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I didn't even have to try to find this.one I know exactly where it's at.sorry little bug that this one I got to.learn how to use it's not that that one.[Music].there it is alright so today we are.going to be looking at this board here.this is called the bought board - and.this was a board that was released.sometime in the mid 90s it was designed.by a guy named Marvin Greene and I.bought this about 20 years ago never.done anything with it because at the.time I didn't know how to use it I.didn't really know anything about like.microcontroller programming so this.board.it didn't come assembled like you see.here this was actually what you would.buy is you would buy just the the blank.board and you had to populate it with.all your your chips and your connectors.and you know everything else all the.whole like the passive components so I.did so and this when I got this board it.was probably like sometime in the late.90s resources at the time some things.just like weren't easily available so.for me to try to do something with this.now is definitely a lot easier than it.was back in the late 90s we have like a.built in rs-232 converter here like some.max 232 and we also have a 32 KS ram.reset IC 8 megahertz clock various ports.okay we have some connectors here for 4.servos we also have a spot here for a.like a piezo buzzer but I never actually.found one that fit properly or anything.so I haven't really put anything on.there even though it's just if you want.you know wanted to like make noise or.whatever it's it's not totally necessary.but it's it's got the option there there.is a jumper for memory protection.because you can actually save your.program to the 32k SRAM and if you want.to like you know write protective so.doesn't get wiped or whatever you can.you can pull that off and then that way.you know nothing can be written to it.there are two headers for power one is.for the main power for the for the.entire board and then there's also one.for a battery the one for the battery is.like a battery backup for the SRAM.there's some dip switches the dip.switches allow you to set what mode you.want the microcontroller to operate in.there's like four different modes you.can have single chip mode and then you.can have the multi power the expanded.multiplex mode which is what you kind of.use if you're using like the SRAM and.all the other stuff oh and speaking a.single chip mode there's actually a.previous version of this which was.called the bought board which was only.the 68 HC 11 microcontroller and that.was also developed by the same guy so.this one came out later the document has.a date of 11 695 so now 2019 that's like.about 24 years and like I said I bought.this sometime in the late 90s so yeah.about 20 years I've been how do you sit.around but it actually looks in pretty.good condition because I actually kept.this one in like better conditions than.I did like that Atari 800 Excel board.yeah you can see down here at the in the.prototyping area that there's some of.the pads that actually have a little bit.of solder on them and that's because I.had built a 5 volt regulator onto it at.one point in time so I ended up removing.all that stuff because it's not.necessary I actually already gave it a.cleaning because it was a little bit.dusty and I clean the switches actually.replace the reset switch because the one.that I used to have on there where I had.the the metal top and it would look like.I've gotten kind of rusty and it just.looked ugly so I just replaced that I.just didn't want to be wasting time.trying to you know troubleshoot the.thing you know like having little issues.here and there and we're gonna try a.little bit of assembly programming using.some of the tools that would have been.available at the time and it's actually.the stuff that acted that came with the.board so it came with what's called a PC.bug 11 and that's the software that I.used to connect to the 68:11 and allows.you to load your compiled a program I've.been doing like a ton of research on the.68:11 here just so I have like an idea.of you know I'm jumping into it cuz I.don't want to be sitting here like.trying to figure this out as we go.because it's just gonna make the video.like turn Ollie you know way longer so.the other thing I had to do was I needed.a PC that I could actually connect this.to that was old enough that I wasn't.gonna give any problems because the.thing about the PC bug it was designed.to.like on older pcs and from what I found.online think was from the same guy that.actually made this board I gotta look it.up again but he mentioned that there's a.problem with the PC bug 11 working on.some pcs that were about you know in the.two hundred megahertz and up range so he.modified the executable of it and.actually released an element called PC.bug 11a which is what I'm gonna use.because this this laptop here that that.I'm gonna connect it to is a Pentium 2.233 and it seems to work I already tried.it I haven't actually tried coding.anything but I was able to get it to.connect to the board and it it does do.things so it looks like like we're set.to go there this whole top what's the.whole another issue in it in itself and.it wasn't like I just had it sitting.around it's like oh yeah I'm gonna use.this you know I had to like it took some.work to get it going to but but that's.it's all sorted straighten out we don't.have to deal with any of that let's.quickly take a look here at the.documentation that came with this board.so as you can see let's see the bought.board - he's got a picture here of kind.of like a layout of all the components.and everything on the board he's gonna.see right there created by Marvin green.version 1.06 i tried this website down.here and it doesn't go anywhere anymore.so apparently that's down you know thank.you for purchasing the board he says.that he believed this is gonna be a.powerful tool for designing and building.small microcontroller projects it was.engineered to get your projects up and.running quickly easily and cheaply with.the maximum amount of flexibility and.there is a ton that you could.potentially do with the board assuming.you know what you're doing and of course.I don't and I didn't at the time I mean.I have a better idea now but at the time.I had no experience whatsoever with.microcontrollers so as you mention is.here you know this is not a programming.guide this is just a manual for the.board itself and you know all that stuff.so you should have some basic knowledge.of electronics microcontrollers and.soldering before you tackle this project.so you're expected you know to look up.the it's like the data sheets and the.management stuff for like the 60 80 Hz.lever because that's where you gonna.find all the information you need to be.able to you know even do anything with.this board and then down here it.mentions that the board was designed.with amateur robotics in mind with a.construction cost under $50 and you.yada yada yada here the date eleven six.ninety five the expansion port allows.you to and you know expand it up to like.about sixty four pins of input-output.but it's gonna be like thirty two inputs.and thirty two outputs you just got to.add some latch and some other circuitry.so you know that's an option too so you.know when I came across this it all like.sounded really good and I wanted to get.into like you know microcontroller like.programming and stuff like that and I.thought oh that would be sweet you know.you got like so many options on on this.thing for you know a lot of input a lot.of output and all that stuff so that's.basically why I got this board in the.first place I don't remember exactly.where I bought the board but I think I.ordered it from what was the mondo.Tronics a robot store and I tried using.the the wayback machine to see if I.could come across or if I could you know.like look up that this board on the.website and you know that there's some.snapshots there of what the website was.like back then and the only thing I.really found though was like a link kind.of referencing the 68:11.microcontrollers but when you click on.it it doesn't bring up anything so.unfortunately I couldn't see that but I.think that's where I got it.there's apparently another board that's.more modern that's called the the links.motion bob bork too but this one.apparently you know doesn't seem to have.like any relation at all to that and.even though I try to find more.information about you know this board.maybe other people that used it there's.really not a whole lot I found some.stuff from you know like back in the day.like when this thing was a little bit.more more recent but it seems like it.was more popular with some people like.in the Seattle robotics it wasn't it.doesn't seem to have been really.anything like popular like Arduino or.Raspberry Pi is or any of that stuff.that's a you know really common nowadays.and you know you'll find information.like pretty much anywhere not even like.you know look on YouTube to see if.anybody else had used one of these ports.for anything and I haven't seen a single.video or I haven't come across one so I.think this is probably one of the first.videos on YouTube that even shows us you.know the board like at all so I don't.know maybe somebody watching I use one.of these back in the days or saw one or.something I don't know check this out so.I'm recording this after I was pretty.much already done with this video.I had everything I.all like pretty much completed so I was.going through a box of old documents and.manuals and stuff like that cuz I was.actually looking for something else when.I came across these catalogs these old.robot store catalogs and this is.catalogue 20 as you can see up there and.it's the first one I came across and I.was going through it to see if I could.find if the bot board too was in here.and I don't know when exactly these were.released this one has a date of or it.says like copyright 2003 here on monde.atronics if we go to like this section.here with all like the microcontroller.stuff we got like some basic stamp stuff.there and some other like add-ons.displays and everything well there's.nothing here about the bought board too.however after I found this one I found.this one this one is catalog 19 and as I.was going through it and I got to page.where all the microcontroller stuff is.we see we got some more basic stamp.stuff right there.and I flipped over one more page there.it is the bot board 2 and the bought.board one so it looks like maybe they.stopped carrying it after this catalog.was released or something because after.that it's not in the in the next catalog.so yeah that just kind of dates things a.little bit but I was super surprised to.find these then on the next page he.included a big parts list and this is.you basically you know all the.components that are used on this board.and when I started putting this board.together I believe actually used a lot.of these places to you know to order the.components so there's a bunch from you.know like digi-key JDR I'm not sure who.GDR is BG micro this I guess deal and.glean so it stands for I'm pretty sure.that's where actually ordered my.microcontroller from and you know it's.got a list price of three dollars back.then but I've actually looked it up and.these are actually kind of expensive to.find nowadays well relatively expensive.compared to that you know all the other.the the logic chips and actually pulled.all the logic chips off of this and I.used that mini Pro programmer I had no.idea you could even use that to test.that logic chips but you can so I tested.them all and they all test okay so.I think we're gonna be fine they're sand.then some other stuff here there's a few.things that I didn't you know bother.ordering like the dip switches and the.push button and the toggle for the power.because I had some of that stuff like.already you know like polled that I.could pull off of other boards so I just.kind of recycled them all the pin.connectors and all that stuff I just.basically used what I had around the.serial port I think I ended up pulling.off of something and just repurposed it.for use on this I'm not entirely sure if.I did or not but I think I did the only.thing I never got was the the you know.the little piezo that's the the right.size to fit on those pads but like I.said that's not a big deal this is the.schematic for the entire board as you.can see we've got the 60 at 11 here this.is our 60 to 256 the actual chip that I.have on here right now is a 71 C 256 and.that's not the original one that I had.stuck on here this one is another one.that I found laying around I don't.remember what I did with the original I.ended up using it for something else but.I did test the chip on the Mini Pro I.tested it using the 62 256 settings so I.think it should be fine I don't see any.problems so yeah every if you need a.like you know reference something on the.board here you can see exactly how it's.connected and where it's connected to.got the parts layout there via layout.here's the power connectors you can see.power battery you know you're setting.for what you want to power the memory.the low voltage a reset and right here.it's got the memory map this is actually.printed upside down compared to what you.would see in the datasheet because when.I looked at the data sheet like.everything was like top to bottom and.here it so you can bottom up so this is.like the lower address you know and then.it goes up so this would be the on chip.ram here's our registers there's like an.unused space this 4000 and 7000 there.that's the stuff that's available on the.expansion port and this is our section.of our 32k ram right there we've got.some EEPROM on chip interrupt vectors.and all that stuff so there's a parent.you know there's like really only one.what I would call like you know like one.page of like memory addressing whereas.like some of the other pick makers that.I've dealt with you know you have like.you guys do like bank switching so if.you want like a certain register that.might be like on bank one you go to that.one or you know we're like bank zero.then you got to move to that one and I.mean it just depends on the actual one.you're using but that's one of the.things I was used to with the with the.picmicro.so and then right here you know talks.about the expansion for some examples of.how to interface to the to the expansion.port we got the analog the description.of the analog port care how to use on.that there there four pins.you got your plus/minus and then your.your actual signal in there's one that's.unused we got our servo description of.the servo and all that stuff so.basically that's all this this actual.document is it's just you know how.everything's wired now how to use the.board it doesn't actually provide any.programming information or anything like.that we got our Billy out of the traces.right here on the very last sheet so.let's work on getting this thing set up.here so I already have my five volt.input here that's going to the switching.power supply I'm just gonna plug that.into the to the power header and I'm.going to move this jumper over to the.power side because I don't have like a.backup battery anything for RAM and I.think we're going to be trying to.program the memory there or that's where.we're gonna store our program so the.other thing we need is a nine pin serial.cable that's just gonna plug right into.there so that's all we need on that.board and here is the laptop that I've.decided to use with this this is an old.compact it's an armada 1700 and.surprisingly this is still in really.good condition.it's I've I guess I didn't do too bad of.a job like give me an around here you.can see that it even still has the the.plastic protective covering there on.that on that compact logo but I'm not.gonna peel that off just yet because.this thing still needs a little bit more.work but it's a pretty well and.functional as as it is now so I'll be.peeling that off later and it's actually.I have a Windows 98 installed on this.but we're pretty much it's gonna be in.das the whole time because that's what.the software that we're gonna be using.runs on so back here we're just gonna.plug in our serial cable to the serial.port I'm gonna bother screwing those.down cool thing about this laptop is.that it has we don't need like a special.power supply we just plug straight into.it right back here so I have the cable.for that.that it was hard to find when I have.like a ton of these things so just gonna.put an end to there and actually now.that I'm talking about this I was.expecting the battery in this thing to.be like completely shot but it actually.still holds a really decent charge I was.using it for a bit I don't know it had.to have been like more than an hour I.wasn't really doing much it was mostly.like I was just didn't toss like typing.some commands and stuff trying to get it.to do stuff and I mean the battery was.just holding up like a champ so.extremely surprising so he's gonna let.this boot then we're going to Doss and.we'll try to get some connectivity on.this board okay so we're in the DOS.prompt now and we are going to go to the.loops just change directory here we're.going to and actually have the the BOP.board so we have in here we've got our.that's basic and PC bug and I have the s.basic folder in here because it's got.the the ASM 11 program in there but I'm.just gonna use PC bug for now so that's.what we got in that particular folder.actually we also have ASM elechi 11.there so I think we should be able to do.like everything from in here so as you.can see right here I have a PC bug 11 at.Exe and PC bug 11 a dot exe so that 11a.is the one that's been modified will.work on this PC just fine so that's.actually the one I'm going to use and I.could easily just do this PC bug 11a and.I'll show you the process that it kind.of goes through its it asks you like a.series of questions so it's gonna like.set things up one thing that we want to.do on our board here is we want to set.it to special bootstrap mode which.requires me to put both of these dip.switches on the first one that there's.even though there's like four sets of.switches here the the first two are the.only ones that are used to set the the.microcontroller mode the other two are.optional for you to use for other things.one minor annoyance about that is that.if you want a state of zero.the switches have to be on because it.has pull-ups so if you turn the switches.off then they're pulled up so it's.technically a one so it's it can be a.little confusing and it's actually.cutting me a few times so we need to set.both of them to zero to get into the the.special bootstrap mode and I've done so.already I'm going to turn on the board.and it's us to push reset so now we.should be in special bootstrap mode on.the 6811 there I don't have to go.through all this but I'm just gonna show.you what it does so is the talker.installed on the board I'm gonna say no.so I wish to use the execute interrupt.I'm just gonna go with no for that so.then it gives me an option of which boot.talkers are available and I think it has.to load a specific one depending on what.chip you're gonna be talking to because.it supports obviously more than you know.just this one here but I have in a I.have a 68 Hz 11 a 1 and so that would be.the first option here which is option 1.so we're gonna go with 1 enter do I wish.to load a macro automatically I'm gonna.go with no and we're using comport 1.because that's the only comfort we have.so yeah obviously we're gonna go with 1.and assume an 8 megahertz crystal is in.use and yes I do have an 8 megahertz.crystal in here what this does is.apparently it sets the baud rate for.communications between the board and.your PC here so we're gonna go with yes.so now it tells us down here that the.command line and you can just type in PC.bug 11 - a obviously I wouldn't use the.PC bug 11 here I'd have to do piece bug.11 a space - a and that will.automatically bring up the bring up the.PC bug app and everything and it's.already all set up and everything I.don't have to really do anything else so.an EM press escape to quit or any other.key to run PC bug 11 so we're gonna go.ahead run PC bug 11 and it sets the.bootstrap or everything in there and.there we are we're all set so it's.communicating now the laptop is.communicating with our 68:11 this will.would allow us to you know like load.applicate or assembled programs and.everything to the chip it shows us the.states of various registers and this is.basically you know like what's on the.chip now and we also have a few other.things over here we have our pro.counter we got our accumulator a.accumulator B and I believe the way that.it's set up on this chip accumulator a.and accumulator B are actually a 16-bit.register but each one you know can be.altered individually so if you want to.like just do like something and you know.16-bit you can't even those is an 8-bit.microcontroller but that registered you.can be updated you know all 16-bit said.per in like one instruction oh and.that's one thing I noticed about the.interests of the instructions for the.68:11 compared to say like the pic six.teens series is that even though it's.like only 35 on the pic and this one I'm.not even exactly sure how many.instructions are so like on one of the.data sheets or one of the like the.programming reference it says something.about like that this chip has like 91.new like instructions or something like.that so I was like holy crap but going.through the list it seems like a lot of.them are instructions for like doing.individual operations per like registers.so like there's like an instruction for.register a there's an instruction for.register B you know an instruction for.register X which is like right here an.instruction for register Y you know that.stuff so you can you know like swapped.values right to it read to it you know.like whatever all that stuff so yeah any.ways that we could like you know do some.commands on here - like modify these.registers on the board and everything.like that I'm actually going to show you.something with that now but first of all.I got to pull up a datasheet and show.you something on that here I pulled up.the datasheet and what we're looking at.here is the memory map one thing I kind.of want to mention here is that I'm not.an expert on any of this stuff so pretty.much everything that I'm going to talk.about and chinchou is pretty much.everything that I know at the moment so.if I make any mistakes or anything and.somebody else knows better you feel free.to correct me leave it down in the.comments below not gonna take offence or.anything because like I said I don't.know everything I'm just this is what.I've learned so far as we look at the.memory map here right now the mote that.we have the microcontroller in is a.special bootstrap mode and we can see.that nothing really changes much between.the four different operating modes of.the the chip we've got our single chip.expanded multiplexed special bootstraps.and special tests the only thing that.the special.bootstrap does is it allows us to see.this this bootrom area here but not all.the microcontrollers have this boot ROM.I believe I think it's only on the 8/8.version the a1 and the a0 don't have.this boot rom and it also I guess.enables these special mode interrupt.vectors but everything else pretty much.stays the same like we have our 256.bytes of ram up here that you can.actually remap these using the init.register we're not gonna really deal.with any of that right now but the one.thing that I'm kind of interested in.right now is this 64 byte register block.that's between address 1 0 0 0 here and.1 0 3f we can directly modify these in.PC bug 11 and get the microcontroller to.actually do some stuff on the pins and.I'll show you that here in a bit a lot.of the stuff that I'm gonna be talking.about here and showing I'm going to.leave down in the comments below like.all the data sheets that I that I found.and like manuals for like PC bug 11.actually found one that's from like nxp.I was actually using the readme that I.was in the PC bug 11 folder and that's.got quite a good information that.actually got me started in even figuring.out how to use PC bug 11 because like I.had no idea whatsoever but I also find a.few other links out pretty good.information I'll leave those down below.as well this 64 byte register blocked.right here let's take a look at see.what's in that block and as we can see.right here we start with 1 0 0 0 and.that the very first register that there.is port a so if we were to write.something directly to port a using PC.bug 11 we could actually see what.happens on port a if you go up a few.pages here on our datasheet we can.actually see the entire 60 at 11a block.diagram and this right here is port a we.see that we have PA 6 PA 5 4 3 and.though you're actually just 6 through 3.these are output only PA 2 2 PA 0 those.are input only and PA 7 that can is a.bi-directional port so we can really.only output something here from PA 3 to.PA 7 and using PC buzz 11 I can write.direct.to this port but there's a little bit of.a catch so this section here describes.port a in a little bit more detail as we.can see we've got our bit 7 here and bit.0 here we see that p6 through p3 which.were our outputs at the reset state.these are all 0 PA 7 PA 2 1 and 0 these.all say high Z so that means that these.are all floating so at the current state.because these are inputs this basically.means that PA 7 is also an input when.it's been reset now this board PA 6 2 PA.3 that's where our servo connectors are.and it doesn't have to be used for a.servo you can use these for like output.to something else you know just control.something to be on or off or whatever.but that's pretty much all we can use.these 4 pins for so we're gonna modify.these using PC buzz 11 I'm not gonna.change the state of a bit 7 here we'd.have to change like the direction.control I'm not gonna do that at the.moment so what I've done here is I've.actually got 4 probes hooked up to the 4.pins of where the servos would go.connected and I've got the scope over.here set up to show us what's going on.on those soar lines so this would be PA.3 PA 4 5 & 6 up here and right now.they're basically all at 0 I'm doing a.capture here of PC bug 11 going from.like VGA to an s-video adapter and then.from as video adapter to a USB adapter.so hopefully it doesn't look too crappy.it doesn't look too bad on the screen.where I'm gonna capture it that way I.don't have to be like recording the LCD.on the display or on the laptop itself.so at the moment we can do a command.called MD where we can use that to read.what's on the the port a register and as.we saw on the datasheet pour a or.actually first of all before we even.doing anything here we want to change.the control base and we're gonna change.that to hex as we see right now it's on.decimal so we're gonna make that text.and now that it's changed to hex it just.makes things a little less confusing.otherwise I have to type in type in like.a bunch of not like decimal numbers to.control it and it's a little easier if.we just do it in half.so we're going to read the contents of.register 1000 which is our port a and.this is going to show us what that.register currently reads so what we see.here is that on address 1000 and the.whole reason why it shows like 0 1 2 3.because that's the offset from the.address that we specify for it to to.read from so we see that we have 82 on.address 1000 and if we convert that from.hex to binary we see that we'd have 1 0.0 0 0 0 1 0 so the first one that would.be bit 7 so it looks like it's reading a.1 on bit 7 since it's basically being.used as an input at the moment over it's.configured as an input and then bits 2.to 0.it's reading a 1 on bit 1 so that also.could be it's just picking up something.from like noise or whatever so it's.reading a 0 at that particular bit when.I asked it to check the state of.register or port a since I have the 4 or.scope probes on bits 6 through 3 I could.actually do a write so I could say.memory set on port or on address 1000.say I wanted to set bit 3 as on so I.could say write a 0 8 to that register.which would be port 8 and now we should.see the bottom yellow trace down here it.should go to 1 and right now I have.everything set to 5 volts per division.so we're just gonna see it rise to just.below the level of the the teal line so.I'm gonna hit enter and as we can see it.now rose it's a high level output and we.saw that it gave us an error on PC bug.11 and I believe that's because we're.trying to write to that entire port but.we really can't because we have 4 inputs.and only 4 outputs but it's like.basically trying to write to the to the.whole thing so if we wanted to now say.raise the.and trace which would be the teal one.which is on bit four we could say memory.set and then we do again to 1000 we.could do a 1 there because that would be.a bit one of the upper nibble and then.we just put a zero on the other one and.we're going to get a memory set error.again but it should put the yellow trace.back to zero and you should put the teal.trace up to one so we're gonna hit enter.and there we go so if we were to just.basically continue doing that we could.continue changing the state of that of.that port so now we're gonna do one.eight and we'll see that the yellow rise.the yellow line Rises and there it is ok.so a mass 1000 and then we're going to.do two oops we're gonna do two zero and.now we'll see the the purple line rise.and the other two should go low alright.so as you can see we can modify this.port directly so when we write our.program any register or port or whatever.that we want to modify you know we've.got to tell it right this value to this.register or to this memory address and.we could do it by using like the.register address but we could also.equate them so we can give it a label so.say we would equate address 1,000 as.port a so that way as we write our.program we can just say you know write.this value 2 for a instead of saying.this value 2 port 1000 and that just.makes it easier so that we don't have to.be remembering like port numbers or.memory address numbers or anything all.that stuff we can just give it a label.and then that way in the as we write a.program you can just reference it using.whatever label we gave it you can also.use PC bug 11 here we can actually breed.the state of all those addresses between.1010 3 C oh no they it actually ends at.10 3f so we can see the state of every.single register in a 64 byte block and.actually let's say clear we're gonna.clear the upper area first so that way.it so we got a nice clean display there.so let's read from 1,000 to 103.and that shows us like everything that's.in those registers we could also read.the 256 bytes of ram so we could say.start reading from d from oh that would.be it so it starts at zero and as we saw.in the datasheet it ends at zero zero FF.so that's basically everything that's in.the RAM right now and what's in the RAM.is when we load our talker program into.the microcontroller it uses the RAM and.I think I said it uses something like.240 bytes so pretty much everything.that's in a ram right now is mostly that.talker program I believe it can also be.written to the EEPROM and that's why it.asks when we're loading PC bugs 11 if we.have the talker loaded already and I I.mean I I don't have anything on this.microcontroller at least not that I'm.aware of so that's all loading to ram.one thing I haven't quite figured out is.how to actually write something to the.external RAM because when you're in.special bootstrap mode what I've read on.the datasheet is that is actually.operating as like single-chip mode plus.like you know all that special other.stuff and special tests would basically.be the special version of the expanded.multiplex but I don't know there's some.funky stuff and I don't quite understand.it all yet so I think if when we try to.write some little program here we're.gonna just do it in single chip mode.let's do one more little quick thing.here on the in the memory so we're going.to say memory set and we're gonna start.at address 0 and I'm going to start.writing this some hex values here and.some of you might recognize it right.away but if you don't you'll see what.happens so I think and actually I.haven't tried this myself yet but I.believe if we start writing in values.just like this it what it does is it.starts from the address that you specify.and then it'll basically just start.filling in the bytes like after that so.as you can see I'm writing 4865 6 C 6 C.6 f 2 0 7 7.6f 7 2 6 c 6 4 2 1 so what that should.do is it should populate starting from.address zero all the way to 2 B and I'm.gonna hit enter and so what that did now.is it should have stored all these.values in those those upper bytes there.so I'm going to clear the screen and I'm.gonna tell it to read me back what's.from address 0 to address 0 B and it.should pop up right here on the right.hand side of the screen and I screwed it.up alright what did I mess up see 64 to.1 what the heck did I do wrong.ok I don't know what went wrong because.as you see I just have a 6f and the 72.but then after that for some reason it.wrote 3 0 to C and a seven instead of 66.4 and 2 1.but I think you can see where I'm going.with that so if I wanted to just.manually modify those addresses I could.say write 2 0 0 0 so we have to do 9 0 0.9 and we're gonna write a 6 C to that.and then we're gonna set 0 0 0 a we're.gonna set that to 64 and 0 there's our B.we're gonna set that to 7 or 21 all.right so now if I do this over again and.ask it to read the 0 0 to 0 0 0 B there.we go.now I got exactly what I was hoping for.and what this is useful for is you can.actually have a program running on the.microcontroller and you can modify it as.it goes it can't introduce some problems.and you can cause your program to not.act properly but if you do it right you.know you could basically use it to kind.of simulate certain situations or.certain input/output it's like you notes.input up to stimuli and all that stuff.and you can get it to use it as like a.way to test to see if your program is.going to work properly under the.situations that you know you want it to.so I kind of hope that you know kind of.help understand that a little.like you know basically what we're gonna.be doing when for it's mostly for the.people that you know aren't too familiar.with what goes on like that when you're.trying to do something in assembly so.now that we know you know how to sort of.modify I mean it's a very very very like.brief explanation of you know what we're.actually going to be doing in our.program but using the basically the same.sort of techniques of like writing the.registers and you know like I haven't.really moved anything like I didn't say.you don't like move this data over here.or whatever but using that sort of stuff.you know we're gonna be able to do.something here and what I think I'm.going to do or what I'm gonna attempt to.do is we're going to hook up a.potentiometer to one of the analog to.digital inputs and we can use like a set.of eight LEDs or whatever so as we.change the value on the potentiometer we.change the value that's displayed on the.LEDs you know like an in binary at least.that's what I'm hoping that we can.achieve here so let's pull up an editing.window okay so we're going to do edit.and we are going to start in assembly.file or what we're gonna write our.instructions so we're gonna name that.new ace.ASM dot and I beliefs got to be an a an.ASM file for the for the compiler to.actually be able to convert it so we're.gonna do enter in there okay so now.we're here are not text editor and I.guess we can start by defining some of.the ports that we're gonna be using.okay record scratch hold the phone let's.back up a little bit here we should.really start off by kind of coming up.with a plan of what we are going to do.so we want to start off by first of all.like defining our ports or giving them.labels at least so that we make things.easier to read you know and to be able.to visually kind of see what's going on.and then we want to read value on one of.the pins of port e convert that to like.a binary number take that value save it.and move it over to the.register that controls port see which is.what goes out here to the the eight data.lines on the expansion port and that's.going to give us you know the value that.the microcontroller reads on the analog.pin basically first of all we want to.make sure that we've got our registers.for you know like data control and all.that stuff set so we want to set our.data control registers or or make sure.that they're at least set to you know.what they should be from like a reset.state we're gonna do an.analog-to-digital conversion on port e.and then we're going to save the value.we're going to copy that value to port C.and we're not doing a whole lot here so.it should be fairly straightforward I.think so we're gonna reference the.datasheet here to the section about the.analog to digital converter and it kind.of gives you a brief description here of.like how it works and you know what's.associated with it we see that that the.register associated with the analog to.digital converter is this ad CTL.register and we see that that's down.here so basically what we're going to.have to do is modify values on this.register most likely so that we can set.our operating mode of the port a pins.and allow it to work in doing our analog.to digital conversion we see that the.results are stored in address 1 or.analog to digital register 1 register 2.3 & 4 and these are all tied to the.internal data bus I believe the reason.there's four registers for the analog to.digital is not because there's a total.of like 32 bits because as we see up.here it's only 8 bits so I think it has.four because they're multiplex some of.these that share pins with it with some.of the other ones so if you even though.you have eight you can really only do.like four at a time so let's go ahead.and look up this ad control register so.the ad control and status register reset.state that you means unknown so that.means that it doesn't know what state.this is in after reset it could be you.know like high-low whatever so this flag.here on the CCF would be set like after.does a conversion so we can actually.it's tell it to do a conversion and go.do something else and then come back and.check and see if it's done if it's done.you know we can continue from like.another subroutine or whatever and then.we have here a bit for scan this is for.a continuous scan control if we set this.to zero we do for conversions and stops.or if we set it to one it converts four.channels and selected groups.continuously so it's always doing a.conversion so I think what we're going.to do is we're probably going to set the.scan one to one so it's continuously.doing a conversion since all we want to.do is read the value from one of the.pins and display it on the LEDs we're.just going to have it do it continuously.multiple channel single channel control.convert single channel selected and.that's what we're going to do we're only.going to convert one channel so we are.going to use zero on that one so bit.four is gonna be a one zero and then bit.three C D what is C D let's scroll down.C D to see a channel select e through a.okay so we're going to I guess we'll.just use analog to digital you know it.really doesn't matter if we can do a.DZero going to set all those four bits.three to zero we're going to set those.all to zero since we're only going to be.doing the one channel this is our table.here of the four different registers for.the analog to digital conversions ad.results and on our option register we.are going to set our analog digital.power up we're going to have that.powered on so we're going to need to set.that to one and that's pretty much the.only bit we need from that register so.we got to set that somewhere at the.beginning of our code I don't think we.need to worry about any of the other.ones at the moment we're going to need.like it register one the result for our.conversion since we're just using the.analog digital 0 is going to be analog.to digital register 1 so I know log to.digital register one that's address 103.1 we are going to make sure that we read.our value from that register and that's.the value that we're going to copy over.to the port C output 4 to display on our.LEDs all right so now we have an idea of.what needs to happen on port e in order.to read an analog value and get Neil.something from it get some data we know.where the data is going to be.we just got to figure out what we're.gonna do on port C to be able to display.that data port C address one zero zero.three here and import C is a kind of a.general-purpose port so it can be input.and output so we are going to have to do.some modification to the direction.control on that so we're going to be.interested in ports C right here at one.zero zero three and we're going to be.interested in this one zero zero seven.here so let's go ahead and check the.data Direction register for port C so.this is where we need to set whether or.it's going to be an input or an output.on port C so what we want is we want.port C to be outputs so we are going to.write once to this entire register here.I'm not sure about this particular.microcontroller but we may need to do.like a few cycles of wait between the.time we read a register on the analog to.digital control or we may be able to.just continuously check the the ad r1.register and copy it over to port C from.here I think we might have everything we.need to try to get started.so I'm going to try to write this up in.kind of like a pseudo code here then.from there we'll try to convert that.into actual assembly and see if our code.works I've done a couple things since.yesterday yeah it's been that long I.came up with some like pseudocode that I.think will work for what we're trying to.do and this is what I came up with this.top section up here is not entirely.necessary I'm just doing this to see if.it'll work but I've basically gone and.defined which registers correspond to.what address and we're gonna name them.so that way when we call them in the.code the compiler or you know knows what.address we're talking about so it's just.to make the code a little bit more.easily.you know readable by like a human the.next section here is going to set the.values in the three registers that we.need to modify in order to get our.analog to digital to be enabled and to.set the option register to set the port.see the direction control so what we're.going to do is we're going to be loading.a value of hex 20 into the analog to.digital control.and that's basically going to be you.know zero zero one zero zero zero zero.zero we're gonna load a hex 80 into the.option which is just basically gonna be.a one on the seventh bit and we're going.to load FF into the DD RC which is just.gonna be all one so then for our loop.which is this section here what we want.to do is you want to read the analog to.digital register one and we're gonna.copy that to the port C output and we.can't do this directly as far as I'm.concerned we can't do it directly you.have to go through the accumulator a.first so we're gonna copy this value to.the accumulator a and then we got to.copy that over to Port C and because it.seems like this thing is gonna operate.like the analog to digital control is.just gonna operate automatically and.it's just gonna continuously update the.ad r1 we should be able to just.continuously copy that value over to.port C and I don't think we need to do.any delays but I have a delay here.question mark just because I'm not.entirely sure if this is gonna work like.this or not it seems really simple but.I'm not gonna guarantee that it's just.gonna work you know exactly as is here.so you know once it does that it should.we wanted to go back loop around and you.know just be doing this cycle.continuously that way as we tweak the.potentiometer you can see the value.changing on the LEDs so now that I've.got this like written out so in a way.that you know we can kind of understand.it now we need to write it in a way that.the machine can understand it so I've.already taken the liberty of translating.it over to what I think is the code that.we'll need to type out and compile we.have our registers here that we're going.to define down here we where we want to.load our values into the into the.registers that we're going to set we are.going to load accumulator a within I.didn't leave any space your fur looks.like we need an octothorpe before we.define our hex value and that what that.means is that we're going to load an.immediate value into the accumulator a.so we want to load accumulator a with an.immediate value of hex 20 and then we're.gonna store accumulator a in the ad.control register so this is going to.copy the contents of accumulator a over.to the analog to digital control.register and then once that's done we're.going to load a communicator a with a.hex 80 and then we're going to store it.in the option register so accumulator a.to option and then we're going to look.you later a with all ones and we're.going to come.accumulator a to our direction control.for port C and then for our loop I don't.know if we have to use loop or if we use.main so the I don't I'm not sure if this.is gonna work or not so we're gonna load.accumulator a with the contents of the.analog to digital register one we're.going to store a over the port C and.then we're gonna jump back to loop so I.don't know this seems a little too.simple and I'm not like I said I don't.know if this is gonna work exactly as is.but we'll find out and to see if this.stuff is gonna work I've already wired a.potentiometer here I've got ground on.the left side here and I've got five.volts on this side and that's wired.directly to the analog to digital zero.port and so the center pin is the one.that goes to the analog input for the.microcontroller so as we tweak this here.we're gonna go we're gonna swing between.zero and five volts I've also taken the.eight lines from port C and I've hooked.it up to a small bar graph LED here and.I've got our current limiting resistors.over on the on the ground side I was.gonna put him over here but and it was a.little funky so I just decided to put.him over here and then I've got my eight.lines coming into into here right now.it's on and it's in the reset state and.everything so as you can see nothing's.really going on and you know nothing.should be going on because we have any.one program to thing but what I thought.we would do just to verify and see if.some of this code will actually work not.that we're actually gonna run the.program right now just to see if we can.get some thing to display on the port C.output is we're actually going to jump.back into PC buzz 11 and we're gonna try.to manually set these and see if we can.get the LED side up and we're also gonna.see if we can read the analog to digital.register 1 as we you know we're it's not.gonna be like live I'm gonna have to.manually you know I tell to give me the.value of that register and we'll see if.it changes as I turned the knob on the.potentiometer first of all though let's.see how the voltage changes as I tweak.the potentiometer here so I haven't.hooked up to channel 1 at the moment so.watch as I turn the knob we're gonna see.it rise or it should rise yeah there we.go see I'm turning it up so as it goes.from 0 to 5 volts the trace Rises and as.I go down it goes down so that's working.as intended so that should.work okay so we're back in PC bug 11.here it had to do a restart command.because I kind of screwed up and it.wasn't communicating anymore but so what.we're gonna do is we're gonna do a we're.gonna do a memory set of the DDR C.register which is at one zero zero seven.we are going to do FF on that so that.okay what am I doing wrong.yeah okay yeah I forgot to change the.base since I've restarted so we're gonna.go back with control base hex there we.go now it should work okay let's do a.register set of one zero zero seven.we're gonna do FF and command error okay.do I have to do memory set 1 0 0 7 + FF.okay there we go so now let's check that.register so let's md 1:07 and it should.be FF okay so now we should Oh actually.I see that the LEDs already lit up there.so let's write something else to that.let's write to port C so port C is that.address 1 0 0 3 so let's do a memory set.of 1 0 0 3 and we'll do a a which should.be alternating ones and zeroes on that.port so we're gonna do a a I'm gonna set.it and there we go so we can see that.the value on the LEDs are changed so.let's try something else let's do all F.so M s103 we're gonna do FF and now all.the LEDs are on so it looks like that.part of the code should work so another.thing we can do here in a while we're in.PC bug let's see if we can read the.analog-to-digital register but we're.gonna have to set our options first so.let's go ahead and write I don't know if.I can write to the option register.directly or if I have to unlock gets.somehow because there was something.about there's like a command you have to.run to unlock the EEPROM but I don't.know if we can let's just try it so.let's go ahead and set I guess we'll do.a memory set and then we'll do option is.at 10:39.we're going to do a 80 on that and it.didn't give us an error so let's go.ahead and read and see what's at 10:39.and we have 80 so looks like that should.be enabled ok we're going to turn our.panel to digital control we're going to.turn that.into a 20 so let's go ahead and load ten.thirty with twenty and memory set error.okay it's okay if it doesn't work I just.want to make sure that at least have a.have one of the bits turned on there.that that's gonna activate the the.analog-to-digital control so let's go.ahead and read what's at ten thirty.and we have a zero so if we convert a.zero into binary we see that we actually.have the bit which would be bit number.five and it is on so that should enable.the analog-to-digital control so let's.try to read what's on register or at.memory address for the analog-to-digital.register one and it should be close to.zero so let's see MD and AVR one is.address 1 0 3 1 so 1 0 3 1 and at the.moment it is 0 let's go ahead and turn.the potentiometer up about half way and.we should have a value of about 128.there which would be about 80 on that.register so let's check ok MD 1031 again.and we have a B okay so it did change.let's go ahead and turn it down just a.tad let's do MD again at 95 so I'm just.going to keep entering the command here.and we'll see as how that changes.actually let's just go all the way up.and it should be pretty close to FF so.mmm FF haha yeah it's working.yay I'm turning it down now C to B 6 a 7.9 f9 895 let's see if I can get it all.the way down to.okay now I have eight zero on that.register so 10:31 I have eight zero so.I'm wonder if actually if I measure the.voltage on there I should be fairly.close to about 2.5 volts so yeah this.screen is just ridiculously dim now and.it's really annoying but we can kind of.see there what it says so let's measure.the voltage there and it should be.fairly close to 2.5 so I'm gonna touch.it.almost bang on look at that two point.five four so it looks like our animal.analog to digital registers actually.working pretty good so that's uh that's.a good sign okay so it looks like so far.we're doing pretty good here so I'm.going to I'm actually going to exit PC.bug here and we're going to see if this.code compiles I yeah no idea if it's.actually gonna work or not but let's go.ahead and give it a shot so we're gonna.okay we're gonna quit it yes all right.let's and I've already kind of saved.this file here so we're gonna it well.let me show you first noob is Santa a.oops a SM so here I've got the.everything already written or typed out.and I don't know if this is gonna work.may have to end up like tweaking.something here but let's see if this.will compile and so I think the way we.use the ASM HC 11 is and it wasn't a yes.here okay so ASM HC 11 and then we got.to type in the name of our assembly file.which is new veis m and we're gonna make.it do a list here and.somebody that list okay I think that's.it so let's hit enter can open file new.something that is oh it's got to be ASC.okay.alright let's try it again so a s MHC 11.I'm gonna do.oops noop ASM and we're gonna have that.L and we're gonna have a new veis and.list assembly da three hours you check.it out for pest - well that's cool all.right let me try to figure this out.hey I made some progress and I only got.one error and what I did you show you.here yeah well I took out the spaces and.then I moved that main over here to a.line I back jumping back to main over.down here at the bottom so let's see.what the error list says now so or the.the list that it created so let's check.error 2:05 thing is I tried to look up.what these error codes mean and I.couldn't find anything so I'm wondering.if it's got something to do with this.and command I wonder if I have to move.it over what am I doing wrong or what am.I missing.I'm missing something okay.zero errors so that's what we needed to.do we needed to move the end over to the.center I guess so.okay so I guess we've got our let's.check our list file or not a list our.s19 file is 19 so that there should be.the hex that's going to be written to.the microcontroller the only issue is I.don't know if we can actually write to.the EEPROM I read something about it.being too slow to be written to directly.so we'll have to find out but we're.gonna exit this we're gonna go back into.PC bug okay so let's change our control.base back to hex and we are going to.find our EEPROM address so we have from.be 600 of e 7 F F okay so B I'm gonna be.7 FF b FF all right address ranges.erased before I had enabled erasing.right okay looks like that might work.and let's go ahead and load our new.assembly hangers cause it looks like.it's it's programming something is it.done I think it's done ok now I think.there's another command we can run on PC.bug that will actually run the program.and you'll be able to watch it and see.if it's actually working so I mean look.that up real quick because I'm not I.don't remember what it is well actually.since it's burnt to the EEPROM or at.least it appears to be okay we're gonna.be strapped the board to single-chip.mode so to have single-chip mode a must.be 0 so that needs to be on and mode B.dips which should be 1 so that's gonna.be off on this board so that should.have the the micro back into single-chip.mode and now let's see if our program.actually runs so I'm going to reset it.and I'm going to turn the potentiometer.and see if these LEDs change and course.nothing happening I'm going to remove.the the RAM and the latch that's over.here and see if that has anything to do.with these not working properly I kind.of doubt it but we're just gonna.eliminate those from the equation and.see if anything changes we saw that when.I wrote directly to the port see it did.work so let's turn it back on I don't.think we need we don't need to reset it.because it the reset ship over there.automatically takes care of it so let's.see and no voltage is rising but nothing.is changing alright so something's still.not right here oh wait I got a door but.at it okay I see where I screwed up so.as you can see this is now working and.here's the pot and it's out of focus.because I'm like way over here but as I.turn it down we see that our value.decreases and as I turn it up it starts.increasing until we get we should have.like a full 255 right there there you go.so yeah basically what's happening is.and it even says is in the in the manual.that you have to do a write to the ad.control and that will start the.analog-to-digital process and I mean I.thought I guess I'm writing it way too.early where it doesn't start the analog.to digital control or it just doesn't.start to process but once I manually.started it by writing to that register.on PC bug then it actually started.working and the LEDs came on right away.unfortunately I didn't I didn't catch it.on video but yeah as you can see it's.actually working now and it's pretty.fast even though we thought all the.notes in there but so now let's see what.happens if I take out the no aux.if I didn't sound too enthusiastic.though when I got this thing working.yeah there was kind of a two reasons for.that mostly I won it was kind of late in.the day and I was like really tired and.too I was no no hard time believing that.it was actually doing anything but it's.a new morning and I'm already on my.second cup of coffee so I think we're.okay now after thinking about it for a.while I actually think I figured.something out that I did that was.actually pretty kind of dumb so in our.original set of instructions here that.we wrote where I said that we were gonna.load the ad control with a value of 20.see the thing is we don't actually power.up the analog to digital circuitry until.we write one into the options register.here so basically what I did is I'm.trying to get this thing to do something.before it's even powered on I guess I.would be kind of similar to like trying.to change the channel on your TV before.you even have the set on or like hitting.start on the microwave before you even.set the timer or putting your card in a.drive before it's even on you know you.kind of get where I'm going with that.it's just basically it's I'm telling it.to do something it can't even do because.it's not even on and the analog to.digital control doesn't start doing its.process until you write to the ad.control register which isn't even on.okay so now we should have it where we.have our options set so that way we turn.the options or the analog to digital we.power it up and then we are going to.load our port C to be all outputs and.then we're gonna start the analog to.digital control sequence so now I think.this should work and then the main loop.here is just gonna basically and I got.to change this here okay I believe we're.going back to label of main okay so it's.gonna jump back to main and then it's.gonna read the analog to digital.register one copy it to port C and then.go back to main so this is the part.where it's just gonna continuously loop.back and forth so I think this should.work now we're going to recompile this.so let's go ahead and exert here we're.gonna save it hopefully we got no errors.okay zero errors all right we're.connected to the microcontroller again.let's go ahead and low.our new s-19 file okay so let's load.[Music].[Music].so let's see if it will actually run if.I hit key.so here's G that should start code.execution and enter okay.so let's see if our LEDs over here.change right now the potentiometers all.the way at the bottom so all the LEDs.would be off and let's see what happens.is like and it's not working.dang it alright I figured out what I.messed up I didn't put the hex symbol.here in front of the 20 where I'm.telling it to load to accumulator a a.value of 20 so I think this was the.problem so I wasn't loading the right.value into the 80 control registers so.it wasn't even working but everything.else seemed fine like I did a memory.read on some of those other registers.and they were fine except for the analog.to digital control that's the only one.that was wrong so I think that was my.problem let's go ahead and save this and.we're going to I have a I actually saved.another one they're just another version.of this just to see if this is gonna.work so I'm gonna overwrite it yeah okay.okay some that I see so we're gonna try.this one out and see if it works.all right I erased the EEPROM again.let's try to reload rs 19 file 18 bytes.alright let's make sure that it actually.wrote MDB 600 v6 it really only goes up.to one F so it's okay.there's something there let's try to.start or I'm gonna hit we're gonna turn.the potentiometer all the way down.because I had a kind of part partly up.I'm gonna say go enter it's still not.working.let's see what's at 10:30 94 for me yeah.14 this is steep.I'm so dumb supposed to tell her where.to start the program from so GB 600 did.it so now it's actually working you can.see right there on the on the LEDs it's.actually doing what it's supposed to.holy crap that was a that was a headache.okay so now that we know that it's.actually executing from code and I'm not.doing anything funky here all I did was.tell it to execute what's on the.microcontroller if I set this back into.single chip mode it should should work.by itself so I'm going to first of all.I'm gonna stop it over here and now it.should be yeah no it's not doing.anything okay I'm just gonna leave that.as is I'm going to set it back in - okay.so single chip mode is the mode B.register or the pin at one and a should.be zero.right yeah that's it okay I'm going to.hit reset now it should be working by.all on its own and let's see if it works.it's not working.whomp-whomp this is driving me nuts so.my current situation now is that the.code appears to be working properly when.I manually started up using PC bug 11 it.looks like it is doing what it's.supposed to the problem I'm having is.that it will not boot on its own in.single chip mode and I've looked online.to see if anybody else has had a similar.issue with the 68:11 and I found an.article written by Ed the sky and he had.basically identical problem that I'm.having that once you burn the code in.you can start it for PC bug 11 but it.will not auto boot as burned into the.the microcontroller even in you know.putting it in single chip mode so what.he found out was that if you disconnect.the serial cable that there's something.about the way the the chip is is built.if you John.the receive and transmit ports it causes.the chip to basically go to the EEPROM.address and start executing code what.happens is when this is reset the.address Ida defaults to is not where the.program is stored.but apparently shorty nice to out it I.don't know causes it to start executing.from EEPROM so we're going to try that.now I'm going to set it back to single.chip mode we've got mode a on zero and.I've have mode B on one so I have this.thing all the way down let's see if it.actually works now I'm going to hit the.reset button and let's see if the LEDs.changes I turn it up no change that's a.no oh holy crap this is interesting so I.have it in to the special bootstrap mode.I guess that's where I kind of missed.this little detail so when it's a.special bootstrap mode and I guess I.should have disconnected this just so.I'm going to reset it here so it's a.special bootstrap mode I've got both dip.switches set to on I jumped the receive.and transmit lines and if you look at.the LEDs it's actually doing what it's.supposed to so let me go ahead and I'm.gonna turn it off just now you can see.that it's not working at all turn it.back on and code is executing exactly as.you we would expect so that's yeah I.guess it's kind of a workaround but it.seems kind of mmm not really how we.would have expected this thing to work.but I mean it is working yeah kind of.sort of not entirely happy with that but.it's it's doing what it's supposed to I.can say that after 20 years this thing.is actually executing code and it's.doing something instead of just sitting.there in a container being stored for.years so that's pretty much gonna do it.for this one I'm pretty happy to finally.see this thing do something after so.many years and I can't believe it.actually took me this long to.you know even get around and messing.with it this much in depth so it took me.a bit of effort to figure it out but I.feel somewhat confident that you know I.could actually make a do something now.if we wanted to the only problem is like.what to use it for now it's kind of an.outdated system so you know a lot of the.stuff that you would have been able to.do with this you know you can do like.easily now I was like in or do we know.or whatever and they have like on all.the add-on like the hats and all that.stuff with this so I even tried to get.the servo to work on one of the ports.and it did work but it looks more like.the servo ports on this thing we're more.intended to be used with like a.continuous rotating servos the ones for.like driving wheels or whatever it.didn't work and it was a little jittery.though and I had to have the pot in a.spa you know just kind of like barely.turn everything and once it would stop.in like one spot the servo was still.kind of jitter and you know I have a.little clip of the waveform that's.produced like the PWM waveform and you.can kind of see like in some spots were.like pulses go missing so that you kind.of made it a little jumpy so hey I don't.know if that seems like it would need a.little bit of improvement I tried just.using the code example that was given in.the in the manual and that's kind of how.that worked out I was trying to see if.maybe I could figure out a better way to.do it but I guess if you want a better.PWM you kind of need to do like an.interrupt routine and that was a little.bit more than I want to get into with.this right now.like it took me long enough to get to.the point where I am now so I didn't.want the video to drag on any longer.turns out I had three of these micros.laying around I had another MC 68 HD 11.like an actual Motorola one and I also.had this Toshiba one and I'm pretty sure.that I pulled these off of some boards.that had him on them and because I.didn't have the right tools at the time.- the extra Motorola one here has.something like kind of damaged pins but.I tried them both and they did both work.so they're fully functional as far as.I'm concerned the Toshiba one actually.looks like it will go up to 12 megahertz.so it's definitely the faster of the.three parts that I got well at the.moment I don't have like any immediate.use for this thing perhaps maybe in the.near future actually try to make a.little robot with it or something the.kid thinks is kind of cool though that's.so cool oh yeah and regarding the.software.I was using PC bug 11 here but there's.actually one for Windows that's called J.Buc 11 I think it was and that one's up.you know more of a graphical interface.and everything but I didn't mess with.that one I just wanted to try to figure.this thing out and you know get that.working and I think I've got it you know.kind of like figured out where you know.I could I was able to do a lot with it.and it was really helpful to see stuff.you know as it's working I was able to.execute the code and you know check some.of the memory addresses and everything.to see if what was going on and if like.the Velo is expecting was at that.address or not so it was extremely.helpful to be able to do that.and that's pretty much where we're gonna.end this so thank you guys for watching.once again I hope at least some of you.found this interesting and I'll see you.guys around the bench and I wanted to.show me more stuff is stuff I and I just.wanted to make and and and I want you to.put another so if on another something.in it but I shall put another something.in it so we can record it.

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