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In .the last 2 lectures we have been talking about.basic inventory models and in today's lecture.we are going to be talking about another kind.of inventory, which is known as material requirements.planning..MRP, as it is often abbreviated as..Now when we talk about MRP, we must know what.exactly MRP does and I think the important.thing to realize is that MRP is valid for.those situations where you have, let us say.an assembly of parts and components and we.are talking about the master schedule of the.end item..For instance what it might mean is that suppose.the schedule of cars that you want to produce.is known and then you got to plan out when.to make the various sub assemblies, how to.assemble the various raw materials and so.on..So from the given master schedule for end.items we are basically trying to determine.the detailed schedule for the raw materials.and the components used in the end products..So that is the primary purpose of MRP that.is starting from a master production schedule.of the end item and since there are a very.large number of end items in very large number.of raw materials and components involved in.the end item, for instance a typical car might.have something like 8-10,000 components..So we have to actually plan for the procurement.and production of all those components and.depending upon the master schedule we find.out when to have, when to procure, when to.make the raw materials and the components.which are used in the end product..I think the point to be noted here is that.a typical MRP system, the demands that you.are dealing with for the raw materials and.the components that we call are dependent.demands or lumpy demands rather than independent.demands..That is the crucial difference between MRP.and conventional inventory control..So when you try to make this distinction between.independent and dependant demand systems,.basically independent demand systems are those.systems where the demand is unrelated to demand.of other products such as end products or.spare parts etc..These are demands which are totally unrelated.to the demand of the other products..These independent demands can usually be determined.by a forecast and conventional inventory control.using EOQ or Wagner within models is generally.applicable in these situations..So when we talk about independent demand normally.EOQ deals with independent demand items..That means you are assuming that the demand.for that particular item actually is determined.by environmental factors and is not influenced.by anything else..So you may then tend to use this particular.demand for purposes of finding out either.the forecast or what should be the lot size.involved in such systems, but mind you this.will not be the situation when you are dealing.with raw materials and the components involved.in a dependent demand system..So when you are dealing with dependent demands,.the demand is directly related to the demand.of some other product such as components raw.materials or subassemblies and the requirements.are derived from the delivery schedule of.the end items and MRP is the appropriate tool.for planning and control of manufacture inventories.such as raw materials work in progress component.parts and subassemblies in that sense..To give you an example, take the example of.the car..The car manufacturer has a large number of.components and raw materials needed..What you can say is that the demand for the.car follows an impendent demand but when you.are talking about the demand for tires, each.car has produced five tires including the.stepney and therefore if you have to produce.20 cars in a particular month, the demand.for car tires during that month will be in.which you are assembling the car tires is.100..So this is what we mean by demand..The demand for car tires is actually dependent.upon the production of cars in that sense.of the term..So MRP systems are actually applicable in.those situations where we are dealing with.dependent demands and not independent demands..That is the point we have, given the independent.demands of cars that we need and we are trying.to find out how many tires, how many steering.wheels and how many other components we would.be requiring during the entire period of production..Another very important feature of the dependent.demand is the fact that the demand is lumpy.unlike continuous demand..For instance if you take the economic order.quantity or the economic lot size formula,.what happens there is we assume that the demand.is falling at a constant rate..The actual demand might not be falling at.a constant rate but the withdrawals might.be few, so that actually the variation of.the inventory level could be a stair case.function of this kind which you are actually.approximating by an average rate of demand..So this is the kind of thing which we assume.when the demand is continuous..However when you have lumpy demand, lumpy.demand would mean that suddenly there would.be a withdrawal..For instance in this particular period you.are withdrawing suddenly and it may be 100.tires..So the demand inventory, the inventory for.tire suddenly falls from this point to this.point and then there is no further withdrawal.and then there is a withdrawal of a few items.and then this is constant for some time and.so on..So basically features of typical lumpy demands.are which are typical of MRP applications.that all these raw materials component subassemblies.which are consumed in large increments correspond.to a certain batch of the final product..So this is a withdrawal which takes place.during this period..There is a demand for so many units of this.particular product..So this demand shows this kind of large increment.and which is showing for instance a sudden.withdrawal and then non change and then a.small withdrawal and then no change and so.on..This kind of situation is what we call a lumpy.demand..So in a nutshell we can say that typical demands.in a MRP situation for the components and.the raw materials are lumpy demands..I think the other aspect that you need to.consider in a MRP setting is the typical definition.of lead times and normally we are concerned.with two kinds of lead times..We are talking about an ordering lead time.for purchased items or parts and we are talking.about a manufacturing lead time for those.items which are actually manufactured within.the company..For instance in this case all you have to.do is, you have to do the initiation of the.purchase requisition at this point of time.and ultimately you get the receipt of the.item from the vendor either off shelf or he.fabricates it at this particular point of.time..So this interval between the initiation of.the purchased requisition and the receipt.of the item from the vendor is actually called.the ordering mean time..Similarly when you are talking about a manufacturing.situation you place an order at this point.of time, internally for manufacturing something.and then you process the part through sequence.of machines as given on route sheet operation.plus non productive times and the item is.actually given to you here..So this difference then is actually the manufacturing.detail..In MRP we require lead times because they.are used to determine the starting dates for.assembling final products and sub assemblies.for producing component parts and for ordering.raw materials because anything that you procure.or produce has a time requirement or a lead.time..So it could either be an ordering lead time.for those items which are procured or it could.be a manufacturing lead time for those items.which are manufactured and this is a typical.input to the MRP system..So if you look at a MRP system, the major.inputs to a MRP system are these three..Number one, the master production schedule.and other order data for the end item, because.to run a MRP you must specify how many cars.or how many units of the final product you.would like to have in different periods..So this is that master production schedule..For this, based on this information and also.based on what we call the bill of materials.file the bill of materials file actually specifies.the product structure..How many components?.How many subassemblies are required to make.the final product and how are they related.to each other?.This is actually the information which is.available in the bom file, the bill of materials.file and the third major input to the MRP.system is the inventory record file..That means you must know the stock of different.items/components raw materials that you already.have, so that when you are making purchases,.you account for the materials that you already.have..That is the basic idea..So these are the three major inputs that we.have for the MRP system in this particular.framework..Now what may happen is we may have what are.known as common use items and these are the.ones which tend to complicate the process.of computation of the requirements of different.types of products..For instance we might be producing say n different.products P1 P2 P3 and Pn..These different products might be requiring.different types of components..For instance what is shown here is that P1.requires component C1..It requires C2 and it also requires c3 whereas.P2 requires only C1 and C2 and so on..It is like trying to say that if I am making.Maruti 800, zen and other models of the car.some of the components could be common to.various brands, others could be different,.That is what is shown here..A particular raw material for instance, if.they are all made of stainless steel, this.particular component, basic raw material could.be common may be to all these various components..Now this kind of information is basic information.when you are dealing with MRP because MRP.collects the common use items from different.products to effect economies in ordering the.raw materials and manufacturing the components.and the subassemblies..What do we say here?.For instance, if you are trying to place an.order for the component C3, the component.C3 is required in the product P1..It is also required in the product P3 and.it is also required in the product pn..So depending upon your requirements for these.three products you will have contributions.to the product P3from all these particular.requirements so that when you are either placing.an order for purchase or manufacture of this.component all this will be in fact shown in.this particular scheme of things..First let us try to get an overall idea of.what a MRP system would look like because.the number of components could run into thousands.is generally a computerized system and therefore.a typical MRP system will have this kind of.a structure..What it requires is information on the master.production schedule..The master production schedule is generated.from two sources..One is the customer orders which have already.been placed and then on the sales forecasts.that you have made..So sales forecast and the customer orders.when aggregated together will give you the.master production schedule which will tell.me the requirement of this particular product.in the month of January, in the month of February,.in the month of March and so on..So this is a master production schedule which.is derived from basically these two bits of.information..Then what we have is we have a basic bill.of materials file..The bill of materials file is kept update.with any engineering changes..If you change the design of the product for.instance that particular change in the design.is captured here and therefore it would be.available in the bill of materials file..For instance if you are deciding to either.omit a particular component, then this would.be shown in the engineering changes and the.bill of materials file will reflect this particular.change..So this bill of materials file is the second.major input to the MRP processor and of course.the third thing that we have is the basic.inventory transactions..Inventory transactions would mean that this.is like an accounting system..It is like your bank account..You take out so much money, you put in so.much money and therefore this is available.to you at the end of this account..So similarly inventory transactions shows.that as far as a particular raw material is.concerned you have so much in hand and then.you issue 50 tires and then you probably buy.20 more tires..So what is the status of the inventory of.that item for each of the thousand of items.that you have?.Inventory transactions will tell you the basic.status of the inventory of different types.of items..This information is normally available in.what is called an inventory record file..These are transactions..A transaction is very much like the transaction.that takes place in each of your entry in.your passbook and the account is transaction..You withdraw money, you deposit money..These are transactions but on the basis of.that you develop an inventory record file.which is like your passbook, something like.that and then of course you have service parts.requirements..Now these service parts requirements are the.requirements of parts which are in addition.to .the normal requirements that you have for.the product..For instance if you sell 50 cars, then may.from experience, you know that you will have.to sell some additional silencers and so on.which would be sort of replacements which.are different..So for each item you will have some such requirement..So these are those and ultimately these can.be combined with the master production schedule.because they define the requirements in that.sense of the term..So these are the three major inputs to the.MRP system and what does the MRP processor.do?.It gives you typically reports output reports.and the most commonly used reports are these.four..This is the most commonly used report..It is called the gross and net requirements.report, that means it tells you what the gross.requirements of different jobs are and what.are the net requirements of different jobs?.Capacity versus load report which means it.tells you that the capacity that you have.and how much are you loading it in individual.periods..Shop floor planning report is more detailed.and it tells you exactly how various equipments.and the machines in the shop floor are going.to be loaded over the next one week, two weeks,.three weeks and finally the production order.status and exceptions report which will tell.you that as the processing keeps going, you.are within the are you conforming to your.requirements or are making any departures.from the schedule..So this kind of information is also available.here..So this is broadly the structure of an MRP.system in that sense, now we will take up.an example to see how exactly a MRP system.would operate with a limited number of items.so that you understand the logic of how the.computations actually are performed..What we are trying to say is what does a master.production schedule look like which is one.of the basic inputs to the MRP system..A master production schedule will be a document.like this which will probably say that in.week number 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 product P1 you.need 50 of them in the eighth week and you.need hundred of them in the tenth week..Similarly in this product you require 70,.80 and 25 in the seventh, eighth and ninth.week..So like this for each product this is the.end product..This is like the final product..This is like the car, how many Maruti 800s.and how many Zens etc do I need in different.periods?.So this information is called the master production.schedule and this is the basic driver of the.MRP system..You can see what is the information that you.get in the master production schedule?.You get what end products are to be produced;.it tells you product P1and p2 are to be produced,.then how many of each product is to be produced..This tells you when the products are to be.ready for shipment..So it basically specifies all these three.things when you are talking about a master.production schedule..When you talk about the demand, often demand.will have, let us say these three components..It will have the firm's customer orders which.are a part of the demand..Forecasted demand will be based on your forecasting.system..So you have this as the demand..The third thing that you typically have is.demand for individual component parts for.repair and service..Normally this component of demand is excluded.from the master production schedule..So the master production schedule generally.talks about only these two..This could also be included and there is no.problem but typically when you are talking.about a master production schedule you have.only these things..So there is this particular thing demand for.individual components and parts are often.excluded from the master production schedule.since it does not include end product demand..That is the reason because this is like a.demand for only wipers or demand for only.additional silencers or demand for only windscreens.broken, windscreens which you are replacing..Now this is generally excluded because it.does not emanate from the end product..It is an additional thing..Now we have seen what the master production.schedule looks like..Let us see what is bom file a..What is a bill of materials file?.A bill of materials file will typically be.a hierarchical structure of this nature..At the level zero you have the product which.is the final product P1..This product is composed of two subassemblies.S1 and S2 and there are numbers here which.indicate that for each product I have one.subassembly s one and two subassemblies S2which.are needed to make the final product which.means you can imagine that if this was a cycle.the bicycle then you would have two wheels.subassemblies to produce the bicycle and may.be one frame which is required for making.the bicycle..So 1 and 2 here refer to the number of parts.of that type going to make one unit of that.particular product..Then of course we have at the level of the.raw materials, we again have subassembly S1.is composed of C1, C2 and C3 and the numbers.here show that one unit of component one,.four units of component two and one unit of.component three..They are all required to make one unit of.subassembly one..See that is the notation..Similarly, here when we say two units of component.four, two units of component five and six.units of component one, these are required.to make one subassembly S2..So since we need two, we will have to double.this particular value here, that is the notation,.then of course the subassembly s one which.is shown here is said to be the parent of.components C1, C2, and C3..So this is the parent and these are the three.components and any engineering changes affecting.the product structure must be fed to the bom.file..That means if you are changing the design.what does it mean?.You are either eliminating this component.or making a different component..So these changes in the design will have to.be reflected in the bom file that you have.with you..So we have looked at the master production.schedule which is of the end items..We have seen the bom file which is nothing.but the product structure..How is the product composed?.In fact if you would recall your lessons from.graphic science when you do an assembly drawing,.you develop a bill of materials with that.drawing..What is that bill of material?.That is exactly this..It tells you how many components of each kind.will go into the final assembly..So that is the information and how will they.go into this?.Then the third major thing which we need to.understand is the inventory record file because.these define the three major inputs to a MRP.system..An inventory record file is important in the.sense that it should give you an accurate.current data on inventory status..It should not have lags..If you want to find out how much money you.have in the bank today, if your copy is not.updated for the last six months you will not.be able to find this out..So what you need is an accurate current data.on inventory status..Each inventory transaction is reflected and.then you can find out how much would be this.quantum of inventory of different products.you have..This is generally computerized in the form.of an item master file and in this when we.are talking about the inventory status, lead.times must be established in the inventory.record file..We talk about both the ordering lead times.and the manufacturing lead time..So this comes from the purchasing records.and this comes from the process route sheets.of the manufacturing that you are doing within.the factory..So you should have this information on lead.times corresponding to each item in the inventory.because when you are placing orders you must.know how much time it is going to take..Then of course the inventory transactions.which mean the issue of material, the arrival.of material, the order placement, and the.realization must be kept current..So these are the basic requirements of the.inventory record file..So now that we have a fair idea of the three.major inputs which are required for a MRP.system, we would like to work an example to.see how this information can be utilized for.solving this particular case..So we will take this example which haS2end.products P1 and P2 and this is the bom structure.for one and two..That means each product P1is composed of subassembly.one and subassembly S2..So two of this and one of this make the product.and similarly the sub assembly one requires.the component C1, C2 and C3 and similarly.the subassembly S2 requires the component.C4, C5 and C6 and in these quantities which.are shown here, we can go down one level..We have the product level, the subassembly.level, the component level and then you might.go for the material level which is the purchased.material..For instance we are showing it only for this.particular part, for C4 we have M4..So actually wherever C4 occurs, it occurs.here also..So in this particular application as well.as here you are going to use this raw material.M4.So this is the basically the product structure.for products one and two, the bom file..This is the master production schedule..The master production schedule states that.product one and product two, we require 50.in the eighth week and 100 in the tenth week.and for P2 it is 70, 80 and 25 in week 7,.8, and 9 respectively..So this is nothing but the master production.schedule which is the second input required.for this product..The third major input that we have to give.is the initial inventory status..Suppose we are talking about various kinds.of items, we are giving the initial inventory.status for only M4 which is the item at the.bottom of this particular bom..So you would have information like the schedule.receipts are we are expecting forty units.of this item at the end in the third week..On the other hand we have fifty items..So once we have fifty items and forty, we.are going to be received in the third week..Our stock level on hand will be ninety in.the third week because, fifty plus forty..This kind of information is available to you.and so this is like what is the inventory.that we are likely to have item M4 in the.beginning and then we would require information.on lead times because we require inventory.status and lead time status and both of them.together..For instance what happens is P1is the final.product?.This has to be assembled from S1and S2..So P1assembly takes one week, P2 assembly.takes one week..S2 assembly of C4, C5 and C6 takes one week.and similarly S3 that is the third assembly.takes one week..Then as far as item number C4is concerned.which is required here at two places, has.to be manufactured and it requireS2weeks to.manufacture this item..The ordering of M4which is the item at the.end requireS3 weeks because an outside vendor.takeS3 weeks to supply this item..So this actually encapsulates the information.pertaining to the product structure, the master.production schedule and the inventory status.for all the items..So this is the input..We have now developed the input for our example..Let us see how exactly we would develop the.detailed requirements for the various parts..In fact the underlying logic of the MRP system.is very sort of summarily described in this.particular flow chart..What it shows is that you input the MPS, the.master production schedule, the bom file,.the inventory status and the lead times..So we have got all that information..Then you do what is called parts explosion..We will explain this when we come to the example.and after the explosion you have to offset.the requirements by lead times..So there is explosion..There is offsetting..Then there is netting..Netting means my gross requirements are hundred.but I already have 20..So I need how many, 100 ¬-- 20 = 80..This is called netting..What is my net requirement?.It is as simple as that and then finally you.may do lot sizing of the net requirements.for procurement or production..These are the basic steps which are involved.when you have to do the MRP logic, if you.apply it in this particular situation..So you would begin this information from the.end products..Product one and product two, we make a table.like this in which we show the gross requirements..The schedule receipts, the on hand inventory,.the net requirements and the planned order.releases for each item..So as far as P1is concerned, P1has a master.production schedule where the requirement.is 50 in the eighth week and 100 in the tenth.week..That is about all and nothing is available.on hand..So our net requirements are 50 and 100..What we will have to do is for product one.you will have to because the time required.for a assembly the lead time is one week..Therefore you have to plan for order releases,.one week prior to this..That means in this period 50 and 100 here,.which means that we have here, this is 50.and 100here..So what does this mean?.This means we have said that our order release.for these items, if we require them in the.eighth and tenth period respectively must.be initiated in the seventh and the ninth.period and these are the quantities which.we have directly..That is all..Similarly for product two, our requirements.are 70, 80 and 25 in the seventh, eighth and.the ninth week..Nothing is available on hand, so it directly.translates into the net requirement and again.the lead time required for assembly of part.P2 is one week..So you offset and hence this is called offsetting..That means this 70, 80 and 25 is offset by.one week..The lead time been two weeks then you would.have had to offset it by two weeks..So this process is called offsetting..You have this list here and then you say in.order to meet this requirement you must plan.your order releases well in time..So you place an order at this time, this time,.and this time, only then you will get it here..So it is like working backwards..So we have done this for requirements of product.P1and P2..Now we can look for the assembly, subassembly.S2 and subassembly S3..See what you can see is if you look at the.bom, the subassembly S2 and the subassembly.S3 is here..We will demonstrate these computations for.the lowest level of only M4 which means we.will have to calculate S2, S3 and the various.components here to be able to arrive at the.value for M4..So that is why we are illustrating how you.will compute the .requirements for subassemblies S2 and S3..How will you find out the requirements for.subassemblies S2 and S3?.Let me explain to you..This is S2..We have already determined our requirements.for part one and two units of subassembly.are needed in each unit of part one..So what we will do is we will find out the.requirements of part one which we have already.found out and just multiply it by two..This is called parts explosion..What we are doing is actually called parts.explosion..So what happens is that you have subassembly.S2 and as far as the subassembly S2 is concerned.the product P1which is the one that you have.just computed in the seventh and the ninth.period, 50 and 100 is the requirement..So what you will do is double this requirement.for the subassembly S2..So this will become 100 and 200..So that is exactly what has been done here..So the requirement for the subassembly S2.is 100 and 200..Nothing is available on stock, so this is.100 and 200and this it has a lead time of.one, so we offset it..So the moment we determine the requirements.of a particular subassembly by multiplying.the requirements of the previous parent product.that process is known as explosion..You are actually exploding the requirements.of the previous product and then finding out.these values..Similarly the subassembly S3 has these requirements..Now for subassembly S3you require only one.unit of the subassembly S3 for each product..So these are the requirements of the parts.P2which come as it is..Then you can determine the net requirements.and then you can offset it by one week, so.the planned order releases for the subassembly.S3 will be 70, 80 and 25 in the period five.six and seven respectively..So what we have seen is that from the original.requirements of products P1and P2 we have.been actually able to determine the requirements.at a lower level which is the subassembly.level and the two subassemblies S2 and S3.we have actually been able to determine from.here..Now then our basic idea is .that once we have determined the requirements.for S2 and S3, we would actually like to find.out the requirements for C4 which is this.component, which is common to two different.products and at the same time we would then.want to determine the material M4 which will.be occurring here as well as here..So when you are talking about the component.C4 the component C4 actually indicates the.concept of explosion in a much more dramatic.form..When we are trying to determine the requirements.for C4what do you see?.2 units of C4 are needed in each assembly.S2..So we take the requirements for assembly S2.and multiply this with two across the periods.and we will get the requirement for C4 from.here but this C4 that you are talking about.here, just one unit of C4 is needed in one.assembly..So what we will do is we will have to multiply.by two the requirements of S2 and to get this.particular value and then simply add this.requirement of S3 just once..This is what will have to be done..So that is precisely what is being done here..What you find is that when you take the subassembly.S3 for instance, take the subassembly S2 and.S3..Let us put it this way..Basis is the subassembly S2..The requirements for subassembly S2 are 100.and 200 directly and when you are trying to.work out for C4 you will have to multiply.this by two..So when you multiply this by two you would.get 200 and 400 here and then to these values.you should add the requirements for the subassembly.S3 which is a simple requirement of 70, 80.and 25..So 70, 80 and 25 added to the original values.of 200 and 400 will lead to 700, 280, 25 and.400..So I hope this process is clear..This is a typical process of explosion..We are finding out the requirements of C4.from the requirements of one particular subassembly.and another subassembly where this particular.item is used..So you would get requirements like this and.then the net requirements are the same and.this has a lead time..The component C4 has a lead time of two weeks..So we offset by two weeks..70, 280, 25, 400, once we have determined.the requirements of the component C4 we can.actually utilize this information to compute.the requirements for the raw material M4..I am coming down to the lowest level now..So what we are simply saying is that as far.as C4 is concerned this is fine and this is.now how C4and M4 are placed..Each unit of M4 is required in a unit of C4.and here of course what is really required.is that you have each unit of M4 will be required.in a unit of C4..So what we can do is the total requirement.for item number M4 will be whatever has been.computed already for component C4..So it is 72, 80, 25, and 40 and then the schedule.receipts for this component are 40..We had seen that we were expecting a consignment.of M4 in the third week..This information was known..So you have this here and on hand for this.item is fifty..So that means you will get ninety here and.when you get ninety here what it means is.that you can take care of this demand of 70.in this particular period and 20 will be carried.over to the next period and when you carry.this over your net requirements now will be.-- 20..-- 20 indicate that you do not require anything.because your net requirements are 70 and you.have actually 90 available..So this is -- 20 and then 280, you have 20.available..So 260 and this is called netting..We shall now consider net requirements and.then the planned order release..This is an excess by 20..So you take it by 3 weeks because the ordering.time for M4 is 3 weeks..So we offset this..So we have 260, 25, 400 and of course this.period..It would have to take into consideration because.this is in excess..So this gives us the planned order releases.for item number M4..Something similar can be done for each component..Each subassembly and each part and the information.therefore that you are getting is for each.component or each raw material..We are finding out how much of each of these.components are required in different periods,.different weeks..Similarly here, so I think that essentially.gives you a summary of how the computations.are to proceed in terms of the various products.that we have at our disposal..Now let us try to look at the various kinds.of output reports which are typically being.produced by any MRP system..The primary outputs for any MRP system are.actually summarized here and the first required,.first bit of information that you get from.this system is you get order release notice.to place orders that have been planned by.the MRP system..That is the first thing it tells you..In fact it tells you how many items are required.in each period..So the moment the lead times for those items.have been encountered, you can automatically.initiate a purchase order for each of these.items and purchase an item for each of those.items and especially in a situation where.you have tens of thousands of items..That means automatically the computed would.place an item, place an order for each of.these items, whenever this is required as.per the MRP schedule which is determined because.this is the information that you get..You recall and that is what we mean..We ultimately get planned order releases which.means for this component you need to place.orders for 260 in the first week, 25 in the.second week and 400 in the third week and.so on..So you have this information for each item..This is something that will guide you for.a material procurement and material requirement..Why is it called material requirements planning?.You are determining the requirement of materials.in different periods like we showed you..That is the idea is and the reports shows.planned orders to be released in future periods..This can also be done because it is not only.the order that you have to place but also.planned orders that have to be released in.the future periods..If for instance you are currently in period.one, it tells you that in future periods two.and three, you have to place orders for 25.and 400 of item M4..You can have rescheduling notices indicating.changes in due dates for open orders..What does this mean?.What can be done is for instance, suppose.there is a change in the due date of a certain.orders..You wanted 20 cars in January, now you do.not want 20 cars in January; you probably.want 30 cars in January..So there is a change in the MPS, then again.you can run the MRP system again and do this.rescheduling notices which will tell you what.is the additional number of items that you.would require of different types in for various.kinds of open orders..This information is available..Next we come to cancellation notices..If the demands are cancelled, including cancellation.of open orders because of changes in the master.production schedule, this can be determined.and then reports on inventory status can be.made available to you, directly from an MRP.system..These reports are called primary reports..Primary reports meaning that they are generally.the kind of reports which are generated by.any MRP system and then of course you can.generate any number of secondary outputs..Secondary outputs are generally those outputs.which you generate on the basis of specific.requirement..So these are custom made to the requirement..If you have a certain report for instance.what will happen is that performance reports.of various types like costs item usage actual.versus planned lead items and other measures.of performance..This particular report can be generated because.the data would be available in the MRP system..Exception reports showing deviations from.schedule overdue, orders, scrap and so on.could also be obtained from a MRP system..Inventory forecasts indicate projected inventory.levels, both aggregate inventory as well as.item inventory in future periods..These could be made available to you..So depending upon the need you can generate.a large number of secondary outputs from these.ports from the system that you have..What are the typical benefits of a MRP system?.You now have an idea of what a MRP system.does starting from the master production schedule.the bom and the inventory status and then.through an example we have tried to look at.how you generate the requirement of the parts.in different periods..So the next thing would be, what would be.the benefits of a MRP system?.Some of the major benefits of a MRP system.are that these are typically reduction of.inventory from thirty to fifty percent in.work in progress..This is what has been reported in the literature..I think this is obvious because when you are.actually calculating how much you need and.you are ordering on that basis..That means you are not ordering unnecessary.amounts which you would otherwise have ordered..That is why there is a reduction in inventory..There is an improved customer service..Later orders are being reduced by ninety percent.and quicker response to changes in demand.and master schedule, greater productivity,.reduced set up and product changeover costs,.better machine utilization and increased sales.and reductions in sales price..When there is an increase in sales you can.offer the advantages to the consumer and bring.down the prices..So this has been the effect and these are.some of the major benefits of a MRP system.which is involved here..Now the MRP system that we have discussed.is the basic system talks only about determining.the material requirements that is why it is.called material requirements planning..There is an evolution of MRP that has taken.place..What is the evolution?.The first thing that happens with a typical.MRP system is that it becomes an improved.ordering method..You tend to order things only when you need.them..So you are progressing towards in some sense.just in time..This is becoming an improved ordering method.and then you can talk about unrealistic machine.schedule, ignoring plant capacities and therefore.you can do priority planning on that basis.in the second stage of evolution..Then when you graduate further you can talk.about what is called the closed loop MRP which.not only plans priorities but provides feedback.to executing the priority plan..For instance the major defect with the MRP.system is once you calculate the material.requirements you do not know whether you have.the capacity to actually deal with those requirements.because there was no capacity check..So here we are making those checks and ultimately.in trying to integrate everything we know.we come to what is known as MRP two..MRP two is actually called manufacturing resource.planning..When you are talking about manufacturing resource.planning, basically you are linking the various.functions of the organization..Next we come to Capacity planning inventory.management shop floor control and MRP, links.up the closed loop MRP with the financial.systems of the company..In MRP material requirements planning, we.have not done any financial linkages..This links up the finances..So then it tells you exactly how material.is flowing, at which point maximum value added.is taking place and things of that kind..That would be manufacturing resource planning..So we would talk about these kinds of things..There are typically four classes of MRP users..These are like users who become mature in.the use of MRP..So the four classes are A, B, C and D. Actually.you start with class D, then graduate to C,.then come to b and then come to A. It is like.saying if you were to practice on a PC, you.would start as a D class user, then become.a C class user, then become the B class user.and ultimately you would become an a class.user..So typically A class user which is the best.would mean that you would tend to use closed.loop MRP..You would have integrated systems; you would.help to plan sales engineering production..So you are talking about integration of various.functions and there are no shortage lists.to override the production schedule..That means your production scheduling is so.good that you are not deviating from the production.that you have planned in class A. In class.B the system has MRP capacity planning, but.no vendor scheduling..Vendor scheduling is not a part of this..It is used as a production control system,.needs help from shortage list inventory higher.than need be..So we have not talked about integrating vendor.scheduling here..That means when should which vendor place.an order?.Then class C would be system used for inventory.ordering rather than scheduling..Scheduling by shortage list and master schedule.would be over loaded and similarly the class.D user would be one who is just using the.MRP system as a data processing department.only..Inventory records are poor and you are relying.on shortage lists and expediting rather than.MRP..This would be the typical users for this,.however when you talk about MRP 2, that is.manufacturing resource planning, it is an.operational and financial system which does.company wide operations and it is also a simulator.which means that it talks about answering.a variety of what if questions..Finally let us try to summarize what we have.done today..We have seen the difference between dependent.and independent demands..We have seen that MRP is useful for planning.requirements of components and parts knowing.end item demands and the major inputs to MRP.are the master production schedule, the bom,.the inventory and the lead times, that is.what we saw and the MRP logic goes through.operations like explosion offsetting netting.and lot sizing in a bid to determine the requirements.of the various parts and components which.are there in that particular thing..Finally some of the major benefits of MRP.include improved planning, lesser inventories.and shorter lead times..However MRP does not integrate cost functions..That is a defect and MRP two which is manufacturing.resource planning links the financial functions.across the organization..We have now seen that essentially MRP systems.are valid for dependent demand situations.and through an example we try to show how.the basic computations can be made..Thank you very much..

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