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Cross Connection Control Performance Test : Revise, Finish and save

okay good afternoon and welcome to our.cross connection control and backflow.prevention webinar we're joined by care.cameron Rappaport our backflow product.specialist during the duration of.today's presentation the phone lines.will be muted but we encourage you to.submit questions via the chat window.just hover over the chat icon at the.bottom of the WebEx and type in your.question will then address them after.the presentation so with that might pass.up Cameron and get started all right.welcome everyone as Greg said my name is.Cameron Rappaport and I am the backflow.product specialist here what Hugh some.background on myself have been here.watts for about two years I've been.working on everything from new product.development to marketing material to.training such as this one all around.backflow so prior to my experience at.watts.I worked in fluent feeling for process.industry so I've been a pump and a valve.guy for a while now some things to note.to make sure we get all the CEU stuff.covered this course is for a specie II.use only so did not necessarily approve.for professional development hours for.your PE certification certified in.plumbing design or certified plumbing.design technicians can use this course.towards their recertification and it may.or may not be accepted for PE renewal.you'll have to enquire with your state.to determine if you can get this to.count towards maintaining that so on to.the content so today we're hoping it by.the end you will understand the.importance of backflow preventor to the.protection and conservation of safe.drinking water describe cross connection.control programs and they're important.to total backflow prevention understand.the backflow preventor selection.criteria and how they work.understand the typical faults and.failures associated with backflow.preventers and finally understand the.typical troubleshooting and maintenance.solutions for backflow preventers that's.a lot there's no quick you need anything.like greg said throw it in the chat bar.we'll get to all those questions at the.end so first let's define some terms nor.for contaminants to get into the water.distribution system as a.result of backflow you need three things.a cross connection a source of.contamination and a backflow event so.let's break down that first thing a.cross connection so a cross connection.as defined by the EPA is any actual or.potential connection between the public.water supply and a source of.contamination or pollution these cross.connections constitute a hazard to the.building occupants think they can.jeopardize the cleanliness and.potability of the public water system in.the event of a backflow or backside in.each event so what's there between an.actual and a potential connection an.actual connection is a direct connection.to a source of contamination a good.example in this image you see my cursor.is this boiler the water in your.hydronic heating system is considered.non potable and you have a boiler.feedwater makeup line directly connected.to it a potential connection is.something like this hose that I'm.indicating on the outside of the house.it's not typically connected to a source.of contamination but it could be at any.time for example you could connect it.directly to a pesticide sprayer so.that's an indirect connection or a.potential connection so backflow what.we're here to talk about backflow is the.unwanted reverse flow of a liquid gas or.other substance into a potable water.distribution system our potable water.distribution system is built to operate.primarily in one direction it's going.from the source right to the point of.use out of your taps when that direction.reverses and you have cross connections.downstream you risk introducing.contaminants in this case we have a.water main break when water main breaks.there's potential to siphon any number.of contaminants you have dirty water in.your bathtub and your sink if you have.out sprayer hose submerged in there.you've stagnant water and perhaps glycol.here in your boiler system you have.stagnant pools or fertilizer or other.kind of chemical.in your irrigation system all those.could end up mixing with the water.that's meant to drink so within backflow.there's a couple different kinds the.first kind is back siphon egde so back.size mint condition occurs when you get.negative or sub atmospheric pressure in.the distribution piping of the potable.water system this typically occurs on.periods of very high demand in the.public water main which will lower that.supply pressure so as to be a very high.demand to get it negative or.sub-atmospheric so we're looking at.things like firefighting events or water.main breaks which are suddenly and.significantly going to lower that city.water pressure below that of your non.potable system so this will result in a.partial vacuum being drawn on the non.potable system which will siphon the.pollutants or contaminants into the.potable water system through an.unprotected cross connection in this.case we have a hose bib in a pool so we.don't know what's in that pool water we.don't want to be drinking it we have.whatever is in your boiler like we said.before if you have unprotected sprayer.hoses are submerged in your bath things.you're giving a flea bath all of those.without adequate protection are going to.siphon out and into the drinking water.system so you can think of back.siphoning as a whole from the supply.side which leads to our next term back.pressure back pressure is a push from.the downstream side so back pressure.condition occurs when there's an.elevated pressure between the potable.and the non potable source this can be.caused by the installation of pumps.which increase what pressures above city.water supply pressure which will force.non potable water in the opposite.direction of normal flow and into the.potable water line also boilers or other.equipment would heat which heat water.cause thermal expansion which results in.pressures that can get in excess of the.incoming water pressure can also force.non potable water into your potable.piping system so here we have a boiler.the left it's inactive your water is.cold but once it heats up that water is.going to want to expand pressure is.going to increase them without backflow.preventers it's going to migrate over.into your potable water system so I'm.going to go through some common terms.very quickly just all speaking the same.language so pressure typically measured.in pounds per square inch psi or bars is.force per unit area for our juices will.talk in either gauge pressure which is.the atmospheric pressure is zero but we.are going to be talking a lot about.differential pressure full-rate velocity.or both measurements of flow with rate.being the amount of flow fluid flowing.per unit time so gallons per minute.cubic feet per minute velocity is the.speed of that flow measured in feet per.second so here we have a flow curve so.these are typically published as part of.your engineering sheets your.specification sheets with a backflow.preventor this shirt shows pressure.drops due to friction loss across the.device as a function of flow rate or.flow velocity in this case this is a.double check valve assembly this can be.thought of as the performance of the.valve and it typically goes from 0 to 25.feet per second so service flow you'll.notice there are several different.indications right here service flow is.typically determined by a velocity so.seven and a half feet per second based.on a schedule 40 pipe to use a collar.analogy which I like using this is an.average speed where you're going to.limit the wear and tear on your vehicle.you're going to get good mileage save 50.miles an hour we also have rated flow.rated flow identifies maximum continuous.duty performance who that's going to be.determined by the awwa so for typical.services you do not want to exceed this.flow rate or you will increase wear and.tear on the device so to continue my car.analogy this is the red line on your.speedometer you can operate just below.the red line every day but you're going.to experience.increased wear and tear and you don't.necessarily be want want to be sitting.there all the time but occasionally you.can get up there we also have ul rated.Flo ul rated is a hundred and fifty.percent of rated Flo and it is not.recommended for continuous duty this is.typically only used for fire systems.where you should either have no flow or.in case of a fire extremely high flow so.in this analogy now your drag-racing not.something you should do with your car.every day which is why we really just.reserved this to fire suppression.systems also notice over here on the.right hand side and n H and V so these.correspond to the three different curves.that are graphed out here and these are.different orientations for a backflow.preventor in this case this double check.valve assemblies you can have it in an n.pattern that is a flow up across and.down a horizontal installation so flow.they left to right or a vertical.installation say flow bottom to top.those are all going to have slightly.different characteristics so one of the.key elements of a cross connection.control program the first is isolation.isolation protects any cross connection.which exist within the owners premises.through the use of appropriate backflow.prevention devices so it's going to.isolate any hazard to that particular.location as going to protect the.remainder of that owners potable water.system from contamination so isolation.protects you from the hazards within.your own building or property this is.typically governed by universal plumbing.code or international plumbing code so.what is containment containment is the.containment of a property's private.water system from the city's drinking.water supply system so it's separating.your system from the water main this is.done downstream of a properties water.service connection the water meter is.achieved by installing a backflow.prevention device typically immediately.after the water meter it's going to be.that first device right after the meter.so containment is for when the water.purveyor gives you water they don't want.it back because they do not know what.you did to it so it's protecting you.from your neighbors and vice versa so.total back soil protection combines.isolation which protects you from the.hazards within your own building or.property and containment which protect.you from the hazards from other.buildings that's going to assert that.you have safe drinking water from the.point of treatment all the way to the.point of use we do have a little.pneumonic device and this is going to.remind us of all that key elements of a.cross connection control program which.protects public water.it's the ABCs so a is Authority is the.legal basis to implement a policy and.enforce it typically people don't.install backflow preventers unless they.are mandated to and if they're mandated.to they might not do it unless they face.fines or cessation of services if they.don't comply so having that authority.and legal basis is very important B is.backflow preventers you need approved.and appropriate devices to prevent.backflow C is certified testers and.specialists these are the people who.will test and inspect the devices and.cross connections and then administer.the program these defensible and.detailed records or documentation so.this documents your policies your.procedures your code requirements your.site surveys your test record records.this is going to be vital to enforcing.that backdoor program and finally use.education and training just like we're.doing today this includes both the.education of plumbing professionals such.as yourself and also the general public.to make sure they're aware of the.importance of cross connection control.of backflow prevention and this is.courtesy of USC F Triple C HR which.we'll get to so where are all of these.cross connections well they're extremely.common and they all require appropriate.backflow protection so here we have.three different buildings.couple commercial buildings and a.residence they have containment devices.right right as their entries connections.to the water mains you'll notice that.we have three different containment.devices which is important we'll talk.about that later in addition they also.isolate addiction protection at all of.these different points of views of your.stinks vending machine laundry boiler.sprinkler systems hose bibs these are.very very ubiquitous cross connections.are all over the place which is why we.need lots of different kinds of backflow.preventers so how do we choose which.backflow preventor is appropriate for a.given application one important factor.is degree of hazard so when we talk.about this bottom one pollutants or non.health hazards a pollutant is any.substance which may affect the color.taste or odor of potable water but which.does not pose a direct threat to human.health through exposure or consumption.of that water so foods may impose an.objectionable odor or appearance but not.but do not in themselves.pose a health threat there we're going.to consider them a lessord hazard when.compared to contaminants we call these.non health hazards sometimes referred to.as low hazards a good example would be.food coloring so it's not going to hurt.you it's fine to drink but people do not.want to be drinking red water if they.open their taps and their water is red.they're going to be unhappy a.contaminant where that health hazard the.substance which when you introduce to.the potable water system is going to be.a direct threat to the life or health of.a human that's if that's through.consumption drinking water cooking with.it or just through skin contact so it.can be a caustic chemical a fluid.containing bacteria or disease or any.other substance which can threaten human.health.so these compose the highest degree of.hazard to the potable water system so.we'll call these a health hazard or.sometimes a high hazard a good example.would be fertilizer there are lawn.sprinkler systems with fertilizer.injectors that fertilizer will make you.sick in if it gets back into the potable.water system that's going to pose a.direct risk to human health.so to continue with our criteria for.backfloat selection we have four.questions we can ask what is the.potential for back pressure back sight.vintage can always occur because you can.always have a water main break but there.might not be any potential for back.pressure is it a health hazard what kind.of health has we just discuss this will.the application require continuous.pressure so continuous pressure is.typically defined as more than twelve.hours of pressure in any 24 hour period.something like your boiler feed line is.always going to be under pressure but a.hose bib or a faucet something where.you're only turning it on you're only.pressurizing it when you need to use it.will likely not what if your orientation.needed there are often several options.we saw earlier you can have n pattern.horizontal and vertical and that same.double check and of course the ultimate.answer is always check with the.authority having jurisdiction or ahj.they're giving you the water they're.going to be the ones who are going to be.able to tell you is something high.hazard is something low hazard what do.they require that's not up to me it's.often not up to you you have to consult.with that Water Authority so back for is.a heavily regulated environment we as a.manufacturer and you as a specifier.owner installer need to know what to.look for I'm not going to go through all.of these in the interest in time but.I'll touch on a few first one is that.top one assc the American Society of.sanitary engineering.one of the main governing bodies when we.go through you'll notice there are a lot.of different asse standards for.different specific applications for.backflow preventers the other big.certifying body is the University of.Southern California foundation for cross.connection control on hydraulic research.I'll often just call it USC they're one.of the first institutions to really look.into backflow prevention and they are.still one of the largest ones that.certify testable backflow preventers and.many jurisdictions require their.approval or a ssds approval or both ul.or C ul and FM they deal with insurance.they typically only require.and I'm bachelors in fire sprinkler.systems the other big one is NSF the.National Sanitation foundation there.used to certify that a valve is safe to.use in drinking water in particular that.it is lead-free so as you can see there.are several more I'm going to keep.moving along in the interest of time you.have any questions about them feel free.to submit that through the chat box so.one way of grouping backwards into.testable versus non testable devices you.can see there are several of each kind.so why do we need to test specific ones.or why don't you have only testable so.it depends on a number of factors.including the type of hazards likely.failure modes and the cost of the device.testable is desirable because you can.check functionality but they're.typically larger and more expensive and.that can be overkill for example many.jurisdictions don't require residential.containment backflow to be testable due.to the cost of the homeowner but will.require testable backflow on commercial.containment so note just typically north.american building codes required.testable devices to be tested when they.are installed repaired and annually to.ensure proper function so let's start.talking about actual backflow preventers.first light device we'll talk about in a.an atmospheric vacuum breaker that is a.SS a standard 1001 typically for.isolation so this is protecting hazards.within a properties point of use and.protect some back siphoning only but you.can use it for health hazards so how.does it work notice this white float.right here when you get you turn your.water on that water is going to cause.that float to raise up and it's going to.seal this atmospheric vent this one goes.right outside to atmosphere if you get.any back siphoning condition which is.negative or sub atmospheric pressure is.going to suck that float back down and.is going to break the vacuum hence a.vacuum breaker this way it will siphon.in air rather than potentially.contaminated water so you cannot use.this for continuous pressure because of.concerns that after time that vent flow.will get stuck up here in the up.position if it's constantly there being.pressed against the scene because of.that you cannot put any shut off.downstream and that's because there is.tuned that you will use that shut off to.control flow and you're going to leave.that device pressurized it also has to.be installed a minimum of 6 inches above.the highest downstream water outlet and.that is because height is pressure you.have a discharge point that higher than.the device that's back pressure because.in a water column every foot effectively.creates about 0.4 psi they can also.occasionally discharge water but there.are spill resistant vacuum breakers.available like this one down on the.bottom right.as far as applications go these are.pretty ubiquitous there in lawn.sprinklers parlor sink dishwashers.washing machines process tanks they.really have a large variety of.applications as long as they can get.installed above the highest outlet point.downstream and there's no potential for.background.hose the vacuum breaker is a SSD.standard 1011 you may see these on your.hose bibbs outside your home right where.you connect your hose up to water your.plants just like an atmospheric vacuum.breaker they're for isolation protection.against back siphoning only they're.appropriate for health hazards which.hoses are because you can connect them.to just about anything and they should.not be subjected to continuous pressure.they do work a little bit differently.than an atmospheric vacuum breaker they.have a diaphragm right here this black.piece that under pressure and flow is.pushed up which seals this vent and in.back siphon back sighs image conditions.it will suck that diaphragm up and open.that air vent and break that vacuum so.very similar just worked a little bit.differently also because they're.typically installed low to the ground.and you can hold a hose up above your.head they do have a single check in.there that's there to hold some light.back pressure a 10 foot water column.we're about.4.3 psi these despite being small little.and expensive devices are extremely.important because hoses are the number.one unprotected cross connection in.America there are several case studies.of water contamination getting people.sick through unprotected hose bibbs SSE.1024 these are dual check valves the.dual check is exactly what it sounds.like it's two check valves if check.valve one check valve two so they allow.water in one direction but not the other.and it has two so it has some built in.redundancy for safety these are.typically for residential containment so.you'll often see them right after a.residential water meter they are rated.for back siphon äj-- and back pressure.as well as continuous pressure but they.are not for health hazards down here you.can see they come in several styles and.sizes including chrome ones and hose.connection ones these are also extremely.common so you covered dual checks now we.have dual checks with atmospheric vents.this is a sort of combination dual check.and vacuum breaker.we're actually covering three different.ASSE standards here so we have a SSD ten.twelve that's this device the lower.right-hand corner you have that cutaway.right above it these are for non health.hazard but full back pressure and back.siphon egde continuous pressure.applications the number one application.for these residential boiler feed lines.wells of two other fairly specific.standards we have a SSD 1052 with a hose.connection backflow preventor that works.very similarly to a host of vacuum.breaker that's this second valve from.the right you can see above it as a.cutaway this top half to look pretty.familiar it looks almost exactly like a.hose the vacuum breaker it just has the.additional check valve we also have a.SSE 1035 it's a laboratory faucet vacuum.breaker it's very similar in.construction to the hose can.invented dual check with a higher.temperature rating a lab thoughts and.connections a couple small changes the.like hose bib vacuum breakers asse 1052.and 10:35 devices are rated for low back.pressure so that 10 feet of head or 4.3.psi and should not be subjected to.continuous pressure so going on to more.kind of highly specific application.specific backflow preventers we have.dual check and dual check with.atmospheric vent.valves for carbon aiders these are made.specifically for carbonated beverage.dispensers just like your soda dispenser.at a fast-food restaurant this is.because when you mix carbon dioxide with.water to make carbonated water to make.soda you also form carbonic acid.now carbonic acid if it gets back into.the copper piping it will leach that.copper out of those pipes and.potentially gives people copper.poisoning and there are several case.studies where this exact situation has.sent people to the hospital.so these are just like a SSE 1024 1012.devices that we already went over.they're rated for BAC siphon edge and.back pressure they're for non health.hazard use and they can withstand.continuous pressure the vented version.that Asst 1022 device can have.occasional discharge so you do have to.take that into account when you're.choosing where to place these and you.can actually plumb up something to that.discharge line get it to a place where.it's not going to make a mess the main.difference is that these cannot be made.from copper alloys so instead of the.brass or bronze you would typically see.in a dual check or dual check with.atmospheric event these particular.examples are all stainless steel or.plastic single check valves for.automated fire sprinkler systems we.include these because they are.relatively common but they are not true.backflow preventers a single check is.not a backflow preventer these do come.sometimes come with a metered bypass.we'll talk about that later and they're.sometimes okay by the water authority.and fire inspector for sprinkler lines.but for the most part these exist.because they are grandfathered in at.this point.I'm not going to take too much time on.these just be aware that they exist.there okay in some places but they're.being replaced more and more now with.actual backflow preventers through our.first true testable backflow preventor a.pressure vacuum breaker so like an.atmospheric vacuum breaker these are.four backsides image only they are.appropriate for health hazard.applications and they must be installed.above the highest outlet point in this.case it's 12 inches above the highest.outlet and they can occasionally.discharge water so the big difference.here between these and atmospheric.vacuum breakers that they can handle.continuous pressure therefore you can.have shut offs downstream they're.allowed to have continuous pressure.because they have a spring just up here.in this cutaway that's going to force.that float send down at low pressure so.there's not that risk of the float.getting stuck like an an atmospheric.vacuum breaker they also have a single.check valve in there for just an added.layer of protection you most commonly.find these on residential sprinkler.systems so they can have those off.valves downstream so you can have.different zones for your sprinkler.system you'll find them installed right.outside of people's homes so spill.resistant vacuum breaker so asse 1056.this operates largely the same way as a.pressure vacuum breaker but as a still.resistant feature that closes the vent.prior to the check opening allowing.water to fill the device this makes them.appropriate for indoor use where that.occasional discharge you'll get with a.standard pressure vacuum breaker is more.objectionable you don't want water on.the floor so you'll find them in.applications such as indoor chemical.dispensers they'll be mounted above the.dispenser that's where things may be.like soap dispensers or cleaning.chemicals for mop sink stuff like that.double check valve assemblies so double.checks are a SSE 1015 devices and this.is where we're going to get into some of.these larger devices these are typically.available anywhere from a hat.all the way up to ten inch sizes these.are for containment or isolation so.that's point of source or point of use.there for non health hazard applications.but they can handle back pressure and.back siphoning as well as continuous.pressure and they typically can be.installed horizontally or vertically.with the flow going up like the dual.check these are essentially two single.checks check one your upstream check on.the left-hand side check to your.downstream check on the right-hand side.the main difference is that they must be.testable you'll see on all these.examples down here you have four test. on every single one you have one.upstream of the shut off downstream of.the first shutoff you have one that's.just like this is going to be in the.zone between the two checks and one.that's going to be in the zone after the.second check so these are used to make.sure that the device is functioning.correctly and there's a variety of.different testing methodologies.depending on where you are in the.country these are also not devices.you'll notice it's a they double check.valve assembly so what that means is.they must have shut offs on either side.sometimes you'll see people they'll get.the valves of the shut offs they want to.be able to isolate more equipment so.they'll take one shut off on they'll.throw in a strainer I'll throw in a.pressure reducing valve for that other.shutoff on that is typically not code.compliant they come assembly with those.off the shelf should stay where they are.both that first check in that second.check they require a minimum of a one.PSI differential to open so that's one.of the things that they're testing for.when they oh when they hook up their.differential pressure meters up to those.devices that means if I'm measuring that.differential pressure across either of.those checks it should always be at.least one psi whether water is flowing.or not so of course the reason these are.for non health hazard is that the only.time you know this device is functioning.is when you are testing it the very next.day next hour next minute after you.leave and you okay this device its.tested is functioning well it could get.debris in it both checks could bow.can be rendered rendered ineffective.until it's tested again failed and.they're prepared this is not very likely.but it is possible so that's why it's a.non health hazard or rated for low.hazards only so what about those health.hazard applications well for those we.use a reduced pressure zone assembly so.other than an air gap this is affords.the highest possible degree of.protection it's used for containment or.isolation back pressure and back.siphoning but it's rated for health.hazard applications as well as that.continuous pressure the downside is that.it will occasionally discharge water and.in a catastrophic event it can just.start quite a bit of water a serious.amount of water can cause some flooding.it also must be installed a member of.twelve inches above grade and typically.cannot be installed vertically you'll.notice it has test cocked and shut off.just like the double check is also an.assembly the inner workings of reduced.pressures don't assembly are a little.complicated I've some slides in just a.couple minutes that's going to explain.how they work but first I just want to.touch on detector assembly so here we.have a double check detector assembly.these are just like double checks.whether they have a bypass to monitor.unauthorized water usage or leaks that's.because these are typically used on fire.sprinkler systems which are unmetered.connections but the water authority.wants to know if there are leaks or.someone is stealing water because it's a.non metered connection they're not.paying for it they work by putting a.bypass around the device with a smaller.device in the bypass with the same.protection so in this case all these.double checks heavy device have a bypass.around the entire device and they have a.double check in the bypass otherwise.that bypass would be a cross connection.it represent a hazard they detect water.by biasing the springs to be a little.stronger in that main device than in the.bypass so that first couple gallons a.minute are going to flow through that.smaller.line and through that water meter so.these don't detect all of the water.going through it's not a full totalizing.meter it's just there to alert you that.there's flow when there shouldn't be any.flow because unless your buildings been.on fire recently and the sprinkler.systems have gone off there shouldn't.have any been any flow through that.device Rouge pressure detector.assemblies work the same ways that.double check detector but instead of a.double check in the bypass they reduced.pressure detector assembly in the bypass.there are such things that pipe two.bypasses was only has a single check in.the bypass because they've only bypassed.a single check in the main assembly.these are out of the scope of this.presentation if you want to know.anything more about I'd be happy to talk.with you about it later.just be aware that those do exist and.they are approved so how do you reduce.pressure detector assemblies work so how.do our bees work our peas have a.stronger first check than the DC it's a.5 psi differential check so there should.always be a minimum of a 5 psi.differential across that first tank it.also has a differential pressure relief.valve that's this relief valve here on.the bottom that is held biased open by.that spring so what's happening when in.normal hasn't slowed so first going to.hit that valve it's going to slow down.here only requires 2 psi to close that.vent and then with 5 psi will open that.check over the second check you'll get.slow because there's to be a minimum of.a 5 psi differential across that first.check even with that 2 PSI spring.biasing it open you have 3 psi holding.it closed minimum all the time so again.this spring is adding effectively 2 psi.to this zone it's fighting against the.incoming water pressure but because of.that 5 psi drop you have 3 psi holding.your closed.everything's good no one's complaining.that there's water on there floor so.what happens when there actually is weak.so the one main cause of failure is that.salad first tech so you have a piece of.debris it gets stuck your demand pieces.and now that incoming water pressure is.going to travel over into that zone and.with that help of that 2 PSI spring it's.going to open the valve you're going to.get water on your floor so the size of.the debris will dictate the size of this.week in this case it's a pretty big.piece of debris it's a pretty big week.it could be something as small as a.little piece of teflon tape a grain of.sand that will cause a small drip or if.you have a large device and you get a.large rock stuck in it you can get in.the order of tens all the way up to.hundreds of gallons a minute depending.on the size of the device the failure.the line pressure all that stuff so this.serves two purposes if indeed there is a.backflow event occurring both texts are.fouled.you either have back pressure or back.size image you have contaminants.downstream that you're risking getting.into your potable water it's going to.put those contaminants on the floor or.on the ground rather than back into.potable water distribution system it.also serves a second purpose because if.we remember double checks you have no.idea if a double check is working or not.unless you just tested it for an RP it.tells you if something is wrong so it's.giving a visual indication of failure.people don't like it when things are.leaking they're dripping water is.getting on their floor they're going to.call someone they're going to get this.fix they're going to maintain that.protection in their line of course you.can also foul your second check doesn't.happen very frequently but debris can.manage to get by that first check and.stuck in the second check and then if.you have back pressure right only if you.have back pressure to increase the.pressure in that zone between the checks.it will open that relief valve then.you'll get water on the floor.but this is not all that common 90 some.odd percent of the time and RP is failed.in failure isn't even really a good word.it's doing a job if an RP is discharging.water it is something stuck in that.first check just go through some other.things some common backflow accessories.I'm a huge proponent of strainers.especially for our peas it's going to.help prevent some of that discharge not.going to catch those grains of sand but.it's going to catch those big chunks.that can result in a lot of water coming.out of that relief valve do check with.your water authorities they do not.always allow these on the containment.backflow because they want that backflow.preventor to be the first thing after.the meter they're also typically aren't.allowed on fire system so they're all.our ul SM approved strainers expansion.tanks are useful to deal with thermal.expansion since you create a closed loop.with that backflow preventor so if you.have things heating up and cooling down.that can help with deal with some of.those pressure fluctuations spools are.there for retrofitting modern backflow.preventers are a lot shorter than they.used to be so if you're retrofitting.your you're taking out an old big heavy.long past or ductile iron backflow.preventor you're replacing it with.something newer may may be stainless.steel need something to make up that.difference you have valve shutters which.are used for any pattern backflow for.vendors when they're installed outside.that helps the underground guy if you.have any more questions about these.we're going to move along but free or.free that question or shoot me an email.troubleshooting so really we're talking.about RP since those are really the only.ones that are going to give you a visual.indication of failure other than maybe a.vent float being stuck in a atmospheric.or pressure vacuum breaker number one.thing debris scale sediment corrosion.stuff stuck in that check preventing it.from closing so first of all your RP.it's discharging it's doing its job you.want to figure out what's going wrong if.the discharge is occasional and random.it's probably fluctuating line pressure.that different--.pressure-relief valve doesn't care if.you're raising pressure in that zone.between the checks or if you've lost.pressure in your upstream supply it.doesn't know the difference between the.two is going to open up so if you're.getting it spits every once in a while.then it's a few hours and spits in a few.minutes in a few days right if you can't.kind of time it probably fluctuating.supply pressure but if it is constant.the time aborts a constant steady drip.or steady flow there's some good things.you can do to try and figure out what's.going on that way when you call a guy he.knows what kind of repair kit to bring.if you need to bring one so step one.we're on this right-hand side shut down.that let's shut off watch the relief.valve if the relief valve closes you're.number to check is faulty and you have.back pressure if you're isolating the.downstream portion of the system and it.solves the problem the problem was with.the downstream portion of the system.you're getting back pressure and it's.migrating through to where that relief.valve can sense it through that second.check so if that doesn't work you open.the number four test coughs you caused.some flow you need to cause more flow.than the weak so if it's a drip you need.a stream if it's a stream you need a.bigger stream so if that stops if you're.number one check is faulty what you're.doing there is you're actually lifting.that check off of the debris so it's.actually operating normally it's just.that when it goes too close and it can't.shut that's when you get to discharge.that doesn't work it's probably your.relief valve your relief valves can get.things stuck in it they can get that.debris or scale or sediment or corrosion.just like your checks it is less common.but it does occasionally happen.- submits about repaired people complain.right it takes too long parts are.expensive you need too much training.assembly these days especially newer.models are all fairly easy to service.some are better than others obviously.have my own biases but a good amount of.time they just have some debris or.buildup it can take them apart you can.clean them relatively easily they do.often require some knowledge and.experience but also there are plenty of.videos online and typically you need a.license to be able to repair these so a.licensed repairmen should be able to.take any of the come back filled.preventers and repair them fairly.quickly buzzers and something weird.going on we also get a lot of questions.about warranties especially on new.installations of reduced pressure zone.assemblies when they're discharging the.vast vast majority of the time this is.not a manufacturing defect the lines.just weren't adequately Fuss flushed and.there's debris con that first check we.pulled all sorts of stuff out of these.first checks chunks of concrete gloves.animals but we did not ship that.backflow with a 2x4 stuck in the first.check so before your customers say hey.this thing's leaking I'm pulling it out.and sending it back to the manufacturer.don't send it back to me because if it's.something in the line icon the first.check can't do anything for you.so when that happens don't remove the.valves have someone qualified opening it.up and 99.9 percent of the time they're.going to find a rock or some other.object that made it into the system.that's in there in the first check and.the device is fine so guys in summary.I'm hoping now you understand the.importance of a backflow preventer to.the protection conservation of safe.drinking water I hope you can describe.the general importance and aspects of.cross connection control programs you.understand something about the selection.criteria and how they work understand.the typical faults and failures and some.of the typical troubleshooting and.maintenance solutions so now with that.Greg of the week you've been collecting.some questions from our attendees yes.Thank You Cameron we a few questions.come through on the QA chat line first.one view of a table that will summarize.the types of the devices with a SSP.classification we do some where I will.look that up and find it graves you to.write down who asked Thatcher I will.send it to you specifically and I'll see.if I can get that attached to a.follow-up email it's a great question so.just something with a sse standard what.the device is typical application okay.how how can you tell if a dual check is.fouled and no longer working correctly.that's a great question.you cannot that's the big difference.right there between that testable and.non testable backflow preventers so your.dual check is both - a double check you.have no idea if it's operating correctly.unless you take it offline open it up.see if there's stuff stuck in the checks.for that reason typically those are.recommended to be on regular replacement.cycles something like every five years.you pull it out you put a new one in.regardless they're pretty inexpensive a.lot of like rural water municipalities.they'll actually control that and when.they go in and they do water meter.change outs or repairs they'll just.replace that check along with it that.dual check if you Moore came in here now.is the downstream pressure always 10 psi.less due to the spring pressure.requirements or just the pressure even.out after a period of no flow so the.downstream pressure is always going to.be less unless you have some sort of.back pressure being generated in the.system so this is actually what people.are testing for when they hook their.test rigs up to these devices you're.going to have in a dual tech a minimum.of two PSI pressure loss in reality it's.usually going to be more like five right.we send these things out with the.springs stronger than necess.because over time they're going to get a.little bit weaker and we don't want that.backflow preventor to fail if it has.that less than 1 psi differential so yes.there should always be a pressure loss.across that backflow device regardless.if it's been flowing or not do SV bees.leak at all during backflow oh the spill.resistant vacuum breakers I'm not going.to say that they're a hundred percent.never going to week they are very very.unlikely to week the only possible thing.I mean it's I'm sure there's a few.different things that can happen the.main one is if you get something stuck.in there somehow between the vent float.and the seat but in reality if you have.backflow your air is going to be sucked.into the device it's not going to be.spitting water so it's very hard to get.those things to week so typically I.wouldn't worry about it any.recommendation resource for specific.backflow assembly types or specific.equipment.I eat commercial kitchen combination.ovens or combination ovens commercial.coffee makers etc yes oh revered.typically Janet go by IPC or UPC.standards we do have some tables I.mentioned them earlier with just n/a SSC.standard up against typical applications.ultimately those are recommendations.it's up to your plumbing inspectors.ultimately they're the authority right.just like on your containment backflow.they're the authority on whether you.need a double check or an RP or can use.a non testable kind of stuff but you.have something I'll dig it up and I'll.see if I can send it out is there an.overall inventory items requiring.backflow prevention oh do.so there's a lot of different kind of.cross connections to be fair a lot of.things are built-in right for flush.ometer x' on your urinals those have.built-in backflow preventers that you're.not going to have to put something.specific in there I would say there's.probably no 100% complete comprehensive.list just because of the multitude of.different potential cross connections.that's really what your plumbing.inspectors they might have you have.specific guys who go out there just.looking for all the potential cross.connections that's that's what they're.out there to do again that's that same.document I've been referencing will help.but it's really up to the code you're.following and the people who are.enforcing why are fire sprinkler systems.unmetered Oh fire sprinkler systems are.unmetered because you shouldn't pay to.put out a fire so a it's because putting.out fires is a greater good right if I.don't want to pay for water to put out a.fire my home burns down and probably.gonna catch your house next to mine on.fire and B it's just one more thing.that's in the way of the water already a.backflow preventer is in is in there.we've determined that it's necessary we.want a few things obstructing flow.between your water main and your.sprinkler head where it can effectively.put out that fire so that's why they're.unmetered connections which is why they.have those bypass meters just to look to.see if there's any flow which shouldn't.be happening.okay are there best practices or.recommendations for whether one or two.are PCAs are needed for a high-rise.building if so what would be the.recommended split of use between two rpz.si the a SS 50 or 50 hundred over 2500.over hundred oh that's interesting I.mean so you don't need them in series.don't assume you mean in parallel.usually it's just.about pressure drops someone's doing a.hydraulic calculation to try and figure.out whether or not you're going to need.two larger lines as opposed to one line.right they're only certified up to ten.inches for the most part there are some.12-inch devices out there so if you need.a 12 or 14 inch line you're going to.have to split it up and put it into.backflow preventers the other side of.that is sometimes you'll have people.have to if you have something like a.like a high-rise or a hospital or.something where if it's leaking and you.need to take it offline to repair.there's going to be a lot of angry.people or perhaps a dangerous situation.something like a hospital if you don't.have any water and then you might have.either two entirely separate supplies or.you'll just have to backflow preventers.you can have one shutoff and use one and.then you can isolate one and use the.other one while you repair it ah but in.general the only reason you would have.to other than just redundancy for repair.is if just hydraulically you need to.larger limes you can't do with say a.10-inch backflow preventor and how do I.sign if a specific model is approved.it's a good question so typically all of.these different approval agencies they.have websites some are easier to use.than others the main two that I talked.about at asse and university of southern.california they're pretty easy you can.look up a specific model for USC they.have a web app you can use it on your.phone or you can download a PDF of all.the approved assemblies and there you'll.see you know the manufacturer the model.approved the size of its approved in the.shutoff since approved with their not.only does it have to have Charles but.ask to have approved shut offs right you.can't take one gate valve and just use a.different one it's also going to have.orientation so is it approved vertical.or is it just.horizontal so if you go right they SSD.website or right to the US CF triple thr.website should be pre easy to navigate.through there on download those lists to.make sure you're using installing.specify an appropriate device why are.the fire hydrants not on backflow.prevention what a great question.actually don't know the answer that one.it's possible if there's a backhoe.preventer within a fire truck I'm gonna.have to ask oh my for my contacts and.fire prevention about that I would say.the likelihood of getting back flows.through a fire hydrant is pretty low the.only thing you're going to be connecting.it to is a hose and unlike a residential.hose where your foot mat in your pool or.you're diluting chemicals it's just.being used for firefighting so it's.possible if they just decided that it's.not I will say that other times when.you're using a fire hydrant for example.construction sites construction sites.often they don't have water but they.need it right guys got a drink they need.water available to wash down they have a.fire hydrant they might connect to that.but they will be required or should be.required to put a backflow preventer on.there so a few different manufacturers.they'll sell back from preventers.specifically with that Inlet having a.connection for a fire hydrant okay see.us about a recording of this webinar and.yes it will be mailed to you in the.upcoming days those are all the.questions I have right now.Cameron do you have anything else no.good it's want to thank all of you for.coming back field prevention is an.extremely important part to us keeping.our water safe and in general other than.plumbing professionals but not a lot of.people know about it people think.backflow preventers are just something.that they have to buy and it's a pain.because they got to pay to get them.tested but it's really vital part of.keeping our water clean which is a.a huge luxury it's not like this in all.the parts of the world so thank you guys.so much if you ever have any additional.questions you should have my contact.information from the emails give me a.shout I'd be happy to answer any of your.questions.okay great Thank You Cameron and.everyone joined us today like I said.we'll be emailing you a link to the.recording of this webinar so keep an eye.out for that and that's all we got so.thanks again and have a great day.

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Cross Connection Control Performance Test FAQs

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How do you perform the t-Test on k-fold cross validation results to compare two classifiers?

Thanks for A2A. I'm assuming the k is such that both models have converged. Then k is irrelevant for the t-test. The reason why t-test is not a good idea is that there are certain assumptions that go into it. Most importantly, t-test assumes that the distributions from which both samples were drawn are normal (Gaussian).

Musicians: How many songs do you think you'd need to perform to fill out a two-hour gig?

A lot of factors, the pace of the show, taking a short break here and there. Your playlist, the length of the songs, play lists are usually pretty tight, with a couple of “covers” or songs rarely played. When you're an established artist you know these songs, you've got them down and it looks and sounds easy. If you saw Rod Stewart or Elton John etc, you're probably going to hear 25 songs. That's a good set. I don't care for some performer's hubris when they make you pay big bucks for tickets, and then “phone in “ the concert. I saw Stevie Wonder onetime “without a horn section!”, Performing a Continue Reading

How do I fill out the concrete cube test results?

Date of casting Date of testing Weight of concrete cube(kg) Load in one column(n) C/s area in one column(mm2) Compressive strength (load/area) (N/mm2)

Will my SAT 2 score be canceled if I fill out the wrong test page? I took 1 subject test, so I was supposed to fill out the Test 1 page, but I filled out the Test 3 page.

You need to contact College Board immediately. Explain the situation and ask what is going to happen to your score. If they won’t accept and score your answer sheet for the test you were supposed to take, you will need to cancel the score to avoid getting 200.

What personality tests are good, free, and on the internet to fill out?

If you're an avid Twitter user, check out www.identitweet.com. It's a small Ruby script I wrote that scans your Twitter activity and determines your big 5 personality traits. You can read more about how I built the test at http://www.startuprob.com/identitweet/

How do you perform a thorough cross-browser & cross-device front-end testing?

Browserstack is a great way to test all desktop systems, currently, all mobile devices use Webkit for a browser base and are therefore relatively the same Android 2 doesnt support SVG and some other features though, which accounts for a large chunk of Android users

How do you cross out test in Microsoft Word?

When writing with a brush pen, it is much easier to cross out a character or several characters using such a pen, compared to quill pens or modern pens.

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