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Notes: A Stepwise Guidebook on Signing City Of Chicago Individual History Form 2017 2019 Online

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The Definite Guide to City Of Chicago Individual History Form 2017 2019

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Instructions regardingCity Of Chicago Individual History Form 2017 2019

[Music].by the time of the civil war.after less than 30 years of unbridled.capitalism.chicago was the metropolis of the.midwest.the world's largest railroad hub.[Music].the world's largest lumber market.the world's largest grain port stacker.of wheat.poet carl sandberg called it and hog.butcher to the world.[Music].built with timber from wisconsin forests.chicago burned in 1871.like a giant forest fire the largest.urban conflagration of the age.a city of braggers and boasters it.boasted once more.people would swarm to the jobs along.chicago's stinking river.from the east and from the elba rhine.danube and vistula.the protestant elite who hired them was.hostile to their foreign ways.their labor unions their socialism.especially.the anarchists among them they told.capitalists.your function in life is to die we're.going to get you.we're going to bomb your factories we're.going to tear apart your system.the general strike is going to bring.down capitalism you'll be shot.afterwards.the great battle of post-civil war.america was between.capital and labor chicago.would be its cauldron.[Applause].my.[Music].[Music].[Music].[Music].the chicago fire of 1871 was one of the.great urban catastrophes of modern times.papers would boast that the great london.fire of 1666.or napoleon's siege of moscow in 1812.hadn't done half the damage.chicago its boosters believed had to be.first.in everything.[Music].but railroads still converged on the.city.the stockyards and hundreds of mills.factories and warehouses.that ring the downtown had survived.editor joseph maddill cranked out an.addition of the tribune.while the ground was still hot.chicago boomers and boosters are on.trains the next day going out to the.east coast saying hey.this is a great place to invest we're.not broke we just had a little fire.[Music].an inquiry at the time determined that.one suspect catherine o'leary.was not responsible that she was in bed.when the fire started not in the barn.with her cow.but within weeks she was depicted as the.culprit.not 38 years old but an old hag.a published photo showed another woman.with a steer.not a cow.[Music].i've seen a few where she actually looks.like a witch you know they've got the.big nose with the you know the.um the wart on her nose and um she.actually looks evil in some of them she.was a catholic.she was she was an immigrant she was.poor and most of all she was a woman.she was the perfect patsy for the fire.in truth she was a very decent honorable.hard-working lady who was trying to.raise her family in very difficult.circumstances.they didn't want to lose their investors.and so it was easy to.i think find a scapegoat and say oh well.we know the reason the fire started.and you know these irish were not clean.they were throwing their garbage out.this was just all made up and most of.them are burned out too they did say.that.they've moved out of the city the slums.are going to be cleaned up.we don't have to worry about them.anymore it was really a terrible thing.for her.to have to endure she just died i think.heartbroken.one dark night when we were all in bed.mrs o'leary put a lantern mrs o'leary.and her cow became one of america's most.enduring legends.chicago sends its fireman's band a rose.parade favorite.they came along to prevent the city of.chicago from reenacting the incident of.mrs o'leary's cow.this float won the coveted national.trophy.in 1997 after 126 years.the chicago city council investigated.the fire and formally absolved mrs.o'leary of responsibility.and the true villain in this case.was peg lego sullivan who broke into the.o'leary barn.to steal milk from one of her cows.to mix up a batch of whiskey punch.which was fueling a local.gathering of some of the lads down the.street from the o'leary home.the rubble was swept into lake michigan.to create more real estate.chicago began to rebuild.marshall field dreamed of a new store on.state street as he removed hay.and dung from a brick barn and set up.display counters.potter palmer would replace his grand.hotel the palmer house.with millions in loans secured only by.his good reputation.cyrus mccormick the reaper king vowed to.rebuild his plant.on a vaster scale.anthony trollope an englishman visited.chicago he said these businessmen in.chicago are reckless and they fail a lot.but failure doesn't bother them.um catastrophe doesn't bother them they.bounce right back.and that seems to be ingrained in the.character of the city.the fire happens and believe it or not.in the newspapers it's seen as an.opportunity.chicago hops right to it after the fire.and rebuilds itself.in an astonishingly short period of time.it's about a two-year period.we didn't have a mythological past so.we're building one.in 1871 to some degree it's the city.grows so quickly.and then it's creating a past and.thinking about it past and the fire.provides a methodology chicago is going.to rise out of the ashes.does arise out of the ashes how much of.the city is actually burned.well you know only a small part of the.actual city is burned.but that's not the way we think about.the fire.there was an outpouring of aid from.around the nation and from 25 foreign.countries.england sent 8 000 books.and even queen victoria personally.donated books and inscribed.them to the people of chicago and they.had assumed of course that in the great.fire.chicago would have lost its uh library.well there's only one problem chicago.didn't have a library.two years after the fire a 17 year old.came to chicago from boston.with dreams of becoming an architect.[Music].though he found the buildings.unimpressive he was impressed with the.recovery.young louis henry sullivan who had.dropped out of mit.after a year got he said a sense of big.things to be done.he wrote in his autobiography about.stepping off the train.seeing the city before him part of it.still in runes from the fire.and thrusting his hand up in the air and.saying.this is the place for me.the city shouted itself hoarse sullivan.would write.we are the crudest rawest most savagely.ambitious dreamers and doers in the.world.he would be one of them.gustavus swift would be another.swift got his start as a teenage butcher.on cape cod.in massachusetts the story my father.likes to tell.is that when gustavus swift was about 16.years old he borrowed.20 from his father to buy heifer.[Music].and then he slaughtered the heifer and.went and.sold it to local residents in the cape.and came back and.his father asked him how did you do he.said well i sold the meat for twenty.dollars.and his father said well you didn't make.any money at it then.he said well yes i did i sold the hide.for two dollars.and the reason i like that story is that.eventually he.he discovered that the big picture that.in the livestock business you didn't.make money or much money selling the.meat but you made it.in the byproducts.swift became a cattle dealer who.followed the market west.in 1875 he moved his pregnant wife anne.and five children.into a rented house near the union.stockyards.he was so frugal for 30 years he would.not allow her to buy curtains.until she threatened to leave even then.not for his bedroom.[Music].swift wanted to be closer to the source.of cattle.the source was nowhere near chicago it.was more than.a thousand miles away in texas later.it spread north across the great plains.to montana.[Music].after the railroad reached abilene.kansas in 1867.cowboys began herding texas longhorns.north.along the chisholm trail to the rail.head.they were loaded on cattle cars bound.for buyers in chicago.like gustavus swift.swift would revolutionize the beef.industry what americans and much of the.world ate.when they ate it where they bought it.how little they paid for it.once a luxury he made beef affordable.and commonplace.[Music].he bought his cattle at the union.stockyards and shipped them east to.butchers he knew in massachusetts.but there were problems shipping live.animals.they have to be fed they have to be.watered which they don't do very happily.in a railroad car which means that.they're constantly losing weight.and many of these are animals with long.horns stuffed into cattle cars and.gouging each other so that a number of.them will arrive wounded or dead.by the time they reach their final.destination these are all reasons not to.want to ship live animals.stavan swift was shipping via the.railroad steers that weighed about a.thousand pounds.he only was able to sell 600 pounds of.that animal.through the meat and so there was 400.pounds that was.just costing him money.swift decided to slaughter the cattle in.chicago.and ship only the dressed beef east.in that decision he took risks greater.than any chicago entrepreneur.had ever taken if you're not going to.ship.live animals how are you going to ship.the beef so that it doesn't rot along.the way.there the answer to the riddle has.already been provided by the pork.packers in the 1850s.this immense network of ice storing.places that cut ice in the winter from.indiana wisconsin.delivered it to chicago if you could.simply get that ice into railroad cars.insulate those cars and then send a jet.of cold air across whatever the contents.of the railroad car would be.you could ship any meat anywhere in the.country without it rotting.ice loaded in chicago would not last to.new york.this forced swift into the ice business.he created five depots along the tracks.every ton of dressed beef needed a ton.of ice at each of his five depots.[Applause].the railroads he used for livestock had.invested in cattle cars.and charged by the pound when swift.bought his own refrigerated cars.the railroads conspired against him.he retaliated by dropping their more.direct route to new york.that ran south of lake erie.instead he shipped through canada to.montreal.and then south to boston and new york.arranging for ice along the way.for dressed beef the longer trip didn't.matter.[Music].transportation was only the first.challenge.americans were used to eating their beef.fresh they were used to pork.being in a packed form whether it was.ham or bacon or salt pork or what have.you.but the way they'd had beef up until.this time was by going down to their.local butcher who had slaughtered that.cow the night before and so the meat was.still.just within 24 hours of having been a.living pulsing.animal and swift was asking them to buy.a beef that was at least a week old.which did not sound like healthy beef to.most americans.new york butchers boston butchers.philadelphia butchers don't want to.carry this meat.in fact they're giving it a bad rap.they're calling it embalmed meat.and they're really afraid of being put.out of business.butchers in fitchburg massachusetts told.swift they would not sell.swift dressed beef if all fitchburg were.starving.all right swift replied i'll feed.fitchburg myself.his response to a boycott by butchers in.lowell was the same.the old man gets on a train.goes east goes to lowell sets up a.railroad siding.unloads a whole hell of a load of lumber.builds a butcher shop hires a workforce.and drives.a number of the local butchers out of.business.[Music].it is all right to lose money swift told.his agents.just don't let them nose you out.he hired many of the bankrupt butchers.as distributors of swift beef.his huge volume ensured low prices.competition from other chicago packers.like phillip armour.forced prices lower still so low.that swift and his competitors sold.their meat at a loss.in 1889 it cost 48 to purchase a steer.in chicago.dress the meat and ship it to new york.[Music].it sold there for 38.the chicago packers earned their profits.on the margin.from what local butchers threw away.[Music].things that the local butcher had had to.give away because.there just wasn't enough of them and.there weren't enough enough customers.for them to sell.could now be gathered into one location.and turned into tons and tons of that.material.you could hire scientists to figure out.how to turn that material into soap or.buttons or new forms of meat that had.never been sold before.[Music].hides were tend to leather.hair stuffed cushions horns became combs.[Music].guts tennis racket strings.tails paint brushes hooves jello.nothing was wasted.gustavus swift would walk out to bubbly.creek which was.this terrible little sewer that ran out.of one of his plants.with his top hat his dark suit he'd have.his pants tucked into his wellington.boots and he would wade into bubbly.creek.to check what was coming out of the.sewer.and if he saw any grease or fat.then he knew that was that was waste.because you could have turned that into.lard.and he'd go back and he'd find the.source of how that happened and.correct it he was a very hands-on.[Music].manager.you can't understand industrial.capitalism.i'll understand the importance of the.pennies half cents.a tenth of a cent a hundredth of a cent.and when you think about millions of.pounds of beef being processed through a.single plant in a year.you begin to understand why a hundredth.of a cent was something that kept.swift and armor and other industrialists.up at night.there were two ways packers could cut.costs.speed up the process and slash wages.they did both.[Music].in 1884 each of the most skilled workers.the splitters split 32 carcasses a day.10 years later each split 75.double the work for less pay.it took 15 minutes from the kill to the.chill room.low paid immigrants from eastern europe.even children.replaced the skilled butchers.more than 150 people would each do a.small.routine job.when skilled irish or german workers.went on strike swift and armor.quickly replaced them.cars packed with dressed beef heading.east past.immigrants heading west in what were.little better than cattle cars.scandinavians poles lithuanians.[Music].many settled back of the yards in.packing town.four room apartments would house.families of twelve.often a border slept in a bed while.another worked a different shift.by the 1890s packingtown had become the.vilest slum.in chicago.one boundary was the largest garbage.dump in the city.children played there and women.scavenged.one of the aldermen said hey that whole.neighborhood smells.where we gonna put garbage dumps if we.don't put it there.you know i mean it was beyond his.comprehension that anybody would.complain.because here you had bubbly creek which.was this open sewer for northern.boundary you had the stockyards which.left off as odor and then you had this.garbage dump.and then the railroad yards along south.where children would get killed all the.time as they were trying to cross the.lines to go to school.there was a big place called the hair.field there where they kept the.hair you know from some of the animals.to dry out in the fields.they had these enormous sewerage ditches.there men often drown.in the sewage ditches they get drunk at.a local shebang you know they get down.there they fall into the ditch.even the lawyer armor's lawyer.said the best thing you can do with the.yards is burn them down.even his lawyers said that.there were hundreds of saloons back of.the yards.three on every block.[Music].many were on whiskey row at the gate of.the stockyards.when the bell rang at 12 men would run.out.to whiskey row which was the major.street just to the west of the.stockyards.and they would get a beer and a shot and.then they could have a free lunch.so there'd be usually huge steam tables.in these taverns.in which they come in and there you had.your you know.pickled hogs feet and your eggs and your.polish sausage and your ham and.whatever you'd make a sandwich and you'd.eat and you'd go back into the packing.houses.the saloons on whiskey row served.everyone.on the side streets the saloons were.strictly ethnic.a polish newspaper recounted the fate of.a drunken german.who wandered into a polish tavern.[Music].the newspaper article reports that.something magical had happened.a a a a bottle had come to life.it hit the german on the head and.dragged him out and left him in the.sewer.and then jumped back up on the bar and.there were various witnesses who said.this is exactly what happened.and the bottom line of the article was.drink in your own bars.and i think that was very true if a poet.walked into an irish tavern or a german.tavern god help the jew who walked into.any tavern on those streets.there would have been a clash.[Music].swift and the meatpackers like all of.chicago's entrepreneurs.depended on the railroad in 1877.in the midst of a depression railroads.cut workers salaries up to 40 percent.just 12 years after slavery was.abolished workers considered themselves.wage slaves they went on strike.spontaneously from west virginia to.chicago.these workers were feeling that their.means of production were being taken.away from them that they had no control.over those railroads.that they had no control over their.lives and so that struggle in 1877.was it was central to a new.understanding by working class people.what this new capitalism meant for them.and now the new york times and tribune.are pointing out.the predominant issue is no longer the.race issue it's the labor issue.labor and capital the relationship of.labor and capital.it's still a property issue like slavery.who controls property.when i control a concern do i control.the employees as my property.are they working on my property and.hence have no rights to bargain with me.for better conditions because it's my.property.and so it raises all these kinds of.[Music].issues.the threat to property was more acute in.chicago because of sympathy strikes.organized by socialists.workers emptied factories in packing.houses.on july 26 1877 bohemians.socialists from what is now the czech.republic left their jobs in the lumber.yards.to battle the police they demanded an.eight-hour day.and restoration of wages.[Applause].the tribune described the mob stoning.the police.as bridgeport and stockyard plug uglies.the police stormed a meeting where.german cabinet makers were negotiating.peacefully with their employers.clubbing and firing at will.marshall field loaned his retail store.delivery wagons to the police.to move their riot squads.he later headed a citizens association.which bankrolled four napoleon cannons.and a gatling gun for the police.businessmen urged general phil sheridan.stationed in chicago after the civil war.to call in federal troops who were.fighting the sioux.in the dakotas the fear revolution.there's a fear of socialism there's a.fear.of the spread of and anarchical ideas in.in.in the city there's a fear that.capitalism itself is fearfully.vulnerable.this is in the middle of a great.depression and maybe the system is not.quite.working the way it should new wealth has.arisen.a new class of plutocrats this is a real.watershed moment in american history.there had been a mass meeting before the.violence began.the chief speaker was a typesetter at.the chicago times.a socialist named albert parsons.his ancestors had arrived on the second.voyage of the mayflower.he had fought for the south in the civil.war.after the war he says in his.autobiography he felt so guilty.about fighting to retain slavery because.he had been brought up.by a black woman a slave a black nanny.and he claims that he went to her.personally and apologized.became very active in texas politics in.the 1860s on the side of the.radical republicans which are pushing.for the 14th and 15th amendment to the.constitution giving black civil rights.and the right to vote they're fighting.the clan he married a woman.of mixed race a black woman lucy parsons.he had to get out of texas because of.that they came to chicago.and chicago of course was on the very.cutting edge of this industrial change.in this.industrial revolution all the questions.that were bubbling up inside of.parsons were also bubbling up inside the.city so he was really already beginning.to question capitalism.parsons saluted the grand army of labor.and asked workers to join his party.to secure state ownership of industry.if the capitalist engages in warfare.against our rights.he said then we shall resist him with.all the means that god has given us.the next morning parsons was fired from.the chicago times.and escorted by the police to a meeting.of businessmen.at city hall albert parsons was taken to.city hall.and was cross-examined by the.businessman.and asked who he was what he was doing.in town.his background and things of that kind.they questioned him and the police chief.took him aside and said.they're going to string you up if you.don't get out of town.and parson says who's they.and the police chief said the board of.trade.[Music].that night parsons went to the tribune.to discuss the strike with his.typesetter friends.i came in here as a gentleman parsons.told the guards who grabbed him.and i don't want to be dragged out like.a dog.one of them said shut up i will dash you.out the windows on the pavements below.another put a pistol to my head and said.i have a mind to blow your brains out.now go.[Music].i felt alone absolutely without a friend.in the world.parsons recalled this was my first.experience with the powers that be and i.became conscious.that they were powerful to give and take.one's life.the social revolution had begun he wrote.and.must be settled one way or another.[Music].industrialist george mortimer pullman.had an answer to the labor problem.he would solve it through social.engineering.unruly workers he felt had behavior.problems.stemming from their squalid surroundings.especially.the saloons.take the roughest man bulman said and.bring him into a room elegantly carpeted.and furnished and the effect upon his.bearing is immediate i have faith in the.educational.and refining influences of beauty.george pullman was a problem solver to.build chicago's sewers in the 1850s.he had helped raise the entire downtown.with jacks.while people went about their business.[Music].then he tackled a problem that bothered.him.after the civil war americans traveled.everywhere by train.and it was miserable he consists of the.idea.for a sleeping car what he would later.call luxury for the middle class.when he's sleeping on a wooden shelf on.a railroad thinking it's got to be more.comfortable than this.[Music].pullman envisioned what he called palace.cars.with gilded lamps chandeliers and velvet.hangings.travelers could luxuriate in rotating.lounge chairs.and in thick cotton sheets on the.pull-down berths.[Music].investors were skeptical.would people pay for a car that cost.four times as much as an ordinary.passenger car.would they know how to behave the.average person traveling in a car might.be a salesman for example.he's been out selling mccormick reaper.somewhere uh tromping around in the.field.his his feet are filled with mud he's.got a chaw of tobacco in his mouth.he's going to get on your car sleep in.your car.what's going to prevent it from spitting.on the floor skeptics told him people.would go to bed with their boots on.they'd spit on the velvet curtains.they'd chew tobacco and dribble on the.on the cotton pillowcases pullman was.having none of it.pullman's fledgling company got a boost.when a palace car.carried the funeral cortege of abraham.lincoln.from chicago back to springfield in.1865..as swift had done in meatpacking pullman.extended chicago's reach across the.nation.by leasing his sleeping cars to.america's railroads.[Music].he hired only black porters to wait on.passengers.former slaves he felt knew how to serve.pullman's response to the great uprising.of 1877.was to build a model town and factory.based on the principle of the palace car.beauty.uplifts behavior.the town of pullman on the prairie 12.miles south of the grime.the brothels and the saloons of chicago.housed.12 000 workers drinking.was not allowed there was a bar in the.hotel florence.named for his favorite child but it was.off limits to workers.his managers lived in single-family.houses.the workers in attractive row houses.blacks hired as waiters lived in.boarding houses.he really believed that he saw an answer.that flew in the face of everything.in some sense around him and it had to.do with taking care of workers.he was a great industrial utopian.thinker in that sense.and like many utopian thinkers he was.fueled by.fantasy as much as reality but he built.his town to try.and realize that utopian vision.[Music].he builds this town in which he doesn't.want workers to be able to drink.he wants them to have what he considered.decent housing with indoor plumbing and.amenities like nearby stores and a.church that he was going to build and.parks and recreational facilities and a.library.and education for children it's got.every state of the art service that he.can conceive of.and the idea there is that if workers.are satisfied and taken.care of in a planned community.they will find their work with pullman.satisfying enterprising perhaps indeed.enoblink they'll have no need of unions.or strikes.or any kind of discord that has.characterized a lot of industrial and.worker relations in chicago up to that.point.pullman bought the corliss engine the.world's most.powerful engine the chief exhibited.america's centennial exposition.in philadelphia in 1876 it would power.his new plant.to make sleeper and freight cars on.april 2nd 1881.pullman's pride and joy florence pushed.the button.to have his favorite daughter pushing.the switch to make it go on.the pride that he must have felt in his.own achievement.in what he'd work to create is is.[Music].indescribable.[Music].pullman's factory was the most modern.the new industrial age could offer.[Music].with a beautiful town and factory he.said the disturbing conditions of.strikes.that convulse the world of labor would.not be found.[Music].by the spring of 1882 george pullman was.manufacturing 25 freight cars.and two sleeping cars a day.the press applauded what it saw as.enlightened capitalism.no place in the united states the times.of london would write.has attracted more attention or has been.more closely watched.[Music].one woman remarked with the terrible.temptations of the open saloon gone.my husband has stopped drinking and now.we have a beautiful home.with comforts and luxuries.pullman is seen as one of a vanguard.who's providing an.answer to the problem of urban poverty.and the problems of urban workers.he's written up in press accounts over.and over and over again.and americans and others around the.world want to believe that there must be.a way.to reconcile the material possibilities.of capitalism.with what seemed to be extraordinary.costs.not only did it seem that he was doing.something about it but he was showing.that you could make money at it.while also being a reformer so a lot of.people praised him as being a practical.reformer.so he's changing the system he's.improving it for the workers.and he's making a profit.so maybe this is the new way to go.pullman lived downtown on prairie avenue.with tycoons like marshall field.and philip armour but his mansion was.considered.grandest of them all.except for florence pullman was.impatient with his family.and squabbled with his wife harriet.about the time he spent away from home.he lunched and played poker with field.and armor at the millionaires table.at the chicago club they were among his.few friends.he upgraded his staff at work for the.slightest failings.george pullman controlled everyone he.could certainly control his workers.pullman's office was atop the 10-story.pullman building.a skyscraper in downtown chicago.the busiest most concentrated business.district in america.when a visitor from china first saw it.he was appalled.and he says that he almost froze up.when he got off the train and entered.the city.the l system's up but it's roaring.overhead like crazy.this swirling smoke in the city the sun.coming off the street this cloud of.smoke hanging over the city.the rush of people this cavalry charge.on the streets.streetcar lines all over the place.trolleys going along let's say there's a.dre.in front of it with four horses they.just pick it up and push it to the side.horse and team spin over like that.peddlers on every corner.the circus is in town elephants down the.street clowns you know.big animals on the street lions and.tigers skyscrapers going up.a story every three days you know and.there's spectacles in the sky and people.are watching like urban shows you know.watching these buildings going up.the sound of rivet guns which are just.invented at the time.bang bang bang of the rivet systems.lots of immigrants who came to the city.went downtown for the first time and.just.couldn't believe the spectacle it just.seemed like one.fast construction site.[Music].the congestion was due in part to the l.the elevated transit that brought people.downtown from all parts of the city.by 1900 chicago had the best urban.transit system in the world.20 years earlier it was a mess.[Music].it took longer to get downtown in 1882.by a horse car.than to milwaukee by train.the genius behind these changes was.charles tyson yerkes.yerkes had done time in philly for.embezzlement and would leave chicago the.most vilified public figure in its.history.he was his big corpulent handsome man.very arrogant.and made it known to chicagoans that he.said this place is a hell hole.and uh i'm gonna live here for a while.and make a million and i'm going back to.where i can live regally and well in new.york.in 1882 just after yerkes arrived.chicago opened its first cable car line.marshall field invested in cable cars.that headed for his store.looped around and headed back south.since then the loop has been synonymous.with downtown chicago.the rest of the city had horse cars.[Music].backed by philadelphia cohorts yurki's.consolidated these private transit lines.and replaced horse cars with cable cars.he cleaned up two water-soaked tunnels.under the river.to avoid the delay of swinging bridges.he introduced electric trolleys.and then elevated them.but no one liked him.he's always been seen as a monster in.chicago.because he was imperious yorkies like to.run.small trains as opposed to larger trains.asked why wouldn't it be better if you.provided the customers with.more amenities his response was why.should i it's the strap hanger who.provides me my margin of profit.[Music].your keys was also a crook.he built his north chicago cable line.for three million dollars.charged stockholders 10 million and.split seven.with his philadelphia partners.late in the century he bribed state and.city legislators.to pass a bill giving him a 50-year.monopoly.that was too much even for a city of.hustlers.mobs stormed the council chambers and.the goliath of graft.was hounded out of chicago.charles tyson yerkes had made 15 million.dollars.in chicago he went to london.and built its famous underground.in the 1880s and 90s developers rebuilt.chicago's downtown.for the second time since the fire.in their pursuit of money they created.not only the world's first skyscraper.city.but a unique american architectural.style.the loop was hemmed in by lake michigan.on the east.the river on the north the south branch.on the west.and railroads to the south.there was nowhere to go but up.[Music].you have a grid in a flat plain you tilt.it up into space as a matrix.[Music].all by itself that's wildly.authoritative.it's very powerful so even now when you.fly in.on a plane and you see the prairie and.the lake this tabular rock and you see.this almost oasis.coming out of nowhere that is a grid in.plan.and a grid in elevation.that's wild that's the aesthetic.that transpired as a result of that fire.improvements in elevators and the.creation of structural steel.made skyscrapers possible.they're built because space constraints.yes but they're built because they're.very efficient.an efficient way to organize a business.organization.you have an internal mail system within.the skyscraper.contiguous firms firms associated with.one another printers would hang out with.lawyers.copying people so there is literally.this business city under one roof.what the real estate people wanted was.somebody could get the building.up fast on schedule.on cost and you could start collecting.rent.and if the architects were able to.create something.creative in the process well that was.just icing on the cake.peter brooks from boston wanted to make.a buck in chicago real estate.he hired the chicago architectural firm.burnham and root.there were letters that went back and.forth between boston and chicago.where burnham and root would propose.ornamental details and a.good sense of hard-headed practicality.that brooks's would say.i don't want that kind of detail i don't.want to pay for it.it's something that birds are going to.sit on and follow the building.it's not necessary at all and they kept.goading the architects.clean it up strip it down make it more.functional make it less expensive.at the same time root is coming to a new.appreciation of simplicity.and saying that this is the new american.style.this is a business city these are the.kinds of buildings that should be built.for commerce.with simplicity strength durability.handsomeness root says at one point.there's nothing more beautiful than a.plain brown.wall in the case of the monadnock.building.they got a building of such direct and.beautiful simplicity.that you can actually say that the.client had a hand in creating it.and a masterpiece was the result.fearing people would be intimidated by.the height that structural steel allowed.some architects tried to disguise it by.groups of windows.separated by moldings buildings appeared.to be two or three stories.stacked one on top of the other.lewis henry sullivan was not so.constrained.there were people like louis sullivan.the dreamer.the poet of chicago architecture.somebody who really held.deep passionate ideals about what.architecture was all about.and what it could be who really looked.at the skyscraper.and said well this is a new kind of.building.why make a building look like a lot of.little buildings stacked on top of each.other.why not let the buildings soar and let.the.sheer height become a thing of beauty.sullivan's department store the carson.peary scott building on state street.was considered a business and aesthetic.triumph.clad columns clad for fireproofing.because of the fire.but basically 90 certainly glass.an all glass ground floor.that you could walk in.that had never happened before that you.could actually see into the store.you could walk down the street and say.that's.great and walk in and buy it.right then and there that's unheard of.[Music].sullivan's architectural credo was form.follows.function this did not mean.sterile facades he delighted in.decorative detail.on the ground floors which people could.enjoy.[Music].chicago developers did not skimp on.money for public spaces.the spacious lobby of the rookery.building enticed clients.a soaring glass ceiling let in light in.an age before decent electric lights.[Music].the entire building was designed to let.light into the offices of businessmen.and their clerks and typists.[Music].light poured into the largely glass.facade of the reliance building.rain cleaned its glazed columns like a.plate.to save on maintenance.all this stuff still was at the service.of capital.period business raw.business unsullied just business.standing in the shadows of the loop in.the late 19th century.few were aware that their city of stone.and steel was built during the very.years.the pine forest of michigan and.wisconsin vanished.the transformation of an ecosystem into.a city was to the few who noticed.a sign of progress.no trains passed through chicago.they all stopped at the edge of the loop.there's used to be a joke about that a.lady went to the conductor and said.does this train stop in chicago and the.conductor said lady if it doesn't stop.in chicago there's going to be an awful.crash.because the idea was they wanted the.trains to come here.you would have to get off the train stay.at the palmer house.and shop at marshallfield store and then.the next day go out on the other train.and it was all set up that way and that.promoted the business community.the business community centered on state.street.potter palmer had come to chicago to.create a market for the few women.shoppers he observed in the 1850s.[Music].by the 1890s almost all the shoppers on.state street.were women.the premier store was marshall fields.[Music].field wasn't just selling you a.communion suit for your son.at a very important moment he was also.selling you a slice of the good life.a slice of the upper echelons of chicago.society.if you bought european gloves which were.produced exclusively for fields you were.also getting a taste of european.cultural history and a bit of you know.old money.brought to a town that was made up.completely of new money.he understood instinctively that when.people purchased things they were buying.a bit of their own.ambitions for themselves and by making.fields a kind of palace of consumption.he was instilling his brand with a very.very important element of social.legitimacy.[Music].at age 17 marshall field had taken a job.as a clerk at a dry goods store in.pittsfield massachusetts.field was such a good salesman he was.offered a quarter interest in the store.at age 22. he refused.he was swept up in the prevalent fever.to come west.he later told writer theodore dreiser.chicago.he sensed was a city with plenty of.ambition and pluck.[Music].field found a job in a dry goods store.he worked.14 hour days and saved half his salary.by sleeping in the store.[Music].12 years later in 1868 field leased.potter palmer's new retail palace.on state street like palmer marshall.field's goal was to give the lady what.she wants.upscale merchandise elegant surroundings.courteous service.marshall field became chicago's new.merchant prince.and with investments in pullman and real.estate chicago's richest.and most powerful man.he doesn't want a lot of poor women.coming in there and shopping or poor.women coming in and applying to work at.his store.i mean fields saw his department as the.sort of ultimate.class establishment in the city of.chicago.and he was catering to a middle and.upper middle class clientele.and so immigrant women had no place in.his world view.don't dirty fields up what he did is he.would hire women.such as theodore dreiser wrote about.sister carrie young farm girls.not with a lot of means but who would.come to chicago in search of opportunity.and you know in the 1880s more women.young women are coming to chicago than.young men.field wants these american farm girls.really for his clerks is.sales people they don't speak with an.accent.they know how to dress and you know you.always had to dress up to work at.marshall fields you still do.a rhyme captured fields upscale image.all the girls who wear high heels they.trade down at marshall fields.all the girls who scrub the floor they.trade at the boston store.he also hired children cash boys.that would take change from one counter.to another.one time a group of cash boys complained.about their uh their wages and he fired.the whole lot of them.he hated unions he wouldn't even allow.union leaders to shop in his store.anyone suspected of fraternizing with.a union or union leaders was fired.and he ran the store with iron.discipline.marshallfield had few friends.he was estranged from his wife distant.from his son.his work was his life.all he had would soon be threatened as.he was pulled into the great battle of.the age.between capital and labor.after he was fired from the chicago.times during the uprising in 1877.albert parsons abandoned socialism and.began to publish.the alarm an anarchist pamphlet.he shared an office with another.anarchist august spies.a german immigrant who ran a small.furniture company and published the.german language arbeiter zeitung.when frank stauber a german-born.socialist lost his race for aldermen in.1880.because irish ward bosses stuffed the.ballot boxes.many germans turned against the system.[Music].the holiest institution of the american.people a german newspaper fumed.had become a miserable farce and a lie.[Music].large numbers of them pulled out of the.socialist labor party.and they align themselves with the.international working people's.association.which was an anarchist affiliated.organization.and they began to advocate a violent.revolution.using dynamite.now parsons and other people blame this.on the capitalists at the time.in fact it wasn't the capitalists it was.the local war politicians.and they were very demonstrative in.their rhetoric i mean they really.you know went straight at them went.straight out and called for.assassination.and they felt that if you destroyed the.state uh perhaps with.an act a single act of violence that.would cause.the working people to rise up.uh capital would just crumble.and a new society would take shape.a society of communes as they put it.august spees used to really make.marshall field and pullman angry.because he used to go to the same.restaurants that they went to.and he'd make sure he sat near them.and they learned to recognize who he was.and it would just spoil their whole.dinner that he was sitting at the table.next to them.the sunday picnics that chicago's.germans enjoyed.became more than picnics.[Music].they were a chance to spread the word.and recruit.one sunday anarchist leader samuel.fielden spoke of the wonders of a new.invention.dynamite which he said science had.placed within the reach of the oppressed.on thanksgiving day 1884 the anarchists.unveiled their new symbol.the black flag of hunger and death.joined the red flag of social change.playing the anthem of the french.revolution the marseilles.they began a march which took them past.potter palmer's elegant hotel.the palmer house.then on to the prairie avenue mansions.of the capitalists.who had deprived them their leaflets.said of.every blessing during the past year.every worker every must be on hand.to express their thanks in a befitting.[Music].[Applause].manner.[Applause].they're marching down prairie avenue.okay the very citadel of capitalism.and sorry to march on a plant but.they're right at the homes of the.capitalists.never happened anywhere else like that.they collect what they call hobos in.there but they're anarchists as well.and they're going up and they're ringing.the doorbells.and of course nobody's answering the.doors but they're screaming.that they want bread or power.there's just never been a direct.demonstration quite like that.albert parsons read from the epistle of.saint james.your riches are corrupted your gold and.silver is.cankered and the rust shall eat your.flesh as it were.fire we do not intend to leave this.matter for the lord.he concluded we intend to do something.for ourselves.they approached the prairie avenue.mansion of marshall field.whom parsons had attacked for.discriminating against immigrant women.shopping in his store.our international movement is to unite.all countries and do away with the.robber class.samuel fielden told the marchers prepare.for the.inevitable conflict.[Music].they marched on the prairie avenue.mansion of george pullman.pullman was absolutely horrified with.the sight of poor people.walking up his street and ringing his.doorbell.[Music].the next day he went to his attorney.where dexter and he said i want you to.get this guy parsons.they were catholic they didn't speak.english they spoke.german they drank.beer on sundays they went to saloons on.sundays.they were a threat they were.totally alien to this american.protestant way of life.[Music].they marched on the board of trade when.it opened an elaborate new building on.lasalle street the next year.the board of thieves they bellowed stood.for.starvation of the masses privileges and.luxury for the few.one in the crowd yelled blow it up with.dynamite.to chicago's business leaders these were.not idle.threats they're reading in newspapers.about assassinations abroad.there are people being killed in europe.including zara alexander at this time.the movement is extremely strong in.germany.and now their speakers are coming from.germany.to agitate so they know the anarchists.are serious.the better classes are tired of the.insane howlings of the lowest strata.warn general phil sheridan and they mean.to stop them.on may 1 1886 the anarchists did.something unusual.they teamed up with the mainstream labor.movement.disgruntled railroad workers packing.house butchers bohemian socialists.albert and lucy parsons led 80 000.workers down michigan avenue.as part of a nationwide strike for.labor's big issue.an eight-hour day.with its mayor carter harrison.supporting it chicago became the center.of the strike eight hours a day for work.eight hours a day to sleep eight hours a.day to play.in a free america.the anarchist didn't lead the eight-hour.movement but they attempted to.commandeer it.august spees felt strongly that this was.a demand that.was in effect a revolutionary domain.even though it didn't.openly say so it was a demand that could.not be won.under the existing circumstances and it.was a demand.that would inevitably lead.the eight hour movement into a.revolutionary situation under the.leadership.of the anarchists they told capitalists.your function in life is to die.we're going to get you we're going to.bomb your factories.we're going to tear apart your system.the general strike is going to bring.down capitalism.you'll be shot afterwards.streetcar lines are shut down the city.is shut down this is a.a general strike and there's a.tremendous amount of tension.uh workers of course we're winning you.know the eight hour day in the packing.houses.workers struck the packing houses on may.2nd.the packers chicago's largest employers.conceded to an eight-hour day.the same pay for eight hours that.workers had gotten for ten.what happened may third at the mccormick.reaper works.got the anarchists involved in another.labor dispute.and ignited the most sensational labor.incident of the 19th century.cyrus hall mccormick the reaper king had.died in 1884.a floral reaper adorned his casket.his last words were work work work.his son mechanized the plant blades that.used to be forged by hand.were now forged by steam hammer.[Music].this threatened the skilled iron workers.in may 1886 they'd been on strike for.months.mccormick hired scams to take their.place.the mccormick strike was over.a long-standing dispute that had begun.before the eight-hour day had begun.that turned on the attempt of mccormick.to mechanize the whole process of iron.molding.and thereby to get rid of one of the.strongest unionized.forces the iron molders union and these.were largely irish.and so there was a very bitter struggle.that was going on.at that time some of the bohemian lumber.shovers and other.socialists and anarchists had gone up.there in solidarity with the mccormick.workers.august spees had made a very.militant speech.[Music].when the whistle blew to end the shift.on may 3rd.locked out strikers attacked the scabs.as they left the plant.police rushed in to protect the scabs.they killed two of the striking workers.spees witnessed this from behind a.boxcar.he saw it and he ran back to his office.on wells street and he wrote a protest.and he left it on the desk and said i.want this circulated the next morning.and he told them to put a banner on it.well.to his great dismay the banner that.somebody put on it was revenge.which was the last thing that should.have been put on it.because he didn't mean it to be that.kind of thing.a second circular called for a rally the.next evening at haymarket square.haymarket square was an open-air market.by day.by nightfall on may 4th the push.pushcarts were gone.chicago's popular mayor carter harrison.was there.and made certain the crowd saw him it.would ensure.order it was a fairly peaceful rally i.mean the anarchists were saying things.that they always said you know.death to the owner class revolution.uh mayor harrison wrote up and everybody.else ah.mayor harrison you know took his head.off and he waved at the people and.it was it was a little campaign thing.and he stayed at the back and.the police camp and captain bonnefield.came up and said what should we do with.this rabble sir and he said basically.let them speak.he's they've said many worse things than.they're saying tonight and uh there's no.one here.and he said i'm gonna go home and he.goes home.captain bonfield dismissed most of his.men.not all the last speaker.samuel fielden remembered the men shot.at the mccormick works.the law is framed for your enslavers he.said.throttle it kill it do everything you.can to impede its progress.bonfield considered this inflammatory he.ordered the police to march.fielden was winding down he that has to.obey the will of another.is a slave can we do anything except by.the strong arm of resistance.war has been declared on us people have.been shot.defend yourselves.no one noticed the man lurking in the.shadows.any animal will resist when stepped upon.are men less than snails or worms.in the name of the state of illinois i.command you to disperse the police.captain said.but we are peaceable field and protested.[Music].[Music].[Applause].seven policemen were killed mostly by.friendly fire.[Music].the chicago times called the workers.ragtag and bob-tailed cutthroats of.beelzebub from the rhine.the danube the vistula and the elba.labor's largest paper called them wild.beasts.the respected albany law review called.them.long-haired wild-eyed bad-smelling.atheistic.reckless foreign wretches.it was front page news around the world.remember chicago is the world's window.into the future.people from around the world really saw.it as what city life was going to be.like for them perhaps 10 or 20 years.down the road.and when you got into the labor violence.what appeared to be proletarian.riots it was very frightening to people.in many places around the world.throughout the nation americans were.almost unanimous.in favor of the utmost repression.of the anarchists there was a belief.that american.civic institutions were being threatened.to their core.foreign-born workers under the.leadership of anarchists.were seen to be a threat of the first.order.[Music].the very next day martial law was.declared in chicago.a laws passed saying that no more than.two people can be standing on a street.corner to talk.if there's three you can arrest them.and homes are entered without search.warrants.all the union newspapers are closed down.hundreds literally hundreds of labor.leaders are put.in the different city jails.after haymarket the city went crazy.[Music].this is a real red hunt and it's the.first american red hunt.they know that everyone they're rounding.up is not an anarchist.they're rounding up labor agitators.they're out to crush.the labor movement which is the threat.here more than the anarchists they can.handle them they can hang them and shoot.them.in many ways this is for them.an opportunity they can paint them with.a brush of anarchism.and go after them like that.they didn't belong to the human race.poet carl sandberg.a child at the time would recall.they seemed more like slimy animals who.prowl sneak and.kill in the dark i didn't hear anyone in.our town who didn't so believe.[Music].eight were charged with murder and.conspiracy.they included albert parsons who had.fled to wisconsin.but returned here's a man who's rather.naive don't you think he sits up there.in wisconsin he says well this is.america and.the justice system will prove me to be.right and so i'll come down.i'll talk about anarchism i'll explain.that i was five blocks away in a tavern.with my wife.uh and the jury will you know let me go.judge joseph e gary presided over the.trial.there was such fury about the case that.there was.no effort made to find a fair jury.the bailiff was sent out to to find.people and bring them in.as potential jurors and of course he.found people who were.deeply prejudiced that wasn't hired at.the time and i'm sure.the bailiff rejected anybody who showed.any sympathy.one prospective juror dared to say he.wanted to listen to the evidence.before he decided whether they were.guilty or not in the cross-examination.whether he would be on the jury or not.and.he was not accepted as a juror he went.back to his job.downtown the next day and was fired by.his employer because he did not.automatically assume.even before hearing the testimony that.they were guilty.that mere fact that they were even being.tried at all when the bomb thrower.wasn't known.is just a travesty.how can you even prosecute somebody for.conspiracy.if you don't have any evidence.that they were together with the person.that threw the bomb or the that.committed the the koran.only two of the anarchists were at the.scene and they were both on the.so-called podium.uh in full public view somebody threw.that bomb.but nobody had any idea who threw it.[Music].anarchy is on trial the prosecutor said.gentlemen of the jury convict these men.make examples of them.hang them and you save our society.the verdict was guilty.the sentence death by hanging.three asked for clemency and got life in.prison.one blew himself up in jail with a cigar.bomb.[Music].a former tribune editor henry demarist.lloyd.began a national campaign for clemency.illinois governor said he would support.it if the businessman did.banker lyman gage gathered 50 of the.business elite.to argue that clemency would improve.labor relations.he seemed to sway them.but they feared to cross martial field.chicago's most influential businessman.who was opposed.the great industrialists all i think.woke up at least at times in the middle.of the night in a cold sweat and worried.about revolution.it was impossible not to entertain the.potential.for serious social unrest and indeed.political and economic revolution in.this country.when the rewards of this extraordinary.moment of change and capitalism were.being so unequally distributed.and they knew it field knew it pullman.knew it swift knew it armor knew it.they couldn't not know it and.that was a very scary possibility for.people like field.you have to remember that this is a.period of time.that was still in the shadow of the.civil war.and people felt that if you didn't take.a hard and.firm line as had been taken.by lincoln and the republican party.against the slave holders.if you didn't take a hard and firm line.against threats to property that this.sort of thing would be repeated.and i can't help but think that martial.field felt that this was a great test of.leadership.you couldn't have invented uh an enemy.that is more maniacal and more.threatening.to feel than the anarchist movement.field thought property is sacrosanct i.formed this business on my own.i worked up from stock boy it's mine.they have no right to tell me how to run.it and certainly they're not going to.tell me that they're going to dynamite.it.to death field and the elite control.the banks and they control the.businesses staff they've lost control of.politics.now are they going to lose control of.their own businesses.it caught the furor throughout the world.people saying don't hang these guys.commute the sentence.[Music].and letters came from george bernard.shaw from tolstoy.i believe do not execute them.[Music].but there was one industrialist with.adamant.and that was marshall field the first.the merchant prince.he said in effect hang the bastards.[Music].as chicago's capitalists tried to put.their labor problems behind them.a memorial to the anarchists became a.shrine for revolutionaries.the elites attempt to project an image.of urban harmony to the world.would not be easy.there's more about chicago on american.experience online.take a chicago trivia challenge explore.the haymarket bombing and trial.and browse a gallery of chicago.inventions.all this and more at pbs online pbs.org.america online keyword pbs.[Music].so.[Music].so.[Music].so.[Music].you.

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  3. Discover the PDF that needs to be signed on the iPhone or pull it from the cloud.
  4. Discover the place where you want to add the signature; select 'Insert initials' and 'Insert signature'.
  5. Put down your initials or signature, place them correctly, and save changes to the document.

Once finished, the document is ready for the next step. You can download it to your iPhone and send it by email. As long as you have a efficient internet connection, you can sign and send documents instantly.

How to create an electronic signature for the City Of Chicago Individual History Form 2017 2019 on Android?

iOS has lots of of users, there's no doubt of that, but most phone users have an Android operating system. To fulfill their needs, CocoSign has developed the software, especially for Android users.

You can get the app on Play Market, install it, and you can start signing documents. These are the tips to sign a form on your Android device:

  1. If you already have a CocoSign account, sign in. If you don't have one yet, you can sign in using Google or Facebook.
  2. Select on '+' to open the document you want to sign, from cloud storage or using your camera.
  3. Discover the place where the signature must be placed and then use the popup window to write your signature.
  4. Insert it on the page, confirm, and save the changes.
  5. The final step is to save the signed document.

To send the signed form, just attach it to an email, and it will reach your clients instantly. CocoSign is the best way to sign many forms every day, all at a low price. It's time to forget all about physical signatures and keep it all electronic.

City Of Chicago Individual History Form 2017 2019 FAQs

Check the below common misunderstandings about City Of Chicago Individual History Form 2017 2019 . Communicate with directly if you still have other queries.

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How do I fill out a CLAT 2019 application form?

How do I fill out the college preference form of the CLAT 2019? If you are AIR 1 and eligible for admission to all 21 NLUs, which one would you prefer? That is your first choice. Your first choice is not available. Out of the remaining 20, you are eligible for all 20. Which one will you prefer? That is your second choice. Your second choice is not available. Out of the remaining 19, you are eligible for all 19. Which one will you prefer? That is your third choice. Repeat the process till you have ranked all 21 NLUs. All the best.

What is the used car tax in Illinois?

There are likely two differences in the sales tax when you purchase a used car from a private party vs. a dealer. First, I would presume that you would probably pay less for the same car with a private party sale than from a dealer. That would make the private party sales tax less. Second, you would probably pay the sales tax directly to the dealer. If you were getting a loan for the dealer purchase, the sales tax could be part of the loan. For the private party purchase, you would very likely be writing a check for the sales tax to the Department of Motor Vehicles when you went to transfer the title and register the car.

How do you get into the PHA army?

Best way would be to join the Military, and go into either a signal intelligence mos (like Counter electronic warfare operator/technician), or a HUMINT (human intelligence) MOS like linguist. Another way would be to move form another JSOC command, or from any Special Forces capable unit, like Rangers, Recon, etc. RSTA (Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition) training would also be helpful.

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