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The Definite Guide to Appendix G Checklist 2017 2019 Form

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Instruction of Appendix G Checklist 2017 2019 Form

[Music].hello everyone good morning good.afternoon good evening let's do a sound.check.now zone good morning how is everything.good morning everything is fine thank.you.fantastic it looks like we've got a huge.crowd this webinar is over subscribed.folks we did not realize how popular.forty seven sixty one a the new version.plus AARP 47:54 a would be in your life.so clearly it's a good idea to do this.we have a very busy aggressive 50 minute.presentation this is condensed from our.training that we do Naz Anna and I for.at Alice and a fusion so we hope you.enjoy we have planned for ten or twelve.minutes of questions at the end as usual.we get many more questions as we can.answer so instead we simply will try our.best to answer those questions and get.back to you via email if we can okay so.we are good to go with this let's begin.to understand and apply the new.mandatory and we'll explain why it's.mandatory.ARP 47 61 a and ARP 47 50 for a first.upgrade couple minutes about your.presenters here this is myself.Vance Hill Durbin I'm the founder and.chief technical officer of a fusion I.have several college degrees I founded B.of the world's largest avionics aviation.companies and I've trained over today.about 21,000 people in do and ARP for.750 foreign things so quite a bit I've.worked on many aviation projects I think.I've worked for almost world's largest.aviation companies and many of you have.what I call the worst book on aviation.location at the time it was the only.book today maybe it's the second or.third worst book knows but anyway I've.been around the block a bit and let me.introduce nas on to you.oh she also is very well educated with.bachelor's master's MBA she's the.founder of Tao certification consulting.and she's worked in both.mystery of military for over 20 years.and she's provide training also in.consulting to many many companies in the.aviation and safety-critical worlds to.establish their design assurance system.a key point is that nasa was a key.individual contributor to the very.standards that we're talking about today.4750 for a and forty seven sixty one the.safety assessment process aircraft.development KBL onyx processes so she's.incredibly knowledgeable and i'm really.proud to be her partner in business and.also in the training and consulting with.that let's begin the purpose of this.webinar like all of our training.webinars is to explain in real terms.anyone can read the book instead what.does it really mean these books why are.these AARP is important and why do we.call them mandatory try to gain an.overview of AARP 47:54 a and 61.understand their interactions it's.really part of what we call the aviation.development ecosystem it's the interplay.of safety systems and software hardware.security many different considerations.security is an interesting one we won't.be addressing that today but do 3 to 6 3.5 5 VD 202 all of those these are.mandatory for us going forward as well.we have another free technical webinar.in two weeks that will try to record.also but you can sign up for that as.well that'll be aviation security our.goal here is to make better avionics.faster and cheaper while achieving.compliance with these standards okay oh.you know how these work look at these.questions we have a quick easy truly six.questions ponder these questions we're.going to answer them during this webinar.and we'll provide the answers at the end.see how in tune you are you're all smart.engineers you are smart enough to wake.up early link whatever to tune into this.webinar the first one true or false.4750 for a and forty seven sixty one are.generally optional for aircraft and.systems.number two 47:54 a applies directly to.avionics software in hardware true or.false number three 4750 for a process.assurance performs systems testing and.also manufacturing and maintenance.inspections true-false dao development.assurance level it's called many things.criticality criticality level level the.old design assurance level the real word.is development assurance level I just.call it dal for short dal is assigned to.the effort of mitigation of systematic.errors which could lead to failures.number five now assignments depend on.the failure condition classification the.number of independent failure paths and.their associated independence attributes.and the last question 47 61 provides.methods for safety assessments to show.compliance with certification.requirements 6 easy true/false questions.will provide the answers in 45 minutes.but if you pay attention you'll get the.answers during this one-hour training.video ok first of all I'd like to turn.it over to NASA will tell us why these.standards are mandatory nothing.yes thank you events we call it.mandatory because port arp supports.aircraft certification process by.showing compliance with 1309.requirements the guidelines in the RP.47:54 a were developed in the context of.large aeroplanes part 25 aircrafts but.it can be applicable for other parts.like 23 27 29 and 33 and 35 that means a.small aircrafts rotor Crouse engine and.propeller ARP 47 61 provides safety.analysis techniques to identify failure.condition there affects probabilities.and criticality levels we called in a.RPS Development assurance level for each.function hardware and software and ERP.47:54 a provides development assurance.for functions and systems only and sets.objectives based on those development.assurance levels next.slide please and FAA also issue in AC 20.- 174 it recognized is ARP 47:54 a as an.acceptable method for establishing a.development assurance process and also.FAA AC 1309 Arsenal version and ESI EMC.1309 recognized what ARP is as an.acceptable motive method for showing.compliance next slide and I am giving.the words two vents or four 750 for a.presentation thank you now let's talk.about 47 54 a just a minute.now sign summarize 61 now 47 50 for the.prior version was certification.considerations for highly integrated or.complex aircraft systems what a word.right highly integrated complex very.subjective that was the issue while.generally mandatory it really wasn't.enforced came out in 1996.right about the time aircraft complexity.is really dramatically increasing via.hardware software and the architecture.we needed a new document 4750 for a one.little letter the a version the next.version it was almost 14 years later it.came out 2010 but it was mandatory in.2011 look at the name guidelines for.development of civil aircraft and.systems however it's now being applied.to military other industries 47:54 a was.guidelines and so we need to consider.the overall aircraft operating.environment and functions by considering.continuously the system safety.assessment so it includes the validation.of requirements verification of the.design implementation and also process.assurance which remember is quality.assurance on steroids right we call it.process because it's more than just the.developmental QA it's all aspects of the.integrate.IRS audits and everything now let's.configure 47 54 54 a on the left 54 on.the right 54 a any questions just.kidding take a look here section 3 it's.about development planning we really.have to have plans remember one 78254.it's based on the fundamental five plans.well systems and aircraft are a little.different we have to show that we have.education considerations fully planned.and then we assess our implementation of.those look at section four it's not just.the avionics systems anymore it's the.aircraft how they integrate how they.interface with each other section 5 the.integral processes remember integral.processes correctness process its.verification validation configuration.management Quality Assurance or as we.call it process assurance and then the.appendices we have real objectives ok we.have a safety program plan we have F.Dowell and I Dow big words.nezam will explain those and then we.have the appendices so we'll go ahead.and talk about that and how we move.those and it's going to be really.important to see how the new version.just coming out here it's all done.should be released this year 47 61 a how.that has changed also but look at the.model of 47:54 a recognize this look at.the lower left we start with a concept.that flows to the aircraft so now our.aircraft air framers Boeing Airbus.Embraer Cessna Agusta Westland all over.the world Mitsubishi Commack we have to.consider.4750 for a incorporation from the.beginning at the concept and apply it to.the inner craft it's not simply flowed.down to the avionics producers then we.allocate the functions of the aircraft.to various systems rust hole landing.then we develop the corresponding system.architectures and aircraft architectures.we allocate system requirements to.specific items implement those items and.then.we have the documents sweet look at that.it's rather a progressive waterfall but.look at the top what comes first in.order to do that we have to have.planning that's the upper left but then.we have the integral processes remember.those it's the safety assessment.determining which gal which criticality.level applies and then requirements.validate those requirements.configuration management process.assurance and certification those are.continuous in the background that's the.ecosystem and it affects the hardware.and software as we'll see in a moment as.well all right here for safety critical.development we've got three key.processes this is identical throughout.the software 170 AC Hardware 254 NS ATM.ground-based systems do two seven eight.we have these three processes in red and.small on the left is planning planning.comes first then is the development.process development is not just.implementation it's safety its.requirements do we have the right.requirements that's validation its.implementation but then look in the.background the continuous safety.configuration management process.assurance validation verification.certification those are performed in the.background continuously why is that.Green great question I made it that way.because Green is the color of American.money all of our money in America is.green green means money the most.expensive part of systems development.really is the correctness process the.least expensive is the planning it's the.smallest but it's the most important if.we don't have good plans we cannot.assess to those plans okay so let's look.there are six basic steps of 47:54 eight.first prove that we have applicable.adherence to regulations and.certification guidelines so we have to.plan our aircraft and our systems.development lifecycle with detailed.plans we have to show how we're going to.have interfaces within that ecosystem.then and next we start these safety.activities we implement them we follow.47 61 and we'll be explaining those in.just a moment we have to define then.justify the criticality level the level.the criticality the design assurance.level the DAO the development assurance.level Wow six words they all mean the.same thing.Dow how critical is it then define the.system architecture and the requirements.will validate those remember.verification do I have an implementation.that meets the requirements validation.do I have the right correct complete.requirements they're equally important.but in our opinion validation is more.important it's fundamental in 47:54 if.we don't have the right requirements it.doesn't matter if we implemented them.right number five then perform.verification does implementation meet.those requirements and ensure we have.configuration management so we know who.made every aspect of the system and.safety processes for everything that's.flying can we rebuild it 30 years later.and finally implement process issuance.that's Quality Assurance on steroids.remember and prove the transition.criteria entry/exit before we progress.to the next stage within this process.have I met all the entry and exit.criteria that's a transition criteria.engineers follow the transition QA.assess it and records it so the planning.element let's talk about whose slides.here eight steps total number one.development planning what are the.process methods for establishing our.architecture either aircraft our system.subsystem or item how are we going to.develop an integrated how are we going.to implement it how will we show.compliance with 47:54 47 61 all of the.TSO s technical standard orders STC's.supplemental type certificate type.certificates all those aspects that.apply plus the ESA FAA CAC Transport.Canada whatever our certification.authority is and remember folks.military's adopting this as well so.militaries and.that so we have to define the safety.scope that's applicable to the aircraft.or system and we'll use 47 61 for that.you'll see in a moment we have to show.that we can manage the requirements.define how we acquire them how we manage.how we determine the safety requirements.then validate what are the methods I'm.going to use to ensure the requirements.and the assumptions are correct complete.feasible unambiguous then implement.that's often through one 78254 you can.look at our other training videos just.go to youtube if you want to watch those.and download those on one 78254 but.implement verify what are the processes.and criteria used to assess that the.implementation meets the requirements.number 6cm what are the process.activities that we'll use to manage the.whole development configuration items.safety software hardware throughout that.lifecycle including changes how will we.ensure that no unwarranted and how we.ensure that all anomalies were.investigated tracked and that we know.what the status is and their effect on.safety anything that has a potential.safety effect has to be considered.within the safety context safety.engineers documentation number seven.process assurance define the independent.activities that we use to ensure.development activities follow the.processes and plans and then finally.certification find how we will perform.the certification for our project be it.the aircraft avionics integrator the.system developer or the item developer.those are the eight basic steps that we.have to capture within our clients we.can put those all in one plan that would.be rather foolish but it's better to put.them in separate plans so that we can.properly allocate and manage the good.news folks once each of you has these.good plans in place you should have.portability for future projects you.should be able to use them with very few.changes on the subsequent project so do.it right the first time you won't have.to do it again the ecosystem looked like.this before I turn it over to NASA to.take a.47 61 let's consider we call this the.horse if you've been to our training.before it's a horse the upper left is a.head of the horse.that's the safety assessment that.follows 47 61 and eventually this year.the new 47 1 8 what are the functions of.our system.what's the architecture how much.redundancy how do I do switch over.voting how do I detect errors what are.my inputs and outputs then finally.what's my f now my functional.development assurance level nasal.explain once we define that we have the.system development process 47:54 or 80.79 in Europe that's the body of the.horse the muscle the organs we allocate.those system requirements including.safety allocate to software hardware.then we implement software 178 or.hardware 254 ETA T in Europe but look at.those feedback loops the red lines.that's part of the ecosystem that 47:54.and 47 61 mandate okay we have to prove.that we not just implemented them but.that we actually applied them on a.continuous basis with that I'd like to.now turn it over to NASA who will take.us through 47 61 and a-ok the RP 40 761.describes the guidelines and metals for.performing safety assessment and.analysis as we see it it's we use that.guidelines as showing compliance with.certification requirements 61 applicable.for all aircraft types small large.aircrafts rotary crafts UAVs military.aircrafts and also it can be applied for.engine and propeller so the current.version is initially published in 1996.but the a version will be issued will be.published in this year quarter tree.next slide please Vance.here is we compare the port current.version and draft for 761 a as you see.we will have more appendices in the.version a so the highlighted red ones.are new assessment and analysis.preliminary aircraft safety assessment.and aircraft safety assessment near.assessments and model-based safety.analysis cascading effect analysis are.the new analysis techniques and Ekta.lidar assignment details is a safety.process therefore detail information.about Dallas Simon will be moved from.47:54 847 61 as an appendix in the a.version so the rest of the other.appendices will be kept the same but.updated as needed next like this.ARP 47 61 applies to everyone from.aircraft manufacturer like Boeing Airbus.Bombardier tii or STC holders.system integrators like Honeywell.Rockwell Collins equipment suppliers a.wide range of avionics equipment.providers certification authorities FAA.aza Transport Canada and other CAS next.slide in 47 61 there are safety.assessment and safety analysis I called.safety assessment as system safety trio.aircraft level 3 or aircraft functional.hazard assessment preliminary aircraft.safety assessment aircraft safety.assessment and system level trio system.functional hazard assessment preliminary.system safety assessment and system.safety assessment other safety analysis.techniques in 61 supports those trios so.let's quick overview of each one.aircraft functional hazard assessment.assesses aircraft functions identify.aircraft function.failures and their effects then classify.the severity of each failure condition.preliminary aircraft safety assessment.which is new in version a analyze the.proposed aircraft architecture to.determine how failures identify in.aircraft the future could occur aircraft.safety assessment ASSA is new in version.II also it is the final assessment.collects analyzing documents.verification evidences for aircraft.implementation it shows that the failure.conditions identify in aircraft level.official have been addressed and safety.requirements established by pasa.preliminary aircraft safety assessment.are met.pammi Luke's system level trio system.functional hazard assessment examines.system functions to identify potential.system functional failures preliminary.system safety assessment PSSA examines.the proposed system architecture it even.lists the failure condition identified.by the system functional hazard.assessment and safety requirements.allocated from pasa from aircraft level.through the PSS a process safety.requirements for system subsystem.hardware and software items are.generated system safety assessment as.ASSA collects analyze and document.verification evidence for system.implementation to show that the safety.requirements established by PSSA are met.as you see those assessment are.functional oriented therefore function.development and functional architecture.is very important to perform effective.safety assessments so good system.engineering according to 47:54 a is.vital next slide please.there are no proper analysis in 47 61.for tree analysis dependence diagram and.markov analysis for tree analysis.supports pasta and psst.it nearly it's a proposed aircraft and.system architecture.to assign hardware failure probability.budget it also identifies functional.failure set in order to assign.Development Assurance levels during the.pasta and PSSA process it show.compliance with qualitative and.quantitative state to objective as part.of the SSA in near es a failure mode and.effect analysis is a bottom up and.others techniques it identifies failure.modes and failure effects it can be.developed at any level like function.system equipment or peers part FMEA may.be performed for any reason but in 47:54.appendices it addresses to support.safety assessment process cascading.effect analysis is a new analyst in.47:54 a it is a qualitative a bottom-up.analyst techniques it evaluates an.initiating conditions and its total.effect on the aircraft because of the.system dependencies and initiating.condition may propagate from impacted.systems to other connected systems like.resource system failure modes like.shared component failure modes model.base analysis also is a new technique in.version II and its part its performance.safety analysis using failure.propagation models it is a software.application generates outputs such as.failure sequence minimal cut set or.other results common causal analysis.establish physical and functional.separation isolation and independence.requirements between systems and items.and it verifies that these requirements.have been met next slide please.now development assurance what is.development assurance development.assurance is a process plant and.systematic actions that provides.adequate level of confidence that.I'm just emphasizing error in.requirements design and implementation.have been identified and corrected.understanding of error contribution to a.failure is important fingers can be.divided into two categories systematic.failures and non systematic failures.mitigation of non systematic failures.like random hardware failures is.performed by setting safety qualitative.and quantitative requirements but.systematic errors that leads to failure.are not associated with any physical.changes and will always occur when a.given set of conditions are satisfied.software failures are always systematic.specification errors requirement errors.designers component efficiencies all.those are systematic errors so for.simple systems error can be detected by.exhaustive testing but for complex and.integrated systems exhaustive testing.may be impossible or being practical.because of the number of tests and all.of the system states cannot be.determined for those tests for this type.of complex system compliance are shown.by the using development assurance.process identified in 47:54 n next slide.please.there are two types of development.assurance level in ERP 47:54 a based on.an idle dal sets level of rigor for.development assurance activities F dal.for function and system idle for.hardware and software traditionally.development assurance were performed at.component hardware and software level by.do one 78254 but for today's complex.system it was insufficient there for.additional development assurance process.for aircraft and system is defined in.ERP 47:54 a as after so 47:54 a.defines the process to apply it only for.F dot and 4760 one safety processes.identifies ethyl and either next slide.please.AR to 47:54 a defines two ways to assign.them one way is assignment without.considering the system architecture and.another way is assignment considering.architecture system architecture with.this option independence between system.and companies must be assessed next life.for a good understanding of F dull and.idle assignment we need to understand.definition of functional failure set.members and independence functional.failure set equivalent to poetry minimal.cut set minimal cut set as we know the.smallest combination of basic events if.they occur will cause the top event to.occur so the member of FSS can be an.aircraft system function or item that.may contain error causing its loss or.malfunction so independence is a concept.minimizes the left likelihood of the.common modes error between aircraft.system functions or items so Ephesus it.looks for error point of view compared.to poultry minimal cut sets next slide.please.in 47:54 aid there are two tables first.one explain how we assigned all without.architectural consideration according to.this table F doll is assigned to top.level function based on its most severe.top level failure condition.classifications identified in FHA so.classification using this table mayor's.in more conservative assessment if the.failure condition classification in air.aircraft or system FHA if it's.catastrophic we assigned all a for.hazardous B major C minor tall D no.safety affects takes the doll e next.life second al assignment table in 47:54.a consider the architecture once an.aircraft F doll is assigned to a.top-level failure top level function.based on the first table the.architecture of system functions is.examined to determine the development.insurance level of those system.functions if a catastrophic failure.condition could result from a.combination of possible development.error between two or more independently.developed aircraft system functions or.items so we can use option one or option.two so one members can get F delay and.the other one can get FLC or both the.members can get F Taulbee let's just.imagine we have a navigation and.communication system THAAD system.provides flight flight data so since.those two systems independent from each.other we can use either option one or.option two so we can assign the.navigation system F tell a communication.system F star C or both system can get F.dalbi or for primary flight display for.example in our design we have primary.flight to stay and stand by this day.since both displays are independent from.each other we can use this table option.one and option two primary flight is.they can get F delay and standby system.can be assigned F tau C or both system.can get F tau B we can use option one.and option two as long as showing the.members our independence members main.systems like navigation and.communication primaries they are standby.this place.next slide so it is the summary slide of.aircraft level top-down assessment so we.start with aircraft functionalist and.regulatory objectives and requirements.goes into aircraft FHA we evaluate.aircraft functions as an output of.aircraft FHA aircraft failure conditions.failure condition effects classification.and aircraft function criticality F does.without considering architecture so we.use table 1 and then those require was.caused in to pasa preliminary aircraft.system market the system safety.assessment so we evil eight proposed.aircraft architecture as an output of.pasa air trust function f Don's system.function f does safety requirements.probability budget independence.requirements generated next like and in.this slide we summarize the system level.top-down assessment so aircraft om.perform their FHA's and pasa so all the.requirements and system is goes into the.system for a wider system FHA's so.system fa change evil eight system.functions system failure conditions.effects and classifications is generated.as an output of system FHA's those.failure conditions and classifications.goes into PSS a PSS a related system.proposes the market texture so as an.output of PSS a system function f does.adults in this case we assign dolls for.hardware and software by preliminary.system safety assessment secretary.requirements probability budget for.components equipment items in.independence requirements generated by.preliminary system safety assessment.next light will be an example here is.very simple example for doll assignment.from an aircraft function list we take.control aircraft energy function so and.decompose this one.into sub function and we will take.provide deceleration on ground function.as an example in next slide we will.perform in traffic ID.considering this provide restoration on.ground function next please provide.declaration function is one of the.aircraft level function we assess all.the failure conditions total loss of.deceleration capability and inadvertent.deceleration leads to catastrophic so we.use table one since its classification.is catastrophic we assign those.functions of failure condition F delay.next light and these functions and.classifications goes into pasa.preliminary aircraft safety assessment.in this assessment we evaluate aircraft.proposed aircraft architecture in our.example provide declaration on ground.function through form by engine Traverse.system ground spoiler system and will.brake system now in the next slide we.will evaluate those system interaction.in poultry next please in poultry we.evil 8 and we generate a minimal cuts.that functional failure set as we see on.minimal cut set there are redundant.system those are redundant systems is.independent system so the failure of.truss reverse and speed break or failure.of trust errors and will breaks leads to.total loss of desperation capability.since we have two members in FSS we can.use table 2 option one and option two we.can assign one system level a the other.one they will see or both system can get.level B but before we finally assigned.all we have to assess all failure.condition and next slide we will see how.it changed the allocation of dull next.next please and here another failure.condition remember it was catastrophe.inadvertent declaration after we won.decision speed so in poetry is minimal.cut set it's we are seeing all of the.systems is leading to inadvertent.deceleration so single member FSS in.this case we cannot get created from.architecture we cannot use option.monitor we have to assign each system.level a truss reversed escalate spoiler.and tally and will break ethyl a so we.know the duration function is F the lake.will break systems is FL a and the next.light we will go more deeper in the PSS.a process so now we know the brake.system is efteling and we SS proposed.system architecture system has complex.PSC you control computer braking system.control unit computer which leads to.inadvertent braking which is.catastrophic the seu has to command and.to monitor channels independent from.each other this is the proposed.architecture right in this case we can.use table 2 option 1 or option 2 in our.example we take option 2 and assign.command on monitor software and hardware.ID I'll be so it's up to designer how.the proposed architecture goes into.preliminary system safety assessment.dull assignment it depends on the.architecture and how we just shape the.design so in the next light we will.summarize the assignment result so here.we know from aircraft FHA's destination.function its catastrophic and we assign.fla and then we know braking system.leads to catastrophic because of the.inner dirt and breaking we assign fla we.know breaking system control units is.the complex systems leading to.inadvertent desperation it's that so we.assign F delay so F del e should be.managed by 47:54 a we use 47:54 a.development processes to mitigate the.errors in those systems and for idle.command and monitor hardware and.the monitor software gets the idol be.and we should use for development.assurance process your one seven eight.and your 254 and next slide is presented.by Vance Thank You now's and that was a.great synopsis so folks you've had a.good dive into forty seven sixty one by.the way if you'd like more information.we have a very good white paper from now.signed and I that we can distribute to.you and also our training sessions you.can look those up.so let's look here at the development.assurance process objectives from 47:54.a a synopsis this is contained in.Appendix A the key here is if people can.die remember this is aviation like to.talk about dead people but that's what.happens when mistakes are made so if.people can die it's a level B minimum.develop an assurance level if the.airplane has a probability of crashing.then it's level okay so those are.serious level a and level B and the key.here is that for level a and B again if.there's a potential for crew or crew to.die level a passengers level B we need.all of these outputs the development.plan certification plan safety program.plan validating those requirements and.verifying those requirements.configuration management of all the.above and process assurance now the key.here it says recommended that's.interesting that's like your parents.recommending that you get sleep at night.if you don't there's a big problem.because really a good way to look at the.are and recommended is as required.doesn't say required because required is.a subjective term potentially with the.respective certification Authority so.instead we use the word recommended but.trust us in our experience we think that.the Serta thora T's require this 99% of.the time so a good and safe.interpretation is when you see the word.recommended it's really required now.even for FLC these should be recommended.should be done because remember today's.level C system could be tomorrow's level.B system if you're making the systems or.the items you really don't have much.control over how they're integrated and.used within the aircraft if we want to.reduce pilot workload increased.automation that level C system could.become level B or the level B could.become level a that's part of the safety.assessment process of 4760 one well now.considered safe assessment process.objectives again if people can die.they're recommend it but see that.asterisk that little orange asterisks in.the upper right behind recommended that.means we need independence there in.addition so independence is done when a.different person doesn't have to be a.different company different site even a.different group but a different person.using an independent process okay so a.different person other than the creator.or development developer of that item so.what we need is the aircraft FHA.functional hazard assessed at the.aircraft level that's going to come be.controlled by the airframe er Boeing.Airbus in Bruceton Westland then we need.that system FHA now that's a.collaborative effort with the integrator.possibly airframe er but absolutely the.avionics developers as well same with.the pasa preliminary aircraft safety.assessment that's the airframe ER but.look at the PSS a pulmonary system.safety assessment that is where the.avionics developers come in and find the.mid-level architecture backup health.monitoring safety requirements they feed.those back into the pasta and the.integrator and that's a real key with.61a think of a meaning aircraft.it's a aircraft level integration of the.ecosystem so it's that cooperation.between the aircraft people the.integrators and these system item.developers then the system safety assess.aircraft safety assessment then the.particular risk assessed.common mode analysis zonal safety.analysis so particular risks lightning.birdstrikes common mode.do I have one failure that causes a.finally of my redundancy for example.putting a primary and a backup.controller in the same conduit the same.tube a single point failure would cause.loss of both primary and backup so that.would be a common mode analysis that we.have to look at then zonal say think of.space if I have my coffee pot right.above my flight bay.avionics Bay and my coffee machine leaks.water.well the avionics didn't cause the crash.but the water did the coffee pot you see.so the zonal safety aspects installation.maintenance all of those things well now.validation of requirements this is key.remember are the requirements correct.complete feasible unambiguous so I need.to prove that I have criteria I need.checklists.I need processes I need to have again.recommended in with independence of.validation results now by validated the.aircraft.I didn't requirements right correct do I.have validation result i defied and.validated then what about derived.requirements now remember derived is a.funny word even for native English.speakers like Americans typically derive.means to come from and it does but.typically derived requirements don't.necessarily come from a parent.requirement they do not they come from a.consideration by a developer or a safety.engineer to add an architectural.consideration system consideration.software hardware consideration that may.not be directly related to functionality.therefore it's not necessarily.decomposed or derived in the official.sense from a parent requirement it's.derived from that safety engineer or.that Hardware software system engineers.desire to force a certain implementation.that's a derived requirement.requirements they can't be reviewed in.the same way as functional requirements.in the context of a parent it's really.important to consider are there any.safety affects so derived requirements.have to be proven to have been.considered by the safety individual.proof guilty until proven innocent if.you can't prove you did it you didn't do.it then validation results are those.requirements traceable to all those.things finally the validation summary.and validation metrics just showing that.you have the paperwork in place that.you've really done the compliance.substantiation and again the results.need to be independently a different.person than the person creating that.work now verification again verification.does implementation meet requirements.remember validation and do I have the.right correct complete requirements but.verification have I met the requirements.I need verification procedures tests.demonstration procedures I have to show.that they're correct again a criteria a.standard that I'm assessing against and.a checklist aviación everything has a.checklist pilots all know that they.can't take off without a checklist.flight crew deeds checklist we as.engineers need them as well do I need.verification procedures the results oh.that the confidence of that function is.there and I have no unintended.functionality and no impacts to safety.then procedures or results simply show.that my implementation complies with.aircraft and system requirements then.procedures I've considered the safety.requirements and again independence with.that for level aid level B then a.verification summary matrix just like.validation showing where I've.substantiated to my verification and.then finally problem reports summary do.I have any open issues did I have any.changes were there any anomalies.potential or real what was their impact.on safety remember it's very easy for us.original developers to do this it's very.difficult for the next team who comes.one year 29 years later and makes.changes and needs to invest.so we need to leave good bread crumbs a.good trail that trail is the checklist.procedures plan proof proof that we did.it so think of the people who follow you.after you retire so we're almost done.just a couple more minutes then we'll.take questions common safety process.mistakes here they are number one the.company doesn't provide adequate support.for safety assessment or development.assurance activities okay in the old.days this was less formal frankly here.we have to show that we have a process a.plan for achieving compliance or.equivalence 247 61 a and 47:54 8 the.safety process number two need to be.incorporated for the system development.process so we can't add safety in later.think of building a house a building we.can't improve the foundation not.realistically after the foundation is.built I need to know what kind of.foundation I have do I have earthquakes.tornadoes how many floors will the.building have I cannot add safety and.later it has to be done before and.during the development a V onyx is more.complex than building houses and.buildings so we absolutely need the.efforts safety and avionics late.identification number three of failure.conditions again we need to identify.them early and build in architecture.health attention we're monitoring voting.TMR triple modular done so whatever.we're doing early finally in appropriate.analysis methods related to that how can.I show that I was really considered not.just the obvious errors but potential.single point failures or likely.potential combinations of failures next.one number five insufficient control of.vendor safety process I cannot simply.point the finger at my vendors and say.they're handling safety again 61a is.about the aircraft the ecosystem.everybody working together and showing.that they have so when I have vendors.and many of us do they have to have.equivalent processes or they use our.processes meaning yours ours and.achieve compliance so there's no weak.links.we're building a chain here the chain is.only as strong as the weakest link so 61.and 54 have to show that all those.vendors as well are considered and they.don't provide the weak link and then.finally the last item number six.insufficient or lacking independent.validation and verification of the.safety assessments so many times safety.assessments are done by senior very.knowledgeable engineers safety engineers.and frankly we see now that they're not.being properly checked so that safety.assessment is fundamental there has to.be proof of a thorough review someone.who understands the safety process 61 in.54 and actually validates him then.verifies that safety assessment so hoped.congratulations.those are the key mistakes there's a few.more but we've run out of time we wanted.to present the main top six for you here.that was it well folks you made it here.we are slide 43 answers to the quiz.how'd you do number 147 54 a and 47 61.are generally optional for aircraft &.systems true in the past that is false.today number 254 a applies directly to.avionics software and hardware not.really okay.software is 178 hardware to 5 for 54 a.comes first and then after it's an eco.system continuous feedback so yes it.indirectly applies because we allocate.down architecture but you know 50 for a.is at the aircraft and system level.number 350 for a process assurance.member that's quality assurance on.steroids vitamins 54 a process assurance.perform system testing and also.manufacturing and maintenance.inspections folks that might be true at.Microsoft Intel Apple Computer but it's.not true in aviation in aviation quality.assurance process assurance is about.ensuring that the plans the standards.the checklists are all in place.and meet compliance to the applicable.regulations and guidelines.number two processes surance QA logged.auditing assessing are the engineers.following those plans can we prove it.number three have we kept records.okay checklists audit results and then.for process assurance it's two more.things that Quality Assurance doesn't do.it's the manufacturability can i.reproduce that same equipment or.equivalent in the future and then.supplier audits as well that's process.if you're both five things number five.all assignments depend on failure.condition classification number of.independent failure paths and their.associated independence attributes that.is true member 647 61 provides methods.for assessments with certification.requirements absolutely that is true.okay folks you've got a good number of.questions coming in now that we I don't.think we're gonna have time for all.these there's lots of good ones let's go.ahead and start here shall we.number one my colleagues could not login.what happened okay several of you put.that down.we were oversubscribed folks we got that.email message I've send a couple of them.out yesterday saying this was far more.popular than we ever anticipated and.we're gonna send everyone a recording.link hopefully the recording work Azen.has time might repeat this in the near.future to allow all those folks to.participate live who weren't able and.again we're appalled sorry for them.let's see X question Alan why don't you.take this one this question do we need.to submit all safety assessment.documents to the serta thority for.compliance right okay well yes all.safety documents should be available for.authority review and authority is once.you track your progress and concur on.your decision lie.failure condition classification Dallas.I'm an assumption that you made.segregation isolation requirements you.to see you take decision during the.development of the process this is for.tracking purpose but for compliance.finding aircraft safety assessment for.aircraft level ASSA and a system safety.assessment for system level with.supporting data are sufficient for.compliance showing or submit as a.compliance document for certification oh.very good thank you no sir the next.question now I'll go ahead and take this.one what are common ARP 47:54 a gaps and.what recommendations do you have for.closing them that's a big question I.would say the top gaps when we do gap.analysis and we've done.oh gosh over 110 for different companies.the number one gap is in process.assurance not having a strong enough PA.or QA team that really knows the.guidelines standards and ensures the.plans are complete and correct with.entry exit criteria the next one is well.plans are too vague we call driving a.bus it's not deterministic this.objective the third gap is probably.safety requirements not enough detail.not enough consideration they're added.after the fact or there's no proof that.they were common is checklist we need.checklists and we need to have detailed.checklist to prove that we met the.compliance so we need detail checklist.for all the activities you do remember.safety since all the software activities.other activities implementation CM QA.everything needs a checklist last one.probably Oh performance testing at the.system level okay we really need to have.better performance requirements work.requirements think leave it up since air.processing max bandwidth timing resource.you those requirements are quite often.weak and therefore.the tester week or subjective some.companies do it well by tribal knowledge.most don't okay and just validating.those requirements okay sir the common.gaps next question oh now I want you to.take this this this will be our last.question folks we're right at one minute.left question our Dow levels related to.probability of failures it is a common.confusion always asked there is no.correlation between palace aemond and.probability or failure rates we assigned.all according to failure classification.not probability don't get confused with.1309 probably two objectives like 10 to.minus 9 should get level a 10 to minus 7.should get level B there is no.correlation between probability and our.level a system may be assigned delay but.probability budget may be 10 to minus 6.so the answer is no no correlation.between those but the last words I want.to say we need to meet both Tull.objectives in the level and the.probability of Jacobs.assign a Gordian key 1309 requirements.so both should be met during the.certification process was one important.question it looks like about 5 people.asked some form of it so I'll take the.last one can you please clarify the.difference again between verification.and validation thank you thank you this.is so common so easy and so incorrectly.applied so often the joke is what did.you do today o V and V well which did.you do V or V yes I did V and V no.verification of validation oh I don't.know the difference so I just call it V.and V isn't that what everybody says.it's really simple folks verification.does implementation meet requirements.validation do I have the correct.complete feasible requirements are.requirements correct validation which is.most important faa es they're equally.important and truly they are they're.both critical links on the chain our.opinion validation is more important if.we don't have great requirements it.doesn't matter that we verified them so.validation do I have great requirements.what is great meets the compliance.correct complete unambiguous and.feasible okay.so folks you did it one hour of 47:54.a61 there's a lot more detail we could.have gone into we do this at our public.and private trainings you can look us up.we'll be in many different countries.next few months as usual and come to one.of our public training sessions or tune.in two weeks from now for our aviation.security training ok one-hour webinar.thank you again nothing it's really a.pleasure working with you.I look forward to our next client.engagement together and take care hey.everyone thank you good night good.morning good afternoon everyone.bye-bye bye.

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Delhi Polytechnic (CET DELHI) entrance examination form has been published. You can visit Welcome to CET Delhi and fill the online form. For more details you can call @ 7042426818

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