating.if you heat on evening one section can.expand faster than another resulting in.distortion.and cracked parts so that's what we're.you know um.you just got to be careful with this on.the heating.and bringing it up to temperature um.this part down here where it talks about.a metal.size and cross section that you really.have to look at that.no matter what you're heating and give.your heat treat people.an idea of what um what temperatures you.you need to heat it at and what ramp up.rate you want so you don't crack this.thing.or damage it or warp it or whatever so.there's.this whole heat treat thing there's.there's some i want to say some science.in it but it's also an art form.whenever i dealt with heat treat people.i just give them all right.don't do this this is this is what i.want this is.you know heat it up to this temperature.at this rate and then hold it and then.quench it or do whatever.but give them pretty good instructions.helps.all right let's go to.stage is a heat treatment the heating.stage that's what it's going to look.like.if you had a um a time.time here on our x-axis and y.is our temperature so it's just you know.your heating rate.how many degrees over what period of.time you know what i mean in my 100.degrees an hour.500 degrees an hour and then you're.going to take it up to your.soaking stage and the soaking stage the.objective is to hold the metal.at a proper temperature until the.desired internal structural changes take.place.it's like cooking a big piece of meat.you could burn the outside and the.inside could be raw.the same thing could happen with a piece.of material you're trying to heat treat.the chemical analysis of the metal and.the mass of the part will determine the.appropriate soaking period you need to.look this stuff up.there's a lot of good information out.there on the internet that'll tell you.the different um.you know give you some guidance there's.also books out there.libraries of books.except for rare variants you should not.bring the temperature of a metal.directly from room temperature to.soaking temperature in one operation so.you don't want to just.blast it in there that's what we were.saying you want to bring it up slowly.you want to you want to gradually bring.the temperature of the material that.you're heat treating up.slowly this is what it would look like.you know we've got our heating stage.soaking stage and cooling stage.all right now we're going to talk about.the cooling stage the cooling stage.would be.example i always use would be like when.you're watching them make a sword in the.old movies and they just get it red hot.super red hot and then they dunk it in.the ice cold water or in the oil or.whatever cooling medium they have.that's quenching so in the cooling stage.the objective is.self-explanatory but there are different.processes to return metal to room.temperature depending on the type of.metal.to cool the metal and attain the desired.properties you may need to place it in.direct contact with a cooling medium.a gas liquid solid or a combination.thereof.so in the cooling stage you might want.to slow cool it or you might want to.quench it.but i used quenching as a example.sometimes you want to.slow cool it bring it down very slowly.you know.maybe 100 degrees per hour and but other.times you want to.might want to quench it go from you know.whatever temperature you're at a couple.thousand degrees.fahrenheit down to nothing.very quickly and i mean nothing i mean.room temperature or.lower cooling metal rapidly in air oil.water and brine.or some other median is called quenching.so that's what we're talking about there.so you just taking it from.whatever your soaking temperature is.down to.room temperature and you're doing it at.a very quick rate.obviously you're not using you know some.materials depending on the chemistry can.be air quenched but.some not quenching is usually associated.with hardening since most metals that.are hardened or cooled rapidly during.this process.however neither quenching nor rapid.cooling always results in.increased hardness for example a water.quench is usually used to anneal copper.and some other metals are cooled at a.relatively slow rate for hardening.such as air hardened steels some metals.crack or warp during quenching.while others suffer no ill effects so.the quenching medium must fit the metal.you know you got to do your research on.what's the proper material to.use here for quenching what's the medium.you're going to use.you know oil mixtures for metals that.need slower cooling rates.water hardened carbon steels oil.hardened alloy steels and quenched non.ferrous materials in water.okay we got basic types of heat.treatment we're going to talk about.annealing.normalizing hardening and tempering.so what do we got here we've got um the.objective of.kneeling is the opposite of hardening to.anneal metals to relieve internal.stresses soften them make them more.ductile.and to refine the grain structures.is what you're what you're headed for.the process includes all three stages of.heat treatment already covered.heat the metal to a specific temperature.hold it at a temperature for a set.length of time.cool it to room temperature um.but the cooling method will depend on.the metal and the properties desired i.used to work at a foundry.out on the west coast and um depending.on what the material was some material.you could.um quench in air it was air quenching.other stuff they'd take it out of an.oven and.drop it in a.tank of quenching these quench tanks.that are about the size of a.swimming pool and they throw this red.hot chunk of metal in there.and put it in there with a giant.forklift and it'd.shoot water 30 feet in the air it was.pretty crazy to watch but.um it all depended on the metallurgy you.know the the metal that you were trying.to.um cool down and what the end use was so.there's no one size fits all.i'm just using a few words here and.we're just you know.kind of swimming in the shallow end of.the pool annealing.under certain job conditions without.proper preheating welding can produce.areas of molten metal adjacent to other.areas at room temperature given specific.conditions.welding can actually weaken a metal for.a.as a weld cools internal stresses occur.along with hard spots and brittleness.so sometimes you need to anneal a weld.so sometimes.you know you're going to bring it up and.to a certain temperature.and anneal it.ferrous metal annealing to anneal.ferrous metals.and produce the maximum softness the.ductility and steel you.you slowly heat the metal to its proper.temperature.soak it and then cool it very slowly by.burying the hot part.in insulating materials or by shutting.off the furnace.and allowing the furnace and the part to.cool together slowly.so that's another option a lot of times.you'll send something and you'll tell.them.okay you can take it out of the furnace.and just cool outside the furnace or.sometimes you want it.um cooled inside the furnace really slow.cool it.or you can a lot of sometimes they'll.bury them in.uh you know hot piece or like basically.kitty litter.um you know a granular material that'll.like sand or something that'll hold the.hold the heat in the part and it'll have.a slow cooling effect.soaking periods depend on both the type.and the mass of the metal involved.there's a table in this book that you.know give you approximate soaking.periods for annealing steels of various.thicknesses.um extremely low carbon steels require.the highest annealing temperatures.but as steel's carbon content increases.its kneeling.in temperature decreases that's kind of.i guess counterintuitive maybe but.um i guess it's how it works uh full.annealing is done to soften a metal to.make it more ductile and to relieve.stress.internal stress is caused by the.previous treatment such as casting cold.working.or hot working the operation known as.process annealing or stress relief.annealing is done to soften.the metal to somewhat though not as much.by a full annealing.and to relieve internal stresses.non-ferrous metals um these may or may.not follow the same process as ferrous.metals.copper becomes hard and brittle when.mechanically worked but it can be made.soft again by annealing at a temperature.between.seven and nine hundred f um however.copper may be cooled rapidly.normally associated with hardwood or.slowly.since the cooling rate has no effect on.the heat treatment.so you can slam copper you can cool.copper down quickly and it's not going.to affect the hardness it doesn't have.the same.mechanisms for hardening that.steel does with the carbon in there.okay so this is what normalizing would.look like.the intent of normalizing is to remove.internal stresses.that may have been induced.by heat treatment welding casting.whatever so sometimes you'll run across.this normalizing.and if you don't relieve these stresses.it'll cause.failure so normalizing applies to.ferrous metals only you can't do this.with aluminum or other materials.the metal is heated to a higher.temperature but then it is removed.from the furnace for air cooling low.carbon steels do not require normalizing.but if they are normalized no harmful.effects.castings are usually annealed rather.than normalized.however some castings require.normalizing.okay so the purpose of hardening is not.only to harden the steel as the name.implies but it's also increase the.strength.um like a quenched and tempered steel or.using materials that are.all like a knife blade or something.that's i mean this goes back to.metallurgy 101.when our ancestors were making iron.knives and.the first steel swords and.going down that road you know making.tools.um but so when you make it harder it's.less ductile and the brittleness.you'll get a brittle material and like a.knife blade or something it'll shatter.so you.you need to temper it to after you.harden it to.put some ductility back in the material.many non-ferrous metals can be hardened.and their strength increased by.controlled heating and rapid cooling.but for non-ferrous metals the same.process is called.is called heat treatment rather than.hardening.most steel's hardening consists of.employing the typical.first two stages of heat treatment.slowly heat to the temperature.and soak time and temperature but the.third stage is dissimilar.with hardening you rapidly cool the.metal by plunging it into oil water.you know this is quenching.hardening of ferrous materials the.cooling rate required to produce.hardness decreases when alloys are added.to steel.um this is advantageous since a slower.cooling rate.also lessens the danger of cracking and.warping.so as you add um other alloys to.a steel it's going to give you different.cooling rates.and different oh.different signature fingerprint in.regards to how it's cooling and what's.going on with it.the following the following provides.hardening characteristics for a few.irons and low carbon steels.pure iron wrought iron extremely low.carbon steels.very little hardening.properties they're difficult to harden.by heat treatment.so if you've got a really really low.carbon steel.you can't harden it we did this in.college when i was in university.the instructor gave us a piece of uh.what was it like really low carbon rebar.material.and he tried to you know we heated it up.to.you know a couple thousand degrees in.the furnace then threw it in some water.and tried to get it to cool down.um quick enough to get martin's sight to.form and you just couldn't get it you.couldn't get any.it just didn't work cast iron.cast iron is going to be harder than.heck anyway so there's limited.capabilities for hardening.um cooled rapidly it's going to form.white iron which is hard and brittle.cooled slowly it forms gray iron.um cooled for slowly it forms gray iron.soft but brittle under impact.so cast iron you know can be heat.treated too.depending on what you want with it um.playing carbon steel it just depends on.how much carbon content you've got in.there gets back to the carbon.of the material carbon is going to take.up those interstitial sites and.the more carbon you have the more.martensites you can form when cooling.the material.hardening ability increases as carbon.content increases to a maximum.of 0.8 carbon.let's fix that one while we're at it um.increase carbon content beyond point.eight increases wear resistance but not.hardness.so it's just gonna get to a certain.hardness and then you're just not gonna.be able to.um get any more hardness out that's it.you're just gonna get more wear.resistance.the increased wear resistance is.produced or is from the.production of hard cementite and i'm not.going to get that deep into this but.um you can add other materials too.and i'm not sure all of these but.i'm pretty sure all of these can uh you.know vanadium.adding an alloy to steel increases its.hardness also increases the carbon's.effectiveness to harden and strengthen.consequently the hard the carbon content.required to produce.maximum hardness is lower in alloy.steels.than it is for plain carbon steels with.the result that alloy steels are usually.superior to carbon steels.so you get some hardness and some other.strength related benefits i mean that's.why they make.they throw vanadium in tool steels or.wrenches and.tungsten and you know it's not just.plain carbon.steel they throw other alloys into you.know tool steels and.these types of materials to give them.material properties that are greatly.superior to.carbon steels when you harden a carbon.steel you must cool a steel to blow a.thousand in less than one second so you.got to go from.a couple thousand degrees down to less.than a thousand.degrees in less than one second when you.add alloys to steel and increase the.carbon to.and increase the carbon's effectiveness.you also increase the time.limit more than one second to drop below.100.so then you can use different quenching.medium to produce the desired hardnesses.you usually quench carbon steel and.brine or water and alloy steels and oil.tempering after hardening by either case.or flame steel is often harder than.needed and too brittle for most.practical purposes.containing severe internal stresses that.were set up during a rapid cooling.that gets back to our previous slide.when we talked about.let's go back to this guy when you're.going from.body centered cubic well realistically.you're just going from.when you're this you're at this phase.you're at face centered cubic when.you're in your soaking phase and then.you're going to go.remember they said you wanted to go from.here to here in less than a second you.wanted to go to this body center.tetragonal.so you want to go from here you want to.go from.body center face centered cubic which is.the middle one that i'm.showing the pointer on over to this guy.in less than a second.but when you do that you're going to.increa you're going to throw a lot of.stresses into the part.a lot of internal stresses that are not.going to be good for the long term.health.of that part so that's why.we have tempering to get rid of these.severe internal stresses.tempering consists of heating the steel.to a specific temperature below its.hardening temperature.so you're going to heat it to a specific.temperature and then.you're going to hold it at that.temperature for a required length of.time.cooling it usually in still air so this.diagram kind of shows you what we've got.when we're going to temper something.so we take it up to our austinizing.temperature and our soak temperature up.here.we'd soak it for and then we're going to.quench it we slam it and it's got to go.from.you know a couple thousand degrees to.down below a thousand degrees.in less than a second well then we're.going to keep it at that temperature for.a while.whatever that temperature is maybe it's.100 200 300 degrees.we're going to keep it at that.temperature for a while to let that.oh let it stabilize i guess is what i'm.looking for.then we're going to heat it back up and.then we're going to do our tempering.when we do tempering we don't take it.back up to as high as we did when we.were.um before we quenched it we're just.taking it up to.let's say 900 1100.degrees fahrenheit and i if you're.listening and you're a.celsius guy i'm sorry like i can't think.in celsius but.you're just going to take it up and.you're going to let it um.it's it's going to soften it's going to.take a little bit of the stress out of.the material.and that's what we're talking about when.we're tempering and then once you hit.that time.you bring it down you usually let it.slow cool and you should have a.structure in that material that's got a.heck of a lot less internal stresses in.it.um okay so you're going to temper apart.to reduce the brittleness and.the brittleness is caused by hardening.it gets back to that.mechanism with.where we had you know uh when we went.from face centered cubic to body center.tech triangle.and for carbon steels right because you.got the carbon in there.and it's taking up the interstitial.sites um.it also softens the steel so you're.gonna.you it's always a fine dance with steels.on whether you're gonna.you know is it gonna be too hard too.soft.is it gonna be strong enough is it not.gonna be strong enough so.a lot of times with this temp entering.and.you know heat treating you're trying to.hit a pretty narrow window for.you know your material properties i want.this tensile strength but i don't want.it to be too hard and too brittle.so that's what we're looking at there.and why we're.i guess where we're headed with it um.the annealing normalizing and hardening.process.all include steps at temperatures above.the metals upper critical point.um tempering is always conducted at.temperatures below the.low critical point so you don't go.without getting too much into it if you.if you look at this.right in here.see if we can.so all this stuff would be.above like the upper critical.and then you've got a another you've got.a lower critical temperature.and this has to do with you know the way.the metals and everything work.i'm sure the there's a second.temperature here.tempering always happens below these two.so you don't have any change in.structure you're just.real stress relieving it.um so that's where we're down to here.you know the.the annealing normalizing and hardening.processes.all include steps at temperatures above.the metals upper critical point.tempering is always conducted at a.temperature below.the metals lower critical point.[Music].yeah we just did that one tempering.relieves internal stresses from.quenching.it reduces hardness brittleness and may.actually increase the tensile strength.of hardened steels that is tempered.up to a temperature of about 450 above.450 tensile strength starts to decrease.um typically tempering.increases softness ductility.malleability and.impact resistance but again high speed.steel is an exception the rule we're not.going to talk about that too much.if you're tempering apart properly you.need to remove it from the quench bath.before it is completely cold.proceed with the tempering process.quenching media there's a lot of.different quenching media that you can.use.i'm not going to get into all of those.you can use salts you can use.water you can use air you can use.different oils.the mass of the parts going to affect.the quenching the greater the mass the.greater the time required for.complete cooling configuration of the.part.parts may have the same size but.holes and recesses cool more rapidly.than solid objects so this is something.that you need to look at.this is what you're talking about.quenching quenching is.you know we're up here at our soap.temperature up here.and then you just you know how fast can.we cool this thing down.it's the cooling of a metal from an.elevated temperature the quenching media.may be water oil forced air synthetic.quenching.um composition of the part composition.of the part.the the chemistry of the part is gonna.decide what your.um cooling rate is.and without cracking or warping it.the initial temperature of the part.different steels and different steel.alloys require a wide.range of temperatures for heat treatment.final properties desired.the medium must cool the metal at the.rate you need.so rapidly or slowly.and i saw let me see if i can go find it.again.[Music].in here there was a um.kind of a cool looking chart that told.you.quenching mediums.so here's a you know properties of.average cooling abilities.so this is compared with water you can.see caustic soda in here.it's going to quench about 2.06 times.as fast as water brine.i didn't realize it was twice as good as.water.huh that's interesting brian.ten percent at 65 degrees is going to be.twice as good a.coolant as just regular water here's.water that's our baseline.and then you've got prepared oils.um fuel oils you got a bunch of.different you know castor oil machine.oil lard oil.huh lard oil if you want if you had a.chunk of lard.circulated air you can see circulated.air doesn't quench nearly as well as um.water does but it's still there.oh where are we at here.liquid quenching there are two methods.for liquid quenching a still bath.you know metal is cool to tank a liquid.only movement of liquid is caused by the.movement of the hot metal so you're just.dunking it in there the other one is.flush quenching where you've got just.sprayed onto the surface and uniform.cooling a lot of times.that place i worked out in on the west.coast they had these big tanks and.pumps just giant pumps for circulating.and.making sure that the liquid was at the.right temperature and.just you got uniform cooling of the part.so it was.it was a pretty uh.pretty complicated evolution as far as.it wasn't you know because you're.throwing parts in there that are the.size of a volkswagen and it's uh.you know pretty good well i'll show you.that picture too.you know that this picture you've got a.you know.it says commercial polymer quench tank i.don't know what the cooling medium is.but that looks like some kind of big.axle or something and they're taking it.in there that thing's glowing red hot.they're chunking it in there.um so.and then you've got we talked about.martin's site but.you know this would be like a portable.quench tank where you got oil and water.for if you're doing stuff that's like.what am i going to say.you know making swords or hand type.instruments or whatever or maybe you're.taking something out of the oven so.we covered a few of the elements of heat.treatment theory explained how you can.change the properties of metals.i didn't get super into it but i'm just.on our mission on my mission to cover.this material i.started at chapter one so chapter one.and chapter two i probably went over a.little lighter than i'm gonna go over.the welding processes because i'm not a.super metallurgist.i can kind of talk to those people but.it's not really my game.but i do know where to look it up.anyways uh.thanks again for watching if you get a.chance.visit.this is our website we've got a cwi.course part a.part b we're working on getting part c.for awsd 1.1.we've got a bunch of pdh hours on there.that are relatively cheap for mechanical.engineering.check out you know some of the options.if you need pdh hours.anyways thanks for watching um have a.nice day and.sorry for the dog kind of happens.working at home so.anyways um take care and thanks for.watching.stay safe.

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Do military members have to pay any fee for leave or fiancee forms?

First off there are no fees for leaves or requests for leave in any branch of the United States military. Second there is no such thing as a fiancée form in the U.S. military. There is however a form for applying for a fiancée visa (K-1 Visa)that is available from the Immigration and Customs Service (Fiancé(e) Visas ) which would be processed by the U.S. State Department at a U.S. Consulate or Embassy overseas. However these fiancée visas are for foreigners wishing to enter the United States for the purpose of marriage and are valid for 90 days. They have nothing to do with the military and are Continue Reading

How many people fill out Form 1099 each year?

There are a few different ways of estimating the numbers and thinking about this question. Data from the most recent years are not available—at least not from a reliable source with rigorous methodology—but here is what I can tell you: The most popular type of 1099 is Form 1099-MISC—the form used to report non-employee income including those for self-employed independent contractors (as well as various other types of “miscellaneous” income) Since 2015, there have been just under 16 million self-employed workers (including incorporated and unincorporated contractor businesses). And the data from the BLS seems to suggest this number has been largely consistent from one year to the next: Table A-9. Selected employment indicators Now, the total number of 1099-MISC forms has been inching up each year—along with W-2 form filings—and may have surpassed 100 million filing forms. RE: Evaluating the Growth of the 1099 Workforce But this data only goes to 2014 because, again, it’s hard to find reliable data from recent tax years. In terms of the total number of Form 1099s, you’d have to include Interest and Dividend 1099 forms, real estate and rental income, health and education savings accounts, retirement accounts, etc. I’m sure the total number of all 1099 forms surely ranges in the hundreds of millions. Finally, not everybody who is supposed to get a 1099 form gets one. So if you’re asking about the total number of freelancers, the estimates range from about 7.6 million people who primarily rely on self-employed 1099 income and 53 million people who have some type of supplemental income. If you’re someone who’s responsible for filing Form 1099s to the IRS and payee/recipients, I recommend Advanced Micro Solutions for most small-to-medium accounting service needs. It’s basic but very intuitive and cheap. $79 1099 Software Filer & W2 Software for Small Businesses

How can I make it easier for users to fill out a form on mobile apps?

Make it fast. Ask them as few questions as possible (don't collect unnecessary information) and pre-populate as many fields as possible. Don't ask offputting questions where the respondent might have to enter sensitive personal information. If some users see you collecting sensitive information, they might not be ready to share that with you yet based on what you are offering, and they will think twice about completing the form.

How do I fill out the form of DU CIC? I couldn't find the link to fill out the form.

Just register on the admission portal and during registration you will get an option for the entrance based course. Just register there. There is no separate form for DU CIC.

How can I fill out Google's intern host matching form to optimize my chances of receiving a match?

I was selected for a summer internship 2016. I tried to be very open while filling the preference form: I choose many products as my favorite products and I said I'm open about the team I want to join. I even was very open in the location and start date to get host matching interviews (I negotiated the start date in the interview until both me and my host were happy.) You could ask your recruiter to review your form (there are very cool and could help you a lot since they have a bigger experience). Do a search on the potential team. Before the interviews, try to find smart question that you are Continue Reading

How do you know if you need to fill out a 1099 form?

It can also be that he used the wrong form and will still be deducting taxes as he should be. Using the wrong form and doing the right thing isnt exactly a federal offense

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