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Usda Fv 237 2003 2019 Form Appeal Advice

If you could please find your seat would.like to welcome everyone to USDA's 96th.annual outlook forum USDA's oldest.annual meeting I'm Steven sanski Deputy.Secretary of Agriculture and it's great.to see everyone here this morning this.year's theme is the innovation.imperative shaping the future of.Agriculture this is a fitting theme for.the Secretary to announce something that.we've been working on at USDA called the.agriculture innovation agenda we're.excited to share more with you this.morning I'm joined in this room by many.of you that are that are working to.shape the future of our agriculture.economy it's important that we take.stock not only of where we are today but.also of where we need to go to meet a.growing global demand with rising.standards of living and a time when.producers are dealing with uncertainties.in the farm economy and the conditions.needed to farm including the climate our.chief economist dr. Rob Johansen will.provide an in-depth overview of the.state of the farm economy there's a lot.to take in in 2019 was certainly not a.typical year and there were many factors.influencing the economy including.extreme weather trade and policy changes.in importing and exporting countries to.name just a few.following dr. Jays talk the secretary.will outline some of the amazing.progress we've seen and should be.talking about more in the agriculture.sector and as I mentioned he'll also tee.up what we're calling on on this call to.continue the trend of success that we've.seen to meet the future challenges.including in doing our part to make sure.that we're we're growing enough food to.feed a population that is likely to grow.to nine point seven billion people by.2050 while at the same time conserving.our natural resources for the future.that will be followed by a fireside chat.that the.secretary will have with John Hartnett.founder and CEO CEO of SVG ventures a.platform of corporations universities.and investors focused on food and.agriculture industries secretary Purdue.and dr. Hartnett will discuss the future.of Agriculture challenges facing the.sector and emerging solutions that could.address them tomorrow secretary Purdue.will be joined by his colleagues as.ministers from Argentina Canada and.Mexico for a plenary session titled.feeding the world through innovation.they will discuss cooperative approaches.to promoting agriculture innovation and.global trade as foundations of global.food security a recurring theme that.you'll hear through this conference is.this innovation innovation will be the.key to sustaining the success of our.sector here at USDA we are working to.reframe this narrative on agriculture.speaking of the future I also want to.acknowledge our 30 University students.who are in attendance as participants in.this year's a Gregorian they're here.participating in USDA's 2020 future.leaders in agriculture program their.attendance in this forum caps off a.week-long trip here to Washington DC the.program selects 20 universities.undergraduates and 10 graduate students.based on essays on agriculture careers.and challenges these students major in.agriculture related studies including.Business Economics communications.nutrition food science and veterinary.studies finalists are selected from.land-grant universities Hispanic serving.institutions and non-grant LAN non.land-grant colleges of Agriculture the.future leaders in agriculture program is.supported by academic institutions.corporations and government institutions.dedicated to promoting the education of.the next generation of Agriculture this.year sponsoring organizations include.the University of Maryland Eastern Shore.and farm credit this program is one of.the many efforts that we have among USDA.the 1862 land-grant institutions the.1890 historically black colleges and.universities.the 1994 tribal land grant colleges and.universities and Hispanic serving.universities these partnerships support.capacity-building initiatives and.bolster education and career.opportunities for students interested in.a career in agriculture I also want to.acknowledge as part of that the ten.graduate students that we have in.attendance as part of that program the.USDA's Economic Research Service.partnered last year with the farm.foundation to create a new agriculture.Scholars Program that takes these 10.graduate level students of Agriculture.through a year-long program of Ag.related training the objective is to.inspire and train the next generation of.agriculturalists interested in policy.commodity market analysis agriculture.finance and other applied fields of.economics can we have all of our 2020.future leaders in agriculture program.attendees stand and let's give them a.round of applause.be sure to seek them out during the.breaks because these are some of the.sharp young minds that we want in.agriculture and I know you want as well.with that I would like to say here is.our chief economist dr. Robert Johansson.who unveiled the department's outlook.for US commodity markets and trade in.2020 and discussed the u.s. farm income.situation dr. Johannson well thanks so.much thanks everybody for joining in us.today thank you for those comments mr..Deputy Secretary and of course welcome.to the 96th annual agricultural outlook.forum as the deputy just mentioned we.have a great program for you our theme.this year as he just talked about the.innovation imperative of course that's.appropriate in many ways he just.enumerated some of them I'll just.highlight two that are gonna underline.some of the comments I make today first.2019 is a year filled with uncertainty.for agriculture in many ways and.innovative responses were necessary by.farmers to get them through the year and.second we know that innovation in.agriculture will continue to shape our.future what can we expect for 2020 I.know you're waiting with bated breath so.let's get to the numbers I want to talk.about three main themes today 2020 is a.big year for trade of course with our.top agricultural partners and that's.going to help sales and prices second.crop production should rebound from next.last year and we expect record crop meat.and dairy production third the economy.continues to show signs of stress the AG.economy but there are other more hopeful.signs for example low interest rates are.reducing borrowing costs and.strengthening land values let's start.with the global economy in January the.IMF projected slower global economic.growth the downward revisions from the.pink to the dark red line on the slide.there may not look like much but it.equals a loss in buying potential of 1.5.trillion dollars over.that period with almost all of that.revision due to declines and growth and.emerging economies such as India central.banks from across the world have.responded by collectively cutting.interest rates 71 times across 49.different countries still that being.said higher growth higher global growth.in 2021 and 2022 is expected which.should increase our opportunities to.sell abroad now those estimates by the.IMF did not account for the most recent.outbreak of the corona virus in China.which has been impacting much of Chinese.China's economy you can see here in.January that the Shanghai Composite.Index fell by 10 percent in January with.the emergence of the corona virus but.it's since started to recover we're.tracking this on many levels globally.we've observed significant disruptions.and shipping and supply chains and we.would expect less spending by Chinese.consumers particularly in the first.quarter that may reduce their purchases.of higher value products such as meets.private sector forecasts have lowered.their estimates of China's first quarter.GDP by as much as 2 percentage points.it's far too early to tell what the.final impacts will be but most of those.forecasting operations.expect the second quarter third quarter.and fourth quarter and China to rebound.any perceived risk or of uncertainty.often strengthens the US dollar and.that's what we saw last year as a safe.investment trade uncertainty and.interest rate cuts kept the dollar.strong in the first part of 2019 but.over the second half of the year the.dollar depreciated against several.currencies we saw a moderation of.tensions between the US and China we saw.we saw resolving uncertainty about.brexit and we did see some higher oil.prices in the end of the second half of.2019 which supported both the Australian.and the Canadian currencies we also saw.interest rate cuts as I mentioned.earlier by some central banks such as in.Russia which helped support their.currencies such as the ruble and.incidentally the coronavirus recently.has led to an appreciating dollar that's.reflected in these slides despite the.mixed economic signals heading into 2020.there has been important progress and.trade that I'm sure we're going to talk.about a lot over the next two days and.that's going to improve access for us.agriculture in 2020 and beyond three.main trade deals that we'll hear about.today and tomorrow cover over half of US.exports the u.s. MCA will lower trade.friction between our North American.trading partners and is expected to grow.the u.s. export market to more than.forty 1 billion dollars in 2020 the.japan-us agreement will also help lower.tariffs on more than seven billion.dollars in u.s. AG exports but more.importantly it will equalize market.access for sectors such as US beef and.pork similar to those enjoyed right now.by the EU Australia New Zealand and.Canada into Japan and their large seven.trillion dollar market and the phase one.deal with China will boost sales to our.main agricultural customer however there.remains much more work to do such as.gaining better access to the nearly 1.4.billion consumers in India and our.trading negotiators and administration.and president are working on that as we.speak all right I'm going to put up a.slide here and hopefully this works this.is the first time I've tried this but.this shows some of what we're expecting.and trade and excited to see so this is.a timeline of different economies and.the size of the bubble reflects how much.we're trading with that or how much US.product they're purchasing from us and.their per capita GDP is along the x-axis.so a lot going on there what did we see.we saw three decades ago Japan was our.largest market for US exports at about 8.billion there at that same time they.were our exports were concentrated.mostly in the EU in Canada the u X.exports at that time to China were less.than 1 billion dollars and exports to.India were only 240 million dollars at.the time China had GDP per capita of.about $700 a person in India at $600 a.person this change dramatic.NAFTA took effect you probably saw that.in 1994 u.s. Ag exports to Canada and.Mexico grew 300% in 1995 WTO officially.commenced boosting market access.globally and 2001 China entered the WTO.and US exports to China expanded hitting.almost 26 billion dollars in 2014 US.exports over the last past half decade.have declined under increased foreign.competition and a 20-18 exports slowed.dramatically under the disputes with our.major trading partners bringing us to.watch it one more time and then I'll go.to the next slide so I just talked about.all this look at we can see China and.India starting together.boom China opens to the global.marketplace starts become you know.growing dramatically both in per capita.GDP as well as our exports in India yet.to take off but again highlighting the.importance of getting into that market.in the future where are we today in 2020.us egg exports are forecast at a hundred.and thirty nine point five billion.dollars that's up four billion from last.year China were forecasting right now at.14 billion for fiscal 2020 up from 10.billion last year.now that reflects public information.available right now and phase one but.the trade outlook forecasts are based on.a fiscal year and this outlook also.reflects uncertainty that I mentioned.earlier our top market in 2020 is.currently expected to be Canada.forecasts at 21.5 billion and Mexico.forecasts up to nineteen point eight.billion you and Japan slightly down for.20 fiscal 2020 again just to emphasize.the calendar year phase one commitments.are not reflected in a fiscal year.calculation completely one question we.get is where do we expect the largest.growth to be in import demand over the.next ten years global demand for.agricultural commodities expect.especially emerging markets are expected.to grow global exports the prospect for.additional US exports over the next 10.years is strong growing at least to 183.point six billion dollars overall world.coarse-grain trade is projected to.increase by 37 million tons up 17% with.big markets in Mexico Egypt in South.America.global soybean trade is projected to.increase by 36 million tons up 24.percent mostly in China global wheat.trade is projected to increase by 30.million tons up 16 percent mainly in.Africa in the Middle East and the world.meat trade is expected to grow by 9.million metric tons poultry up 28% beef.by 18 percent and pork by 23 percent.alright let's turn to the 2020 crop and.livestock sector I know many of you are.excited to see these slides first let's.recap though in 2019 what we saw and.which drew a lot of attention and.critiques of USDA forecasts as we all.know 2019 was a very wet year in much of.America spring planting delays led to.slow maturing corn and soybean crops and.at harvest wet weather still hindered.progress across wide areas of the Corn.Belt that led to a surge in demand for.drying capacity and some natural gas.shortages and price spikes occurred in.many areas in parts of North Dakota.Minnesota Wisconsin early heavy snowfall.on top of wet ground ended field work.early before the harvest was complete.leaving significant acreage for harvest.in the spring as you know today we're.coming out with our early estimates for.the 2020 year and this is what we had.last year for corn in 2019 our estimates.are based at this time purely on supply.and demand fundamentals and price.expectations and we do assume quote.unquote normal weather of course we know.it's fairly wet out there right now the.first official estimates for the new.crop year in the Oise d are released.released in May and that reflects the.planting intentions surveys that Nass.will release at the end of March in June.last year we reduced our acreage and.yields reflecting observed weather.conditions at the end of June Nass.released its acreage report which was.used in the July Wasti given the high.corn prices and strong price signals at.that time to plant corn it is not.surprising that farmers said they would.plant more corn and that was reflected.in the July estimates in August Nass.began begins to report monthly survey.based day.acreage and yield estimates which are.coupled with administrative data and.satellite information as you all know in.August Nass surveys came in from.producers noting fewer acres planted.than expected but higher yields than had.been forecast earlier overall the corn.harvest was pegged at roughly thirteen.point nine billion bushels slightly.above the July estimates but.significantly different from the average.trade estimate from many probably of you.in the room by more than 600 million.bushels what did we see many farmers.outside and outside analysts felt that.the USDA estimates did not reflect the.poor planting conditions that were seen.on the ground in many states what the.estimates did reflect was what farmers.were saying on their surveys coupled.with satellite information as well as.administrative data from FSA and RMA a.market correction happened in August.with the December futures falling.quickly by almost 50 cents a bushel.further frustrating farmers that were.dealing with difficult planting.conditions one thing we heard this year.is why doesn't USDA use satellite.information to help them with their.estimates of course we've been using.satellites for many years and we've been.getting better each year as those datas.improve our ability to estimate crop.production you can see how improved.satellite information and improved usage.of administrative data have helped USDA.refine their estimates over time going.back to the 70s we haven't seen a year.when the coram crop forecast in August.was more than 7.5 percent off since 1995.and the deviation has been less than.five percent over the past five years.again in the blue here is our estimates.in August relative to the final and the.orange is the average trade estimate.relative to the final let's look ahead.now to 2020 big question out there is.where are we going to plant all those.acres our eighth major row crops corn.soybeans wheat upland cotton sorghum.rice barley and oats averaged nearly 257.million acres over the 2012-2014 period.looking at the principal crop.pay courage for the NASS principal crops.acreage was down in 2019 by almost 16.million acres which most of that coming.from soybeans down 13 million relative.to 2018 so again looking across the.united states we saw significant.planting prevent plant and unplanted.acres in 2019 relative to 2018 so where.are we going to put those acres this.year we would expect a good portion of.those to go to court and soybeans in.2020 let's look at what the price.fundamentals are we look at global.stocks relative to use at first to see.what we think about the upcoming demand.for those commodities and we can see.strengthening in the balance sheet or.the stocks to use for corn and soybeans.relative to eat and rice so we would.expect larger better returns visa fees.those commodities for corn and soybeans.similarly we expect growing global.demand for varied diets and increasing.animal proteins to continue to stimulate.demand for feed grains and soybeans and.here we see it's not just the united.states that are improving their output.but Brazil is optimizing their land as.well utilizing double cropping resulting.in more soybean acres and a second crop.corn now that has overtaken in Brazil's.first season crop current record.production in Brazil is pegged at.roughly 4 billion bushels of corn and.4.6 billion bushels of soybeans in.addition planning decisions will be.affected by a number of other factors.such as expectations about trade and.tariffs and prices compared with rising.input costs the current futures prices.point to a large US corn crop the.soybean to corn price ratio has dipped.to four year lows in addition we know.that local demand and transportation.costs will drive regional plantings for.example we see that soybean the corn.prices currently favors the planting of.more soybeans in the Upper Midwest.compared to planting more corn in the.Eastern Corn Belt as well as the.southeastern part of the United States.under anticipation of return to normal.trade with some growth in those markets.boosted by trade agreements we project.that soybean prices will rise.honestly up a nickel to 880 a bushel.this coming year supported by lower.stocks compared to last year's record.level in contrast corn is expected to.decline 25 cents to 3 dollars and 60.cents a bushel with larger corn acres.and expected return to trend yields.wheat prices are expected up 35 cents to.4 dollars and 90 cents a bushel.reflecting low ending stocks cotton.prices remain low however global.conditions and the return to more normal.trading patterns with China remain a.significant uncertainty for the cotton.market in the coming year cropland area.last year's planting difficulties as I.mentioned resulted in 13 million fewer.acres of soybeans compared to which is.equivalent to roughly a 600 million.bushel carryout that reduction supports.an increase in soybean acreage to.roughly 85 million acres up 12 percent.corn area is expected to rise 4.3.million acres to 94 million following.last year's prevent plant supported by a.new crop prices that are relatively.favorable to corn wheat and cotton acres.are down with more acres planted to rice.let's turn to meat and dairy production.2020 production of meat will set another.record at one hundred and eight point.eight billion pounds beef production.will increase about one percent pork.about four point five percent and.broiler protect production up about four.percent the increase in production over.the past ten years has been accompanied.by increasing shares of production.exported with more than 25 percent of.our pork production expected to be.exported in nearly 20 percent of dairy.being exported I'll just note of course.we've got record dairy production as.well in the red there at more than 220.billion pounds expected for 2020 I'm.gonna let you take a look at this slide.real fast while I get it there's a lot.going on here but this tries to.encapsulate what's going on with African.swine fever in one slide there's a lot.going on.I can even use a pointer on this one so.what have we seen we've seen significant.declines of pork production China in.particular China hog production in 2019.down 195 million head and we expect a.reduction of another 80 million in 2020.Chinese pork prices have spiked to one.hundred and fifty to two hundred percent.of what they were a year ago you can see.in 2019 most exporting countries.particularly the EU increased their pork.exports to China and China's.dramatically increased their imports.globally with purchases from the US up.150 percent from 2018 the phase 1 deal.in place we would expect a larger.portion to come from the US in 2020 but.let's look at the loss in China.consumption and supplies it's far larger.than then all of global trade in pork.and we'll take some time to resolve so.again the drop in China consumption.significant 15 point 8 million metric.tons total trade for 4 million metric.tons plus another 7 gets you only to 11.so we've got a significant hole there in.proteins that is going to be filled with.other proteins such as beef poultry and.again higher exports of pork coming from.the United States what a prices show.despite record levels of beef production.steer prices are expected to close.unchanged for 2020 slightly up strong.demand for pork domestically and.internationally is expected to support.increased hog prices broiler prices are.expected to come under pressure from.higher production levels going down.slightly but fairly unchanged and milk.prices are expected to strengthen.slightly in 2020 as well let's look a.little bit closer at dairy you've heard.a lot about that and the news over the.past year we know that US milk.production is expected to grow by 13.percent over the next 10 years but.prices milk prices are only expected to.increase about 5 percent as with other.sectors growth and production has been.through increased gains and animal.efficiency.steady increases in milk per cow however.dairy remains a sector experiencing.significant structural reform and the.number of licensed herds has been.falling as production has been.increasing the recent USDA Nass census.shows how the distribution of dairy.farming operations has been changing.from one with many small dairy farms to.one with fewer but much larger.operations now more than half of u.s..dairy cows are being milked and.operations with a thousand or more cows.five times higher than we saw 20 years.ago and the reason for this is apparent.in this chart showing the cost of.production for dairy farms across the.United States the chart shows that the.majority of dairy operations have cost a.production that are greater than the old.milk price but the majority of milk.production is occurring non operations.with costs higher than the old milk.price based on this we would expect to.see continued consolidation in the dairy.sector let's turn now to the farm.economy and farm policies we know that.US farmers as I mentioned faced a number.of natural disasters in 2019 and USDA.responded with all the tools available.to it making timely payments for lost.claims and crop insurance policies and.utilizing FSA's suite of disaster.assistance programs in addition to those.tools USDA implemented the Wildfire and.hurricanes indemnity program plus using.the funding provided by Congress wit.Plus provided payments in addition to.crop insurance to producers affected by.natural disasters in 2018 and 19.stepping back of course this is.something that I typically show at the.beginning of this presentation but we.look at sentiment to farmers over the.past year relative to where we were in.February of last year we can see that by.and large most of these indices that we.track whether that's the corn price.consumer sentiment from the from.Michigan the AG barometer from the CME.Purdue survey the rural Mainstreet.survey that's done by Creighton the Dow.Jones Industrial Average or the housing.market are all up relative to this time.line.year but certainly farmer sentiment was.volatile over this period in May farm.sentiment fell due to increasing trade.tensions May was the lowest overall egg.Brom Perdue a Gromit er index since.October of 2016 in June the barometer.rose with the announcement of the new.MFP program for 2019 in July the core.price of corn rose with the knowledge of.widespread prevent plant and so did the.AG barometer however in August was we.just talked about with more corn acres.and expected in weaker commodity prices.sentiment fell in December with.prospects of improved trade relations.farmer sentiment about the future.continued to improve and in January.there was a large boost in optimism as.the phase 1 deal with China was signed.by the US this is a new record before.this index for the AG barometer index.indicating that farmers are very.optimistic about the next six months.let's turn to farm household income more.than 98 percent of farms in America are.family farms so farm household income is.a good benchmark to look at when.thinking about the health of the family.farm we can see that overall family farm.household income stretches from negative.8 this is a cat farm household income.stretches from negative 8,000 to more.than 300,000 with the median roughly at.72 thousand dollars that's typically.found to be above the median u.s..household income however this chart.illustrates there are still roughly 50%.of farms out there that do not earn.positive returns from farming and we.also know that more than 50% of US farms.have primary principal operators that.are either retired or list another job.as a primary occupation a growing US.economy helps farm household income but.low commodity prices in recent years.have weighed on farm income yet farm.income we see has rebounded slightly.since 2016 in part particularly last.year that was due to high levels of.indemnities and government payments in.2020 we expect net farm income to rise.slightly from 93.point six to ninety six point seven.billion dollars with higher cash.receipts but we also expect lower farm.program payments and lower indemnities.on normal weather even though input.costs will be rising and we'll talk.about that at the end here usually when.we think of disaster payments we think.normally are talking about crop.insurance and that's what we're showing.here but in this case crop insurance.still covers the bulk of most losses due.to weather but we saw in particular an.increase in prevent plant last year of.more than four billion dollars whip and.whip plus along with the top up for that.prevent plant still show up in the.twenty seventeen and eighteen and.nineteen numbers as the pink sitting on.top of those years so whip has been.important but again this portrays the.importance of the crop insurance program.to providing that basic safety net for.farm producers to weather risk.similarly the fourteen point five.billion dollars and MFP payments the.2019 program will be paid out in 2019.and 2020 you can see here how those.program payments were targeted to the.state's most affected by the retaliatory.tariffs with MFP exceeding five hundred.million dollars in eight states running.from Texas to North Dakota and over to.Indiana the picture of the states there.on the right showing trade that's.affected by tariffs and the picture on.the left where MFP program payments are.expected for this year farm debt is.forecast at four hundred twenty five.billion dollars with two hundred sixty.five in real estate debt and one hundred.and sixty 1 billion in non real estate.debt overall the farm sector debt is.near its peak from the early 1980s.equity is forecast to decrease very.slightly 0.7 percent in 2020 while debt.is anticipated to increase slightly by.0.5 percent that puts a debt to asset.ratio for the farm sector at thirteen.point six that's still low but certainly.it's the highest we've seen since 2003.on the other hand both interest rates.and inflation are expected to remain low.20 which has kept debt financing.manageable and which has also helped.maintain equity through higher farmland.values those overall values can mask.areas of greater vulnerability the.percent of farms with very highly.leveraged balance sheets that's debt to.asset ratio is above 71% has been slowly.rising for several sectors including.corn soybeans and hogs but overall the.number of crop farms in highly are very.highly that's above 0.4 debt to asset.ratio is about 1 in 12 and that's remain.constant over time and the number of.livestock and dairy farms in highly are.very highly leveraged financial.situations is sitting at about 1 in 16.right now again fairly constant over.time we've seen a lot about bankruptcies.and I put some slides together on that.the overall bankruptcy rate has remained.low below three farms per 10,000 over.the past nine years and while has.increased year-over-year by 24 percent.the rate is still low historically what.is helping with that again both interest.rates and inflation remain low which.helps maintain farmland values if we.look at states there are some that show.higher than average bankruptcy rates.such as Georgia Nebraska and North.Dakota in 2019 but others such as Maine.Michigan and Florida or bankruptcy rates.have been lower than the average by and.large most states had fewer than two.bankruptcies per 10,000 farms in line.with the historic average again the red.line here being on average if you're.below the red line that would mean that.in 2019 you had higher bankruptcies the.state had higher bankruptcies than the.ten year average if you're above the red.line lower bankruptcies than the ten.year average overall going into 2020 the.basic outlook for many farms look better.than it did last year we have.expectations of better trade.expectations of better weather and.continued low interest rates.nevertheless the farm balance sheet.remains tight for farms without.significant land equity total costs.including land rent generally exceeded.exceed expected revenues in many.regions with cash flow difficult for.corn and soy or for soybeans and wheat.in particular of course this balance.sheet does not include government.payments so arc/plc is not included in.here the 2019 tranche three payments for.MFP are not included in here but this.just underlines that in many places.farmers that are renting land are going.to have a difficult time showing cash.flow if you own your own land it's a.different story of course because that's.the highest input cost that's here so.farmers that do have significant land.equity are in a better shape going into.2020 let me put some summary slides.together here first of all current.conditions as I pointed out point.towards that improved outlook in 2020.trade deals are expected to improve our.access and trading opportunities abroad.and return to more normal trade with our.major trading partners with lower.friction should lower cost for producers.and improve returns the economic.fundamentals are stable interest rates.remain low and that will keep borrowing.costs down equity remains high relative.to debt and we have stable land values.weather conditions are likely to be.better of course that's hard to forecast.going into the new year we do know.there's a lot of rain out there a lot of.wetness a lot of precipitation that.we've seen over the last couple weeks.and months but again we would expect.that conditions will be better than the.historic conditions we saw last year and.that should improve outlook for corn and.soybean crops as well as other.commodities we do see corn and soybean.air occurs likely to be up from 2019.based on price signals that we're seeing.right now livestock sector is poised for.continued growth with record production.in beef pork and poultry growing export.access from meat exports reflecting the.trade one phase one deal of China the US.Japan agreement and continued global.income growth in 2020 and 2021 the.international competition in crop and.livestock production is intense.particularly with our.four countries to the south in Brazil we.continue to see corn and soybean.expansion in production u.s..agricultural productivity remains.remarkably strong that's something we're.going to hear about over the next couple.days with continued investment in.technology and innovation key to.maintaining markets profitability and.feeding a global population so what are.our expectations for the next 10 years.production of crops in the US should.reach 612 million metric tons over the.next 10 years these are the main.commodities we're talking about today.the main eight that's up about 10.percent from the from this time from.current and that's on the same amount or.a slightly less cropland again increase.in productivity is something we're going.to continue to hear about but it remains.one of the only ways to ensure decent.livelihoods for US farmers and farm.workers it will help us meet global food.security challenges and manage scarce.natural resources we know that markets.are competitive which dries producers to.be efficient and to innovate US farmers.have shown time and time again their.resilience and ability to compete.globally and we know that more people.will have improved access to food in the.coming 10 years as food prices fall and.economic growth boosts purchasing power.yet much work remains the number of.people who are food insecure in 2018 had.risen to 820 million roughly 10 percent.of the global population u.s. producers.and US innovators have a vital role to.play in responding to that demand we can.see that the number of undernourished is.moving in the wrong direction here if we.are to meet our UN target of zero hunger.by 2030 as I mentioned US producers and.innovators will have a vital role to.play in responding to the demand in a.sustainable way two challenges facing.agriculture such as limited land water.and natural disasters now it is my.pleasure to introduce.usda's 31st secretary of agriculture.sonny perdue he'll be speaking today.about USDA's agricultural innovation.agenda and we'll sit down with his guest.John Hartnett to talk about that.innovation imperative please welcome.Secretary Purdue.good morning.welcome everyone looks like we got a.full house here today and we are the.light to have year two the 96th annual.agricultural outlook summit it looks.like some of you may have raise your.hand if you hear the first one I think.looking out there some of you may have.made it the first one so we're happy to.have you here today and this our theme.this year is the innovation imperative.shaping the future of Agriculture so.we're delighted to have you here and we.the story today we're going to talk.about I don't think we've told the story.of agriculture very well and what we're.going to be doing over this next year is.sharing where we've been as far as a.footprint for where we want to go and.that's going to include certainly an.agricultural success story but an agenda.now for all you honor students you don't.need to read that all at one time I'm.going to go one by one okay so the.valedictorians out there trying to take.notes we're going to we'll have more of.that going forward but really the.success story of American agriculture.what we haven't done farmers are pretty.pretty good about producing they're just.not good about telling what they've done.and most of them are kind of quiet set.behind the farm gate and really don't.talk a lot about what's what's happened.but this is the fact the story of the.last 90 years of US agriculture a four.hundred percent increase in food and.fiber production and increased.productivity with fewer resources and.that's the that's what's the story is.here they've what does that mean in that.way it means that we've opened export.opportunities and in fact if we look at.trade over the last couple of years.we've offered export necessities and and.because we're producing more than we can.consume here we're contributing to the.to the trade balance here in the United.States but more importantly we've kept.food prices low reliable for our.American farm families American family.consumer families all over this country.in an amazing way so that's what's.making Americans spend less on their.paycheck then almost anywhere are really.anywhere in the world.and we've got some facts to back that up.so here's what here's what the story of.American agriculture has been it's.producing more with fewer inputs and we.see just over the past 70 years u.s..outputs almost tripled here three times.up there while inputs have only.increased by ten two percent annually.so you can see here the line of total.agricultural output and what our.economists say dr. Johannson would tell.us the total factor factor productivity.for agriculture has been wonderful in.that way of the measuring the inputs.versus the outputs versus the inputs.which you see down here with the end.inputs there so it's been a great story.and the measure is an indicator of how.efficient agricultural sectors have been.and become over that past 70 years and.it's a great story to tell we really.haven't done that but how have we gotten.there and this is the key innovation is.me that's possible we know that farmers.are great innovators they're great.entrepreneurs they're great ingenuity.and many of the OEM equipment we see.from the majors today started in a farm.shed somewhere you know that farmers.were looking for a better way to do.whatever they needed to do they design.things they welded it they built it and.they've innovated their way to success.and that's what has made this possible.farmers aren't always the biggest.advocates for their own successes they.tend to stay behind the farm gate and go.to the farm shed and and do what they.need to do in order to become better.about what they're doing so but it's.important of us to illustrate the truth.about American agriculture and it's it's.really important as we go go forward in.doing that so we we understand that the.united states model of private sector.innovation and our science-based.regulatory approach encourages farmers.to adapt the latest technology is there.and that's what we want to do you see.the productivity increases here.from technological advances there we see.all the way back to the 1929 the rubber.tyred tractors here and all the various.types of things irrigation and robotic.milking and no-till and satellites for.precision agriculture really biotech.issues about tolerant research all those.kind of things.innovation has has driven technological.innovations have helped to rep that.record place of 400% including.agricultural productivity over these.years so that's why we want to continue.to do that we've got to focus more on.aligning those kind of things as we go.forward in that way so embracing.innovative technologies allows farmers.to become more efficient while.ultimately improving their bottom lines.keeping costs low and productivity high.so even in the dairy sector which has.been under quite a bit of stress you can.see their productivity gains over the.last several years ninety years ago we.had this many cows and now we have 60%.less cal fewer cows with guess what.twice as much milk and that's one of the.reasons dairy there's so much sector.because they've been so productive we've.over produced really to keeping these.costs low for our consumers while the.the livelihood of dairies has been under.stress so of an interesting thing over.here at the same time we hear a lot.about methane emissions from cattle and.dairy cattle methane emissions per.gallon of milk have dropped over 50% as.we've gone forward there we see also we.know about precision AG the.digitalization of agriculture and.adoption of precision agricultural.technologies is enabling farmers to.again to increase improved productivity.I remember when I went to the Farm.Progress Show in 2017 I saw the the sub.inch technology they're ripping that.soil in the fall.placing about half the nutrients there.that were typically done.and then the spring coming back and.placing that seed in that very same sub.inch technology with a 20 bushel per.acre increase that's quantum type of.productivity increases that we're seeing.in agriculture that's driving the end of.the innovation that's driving these kind.of technological advances here.data-driven decision making this.digitization I was telling John earlier.this morning that well the best farmers.have used this great a aisle on top of.their shoulders for many years.intuitively making the best decisions.the most successful farmers have been.the best about that but when we're.digitizing that we're going several.decimal places to the right where they.can make even better decisions and even.the ones that had not been as successful.can look at that data and make better.digitized decisions going forward for.American agriculture what does that mean.less inputs better utilization of water.using sensor technology optic technology.for the future and again innovation will.continue to drive with these.self-steering vehicles that you see.almost on 60% of our arable acres today.regardless of what kind of crop you're.growing pretty amazing I used to take.pride in the kind of straight row but I.can't compete with the GPS guidance.today and probably many of you farmers.out there can't either when you took a.lot of pride in that but we're going to.containing people of the access to.reliable affordable connectivity in.rural America what does it depend on.there's no rural broadband not only in.the farmsteads but also in the fields.for this corrected kind of precision.agriculture to really take place we're.going to have to have that I think it's.the one of the most transformative.things we can do from an infrastructure.perspective that really matters in.American agriculture as we go forward so.we need to continue doing that not only.we've done a great job productivity wise.but farmers are doing a much better job.from a conservation perspective that's.because they live on the land and.they're smart enough to know they don't.want to poison that land for future.generations any farmer you talk to their.goal is to pass that land along to the.next generation I remember very clearly.my father.they're telling me son our.responsibility whether we own it or rent.it is to leave it better than we found.it and that's what farmers are doing.today as we see I think again this is.important since 1980 farmland has.decreased over 49 million acres while.forest land has increased over 3 million.acres we know that what that contributes.to the greenhouse gas issues in that way.the other thing here farmers are doing a.much better job because they realize it.helps their productivity rather than.having topsoil eroded they're doing a.great job here with 45 percent decline.in soil erosion from 82 to 2012.including water and wind erosion.declined by 45 percent that's real.conservation efforts that I think with.modern technology we can even do better.knowing what no-till and what cover.crops and conservation tillage now used.widely on many major crops but it's.still not universally adopted what we.hope to do is to until the data and the.facts of where people farmers will adopt.these kind of technologies and make a.difference in that way so we've the good.news is it's it's essentially what the.story of American agriculture is is.doing much much more with much much less.and that's what what we want to talk.about as we go forward we know obviously.with all the successes that we have that.there challenges ahead they're always.going to be challenges you read about.them in the press you read about them in.from consumers and others about the.challenges going forward and the.challenges of the world population most.people tell you that the world.population is expected to be about nine.point seven to ten billion people by.2050 that's a lot of hungry mouths out.there to feed you may know that our.motto at USDA since we began is to do.right and feed everyone that's a.challenge and there are challenges ahead.how are we going to feed everyone while.doing right and that's the best of.sustainability goals that we'll talk.about here in a few minutes the.challenges of feeding everyone almost 10.billion people while doing right.and by the environment and our social.goals as we go forward so we today we.want to announce a new AG innovation.agenda going forward and it's because.that's what's going to drive the.successes the AG in agricultural.innovation agenda and the real question.is how we're going to do it and it's a.department-wide effort to better align.USDA resources programs and research to.provide all farmers with the tools they.need to be successful into position.American agriculture as a leader in the.global effort we recognize that our role.at USDA is to support farmers of all.sizes we see some very innovative.smallholder farms creating different.things I was in Michigan a few weeks ago.and this young man that was 32 years old.that had left a high-tech well-paying.job was operating on three acres and.guess what he was growing dahlias for.the for the wedding industry of a flower.shipping all over the world in that way.so we've got a lot of a lot of.innovation a lot of creativity out there.so we've challenged ourselves to set.goals and to prioritize innovation and.to hold ourselves accountable USDA goal.is to stimulate the innovation of.American agriculture can achieve achieve.that shared goal of increasing doing.more with less increasing US.agricultural production by 40 percent by.while we reduce our contribution to the.footprint about 1/2 in 2050 and we think.that's attainable it's a stretch goal it.should be but we think we can get there.so here's what we're going to do.stimulate innovation so that American.agriculture can work toward the shared.goal of increasing agricultural.production by 40% while cutting the.environmental footprint by half in u.s..agriculture by 2050 it's going to take.all of us to do that it's going to take.alignment to do that between the public.sector and the private sector but that's.how we define doing right and feeding.everyone as we go forward.so how will we get there how will we get.there we're going to get there.strategically by working together with a.innovative creative private sector from.the farmer on the ground to our great.research public and private entities.here we're going to do research online.programs measure metrics and data and.we're going to have a school board so.that's what we want to do in four ways.going forward research our plans are to.develop a u.s. AG innovation strategy.that aligns and synchronizes public and.private sector research synergizes that.communicates with one another on what.we're doing where we need to go what are.the questions that we need to answer as.far as where we can and help to achieve.these goals through public and private.research going forward we've got so many.things differently a genome design.digitation.digitalization automation prescriptive.and of intervention and systems based on.farm manager there are many many kind of.things it's it's amazing out there I get.a chance to travel really all over the.country and all over the world and look.at what so what's happening out here.simple things not simple but interesting.things like light spectrum technology.regarding their influence on plants and.the kind of opportunities that are that.we've never imagined before so research.is part of that key certainly we want to.align our programs as our customer.facing opportunities with both FSA.dealing with farmers NRCS dealing with.our our producers out here in these two.farmer groups we want to align the work.of that research and deliver it through.cooperation with the Extension Service.and communication tactics across the.globe of aligning the work of our.customer faces agencies so we can.integrate those innovative technologies.and practices into our programs as you.will know many times government.regulations lag technology they lag what.is really happening out there in the.we want to be ahead of that we want to.be certainly shoulder to shoulder a line.from a regulatory perspective.acknowledging the changes that are.taking place so we can lead really that.way rather than hinder many times the.private sectors endured by the.technology that are available because of.outdated regulatory structures and our.goal or to align those and move out with.the industry as it moves out through.innovation and improve the coordination.here between our research and our.programs so we can fast-track the.implementation of that cutting-edge.technology into the hands of our.producers everywhere we want to go so.that's important as well then you know.we're going to measure we we have to.measure metrics and data are important.and USDA is is in a great place to to do.that and we need to make sure that we do.it in a in a way that preserves privacy.we know that farmers are very private.about their individual data the same way.would be about our tax returns we need.to guard this data but the USDA's to.help the private sector in accumulating.the data but also making sure that we we.preserve that data and use it for the.right way as we go forward in moving.moving out creating a review of.productivity conservation data and.analyzing that production to make the.best decisions going forward if you.don't measure and have the data and.we've got a lot of a lot of very clear.priorities they're going to come from.the big data you hear a lot about big.data but in agriculture we've got the.USDA has a lot of data sets we're trying.to make those more publicly visible.through graphic technologies through our.dashboards so everyone can have access.to that to make better decisions as they.go forward and then I'm from the old.school of Vince Lombardi if you not.don't have a school board if you don't.keep score you just practicing.we cannot afford just to practice in.this going forward if you're going to do.right and feed everyone you better keep.a score in that area so we're looking.pretty good here by 20.the USDA 99 and hunger zero so that's.what we want to that's where we want to.be in 2050 and we want to smack them we.want to food waste food lost in food.wastes you know this you know the.statistics about that just think about.if we could reduce food loss in food.waste all the way from the field of what.we leave there to the consumers plates.what we're leaving there it's amazing we.are we're so blessed in this country to.have an ample supply of food we've just.taken it for granted and frankly folks.we're just wasteful about it we cannot.afford to do that if we're going to have.the moral imperative of doing right and.feeding everyone across this world we've.got to make this part of the discussion.and we already developing champions to.deal with us in the various sectors of.convention areas and reefs or resorts.and other places and we're going to.bring our retailers into this and make.this a goal for all of us certainly we.want to do more with less we believe.that agriculture can be part of the.solution sequestering carbon rather than.a mitting carbon through the techniques.that we know that work and NRCS already.has plans and goals and demonstrations.of of carbon sequestration the good news.about this is while we sequester carbon.in our pelvis you improve soil health.which improves productivity so farmers.win by doing right and they win by.sequestering carbon using the farming.techniques that help to keep that carbon.in the soil improving the productivity.of those soils as well certainly from a.water quality perspective we know in a.lot of places we've allowed nutrients to.escape our fields we're doing a better.job there but we can do even better and.our goal is to reduce that that nutrient.runoff off of our fields and farms by.30% by 2050 in that way and then again.we think farming can be a real.contributor to our war air quality.through renewable energy and we've seen.that already through our ethanol and.biofuels industry but we think we can do.more in that way by creating a better in.environment for renewable fuels.hopefully really moving forward with.goals of 15% of our transportation fuel.moving to that so these are these are.all important goals but we're going to.have a school board that keeps track of.these we're not gonna wait till the.buzzer sounds a zero zero because you.know that it's progressive and we're.going to have really annual types of.indications of trends of where we are in.providing data to the industry and to.the world to know that we're serious.about this and serious about making.these goals by collecting more timely.information that's useful to our.customers I think we can ensure that.we're putting points on the scoreboard.and making these kind of scores good as.we go forward because why we want to win.we want to win big I mean look at their.and it's exciting when you win you.celebrate when you win right and it's a.it's really important to win that's what.we want to do as we go forward in.winning for the world and doing right.and feeding everyone as we go forward so.you know the challenges are meeting the.food fiber fuel feed and environmental.demands of the future is going to.require some challenge it's going to.require all the things that we talked.about innovation is the key aligning the.public and private sector is we go.forward and the real question is will.you join us will you commit yourself out.there in your various sector and your.sphere of influence to do the right.thing of us agricultural innovation.agenda and this is our mission should.you choose to accept it will you accept.now I would like to invite to the state.someone who has accepted that mission.and it is John Hartnett who is a quite.an innovator and investor here and is.going to talk we're gonna have a chat a.fireside chat here about the kind of.innovation he's a futurist in so many.ways and he has done a lot of things and.I want everybody John join me up at the.States so we can have a conversation.about the innovation imperative shaping.the future of Agriculture.as I indicated John has accepted that.challenge that mission impossible of.doing more with less and John I feel I.should have come out at a sealing unit.on a rope down here you missed the Rope.we weren't quite secure sir sure but.secured we didn't want you falling so.but nonetheless you're an innovative guy.frankly I uh I read your vaio and it's.pretty amazing what what you've been.involved in I told John earlier I don't.know if you remember the Palm Pilot but.John was one of the early innovators in.that to that area of the palm pilot and.handspring and he was just delighted to.know that I was a Palm Pilot user as we.went forward but he's leveraged those.kind of technological skills and become.interested in the food sectors well.knowing how important it is so John I.appreciate you making the trip to really.talk about the alignment of the private.sector and the public sector as we go.forward you're the founder and CEO of.SVG ventures an investment in technology.firm and you founded thrive which I had.the opportunity to visit with you last.year and in California a leading AG.innovation food innovation ecosystem.comprised at the top food and technology.systems using that digitization that we.talked about for for doing more with.less and very innovative kind of ways so.I know that's kind of your bow but what.do you really do John well I've been in.Silicon Valley for 22 years and you.might notice I don't have a Silicon.Valley accent or a Californian accent.I'm actually originally from ireland and.and I want to get my agriculture.credentials out early here because I.don't really accused of being a tech.city slicker here.I did get eight and nine and ten years.of age I drove my first tractor I bailed.hay in County Clare in Ireland and I.worked on a dairy when I was about 14 or.15 so my early years were in agriculture.that's where I got my big values but in.Silicon Valley you know look I had a an.opportunity to be there for the.basically revolution of the smartphone I.think everybody in the room here today.has a smartphone under half in her hand.it's changed their lives.but you know in the 90s that didn't.exist and we had to kind of project.forward to kind of say okay will this.how will this happen and we looked at.some of the key trends in terms of.connectivity on how that was going to.project forward driving costs down and.kind of getting a size that computing to.fit in your palm and that was how they.called the company so we invented the.smart phone and created about a five.billion dollar business you know you.know you're from that over about nine.years so that's kind of my a big part of.my background and about ten years ago.I'd set up SVG ventures and we set up an.accelerator to be able to accelerate.companies you know so haven't been a CEO.haven't been a CEO who set up companies.you know companies don't happen easily.you know it's hard work hiring a great.team building manufacturing operations.distribution so we took the approach to.build an accelerator and bring key.mentors around those comfort those.companies to be able to help them you.know try forward birthing and getting.them lean there's a challenge yes so I.think that you know that's kind of my.early early days and you know I got into.the agriculture world really by accident.you know we I think everybody knows.Silicon Valley but obviously California.is one of the richest land in the world.obviously a leader in the fresh fresh.food category and speciality crops and.even though Silicon Valley in Salinas.Valley you came here you know last year.and it was phenomenal for you to come.down and walk the fields and meet with.Taylor farms and also meet with the.technology companies in Silicon Valley.but even though we were an hour apart.the world of agriculture and technology.we weren't communicating as best we.should and really trying to kind of.align that was a big part of why we.started to do this well that's really.leads into my next question you you kind.of heard the outline of the goals today.of doing more with.using innovation and technology to get.there talk to me you talk to us a little.bit about how that aligns with what.you've already seen in the private.sector and aligning with the public.sector for these audacious goals of.feeding 10 billion people by 2050 yeah.well first of all my secretary I mean.these goals I think they're bold they're.ambitious but it's something that we.need you know this is you know probably.the most important industry on the.planet it touches every family and every.life on this planet so this is probably.the most important mission for all of us.and I think that alignment with.entrepreneurs you know my experience has.been entrepreneurs can really change the.world they can bring new innovations new.technologies together they can disrupt.industries and if you look at some of.the sequence of events over the course.of the last 20 years whether it's either.to do with FinTech or entertainment or.how you use information you know this.has all come from individuals and.entrepreneurs that have actually.actually done that but the world of.agriculture is not straightforward it's.a it's a complex industry it's a complex.supply chain and I think having these.goals really kind of set the bar but I.think really aligning the industry.aligning entrepreneurs aligning.innovators with the problems and.understanding how they're going to solve.those problems and use the technology.and innovation to solve these all these.problems this was something that we did.a thrive you know in California we.brought growers up from Silicon Valley.and are from from Salinas Valley up to.Silicon Valley and sat down and talked.to the innovators about the problems.that are have you know around labor food.safety water quality you know water.scarcity etc so I think the key thing is.to enable innovation and to unleash.innovation you've got it directed and.focus it on the problems that you're.most feeling the pain and I think that.will help drive a lot of the the.innovation going forward and I think.that's a big change of what we USDA.recognize is it we've got a we've got to.ask the right questions to solve the.biggest channel.of agriculture now what I'd like to hear.your honest appraisal of how does USDA.do a better job as a neutral arbiter of.not picking winners and losers but.facilitating the private sector research.with where we need to go in that way.helping to synergize and synchronize.both the production challenges out here.what are the what are the best producers.asking that needs to be solved next and.helping to align the research between.both the public and the private sector.what role do you see USDA playing in.that yeah I mean I think it's obviously.a very critical role in terms of there's.a lot of innovation out there I think.over the last you know five 10 years you.know farmers are seeing more sensors.more applications more data more.solutions and I think there's just.somewhat confusion out there in terms of.being able to understand what's the best.technology I should be using to drive.yield to solve some of the challenges.there so I think guidance and education.and and putting a road map out there for.for farmers to really kind of understand.and see what are the top technologies.that they can apply we just did our.thrive you know top 50 we evaluated.three and a half thousand startups um.over 90 countries around the world you.might want to take a little time and.explain what thrive is and how you're.the competitive aspect of thrive almost.like a an agricultural food particular.production shark tank any other things.yeah yeah so we we set up thrive really.to as an accelerator to accelerate.innovation to solve the problems of the.of the agriculture sector we also work.with major growth stage startups that.are you know like companies like plenty.and arrow farms who are really kind of.scaling under a controllable environment.agriculture sector and working with.these entrepreneurs on one side and then.at the same side we're working with.farmers so we're working with you know.Western growers who were over two and a.half thousand largest farmers in the.west coast United States we're working.with the likes of land of lakes across.the Midwest really to understand the.challenges of the far.and then at the same time you know we're.working with probably about three and a.half thousand startups and entrepreneurs.that are solving these problems so we're.kind of sitting in the middle and we've.driven programs to address the problems.with the farmers and also bring the.community together so you know what.seven years ago we founded the AG tech.summit with Forbes media and you know.you came to visit that last year the.whole idea about that was to thrive you.know challenge was to bring the.ecosystem together you know bring.farmers researchers innovators.entrepreneurs corporate technology.companies so that we can get after these.problems so it's a combination of the.the foundation of what we're doing is.the ecosystem and bringing that together.and then putting programs in place.whether it's either the programs around.accelerating technology identifying the.problems of the farmer and investing.behind those as well but we've worked.very closely and carefully with the with.the industry to identify these these.challenges what sounds like you and sgv.ventures and thrive are really already.doing what I've challenged all of us.today to do is to align the public in.the private sector you've gone to.farmers you've gone to taking the match.with investors when you match with.technology and innovators entrepreneurs.of finding solutions that way so that's.what I hope to really add USDA as a.public sector partner of facilitating.more that what we have specific.recommendations of how we can engage and.your as you know you're not the only one.there's a lot of interest in Silicon.Valley in the food sector now a lot of.investment and a lot of interest and.it's almost like after the technology.revolution they've kind of discovered.that the food industry and the food.supply chain that really needs focusing.yeah I mean look I think when investors.and Silicon Valley you know big.companies look at this sector the.agri-food sector in the full supply.chain is an you know eight trillion.dollar industry when you look at some of.those graphs that you talk about in.terms of you know a growing population.growing to ten billion people but also a.change.consumer you know 50% of the current you.know population is Gen Z our Millennials.who are changing the way they're they're.consuming and eating food and at the.same time you got the challenges wrong.water scarcity and all the challenges.around labor etc so that gap you know.it's hard to keep doing what you're.doing you have to innovate and I think.that's where we've kind of focuses on.that on the innovation in those areas.but then as you kind of as we kicked.into this we have to get the.entrepreneurs aligned with the with the.problems how we did that was we put a.challenge out to entrepreneurs so.instead of a generic challenge and.saying hey let's increase productivity.by 50% we're saying okay robotics.automation is going to make this impact.controlled environment is going to make.this impact bioscience is going to make.this impact and you know digitization.and data is going to make those impacts.so kind of breaking down the aspects of.this putting a challenge out to 5,000.entrepreneurs from around the world and.getting them to kind of come up with the.ideas the innovation and then pitch live.on stage you know five years ago we.brought entrepreneurs from around the.world into the Western growers it was a.group like this and the the Sharks on.the stage where the farmers ask the.tough questions in terms of how much is.just going to cost me how is it going to.improve my yield so it's really kind of.putting the entrepreneur and the and a.farmer together and addressing those you.know those challenges and those kind of.programs like the challenges I think are.can be can be very very impactful so I.think we need to go out to the industry.with these challenges that you've set.the bar and go out not just the industry.in the United States but worldwide there.are countries around the world here like.Israel you visited Netherlands you know.earlier this year I just came back from.Australia yesterday you know you look at.countries you know obviously Canada.Brazil they have all the same challenges.they are innovating as well how can we.collaborate with those with those.countries as well and and maybe get some.of the best of the best from some of.these other countries to make us you.know more competitive of what we're.doing so I think there's a combination.of the global aspect aligning the.problems and focusing on these and I.love.you've done here I mean having a.scorecard having it right up there.transparent with regard to this is the.this is the bar we're going for we're.gonna hold a team accountable for this.these are this is the roadmap and then.we're gonna measure this year by year.and see how we're performing you know I.don't play American football but I play.soccer and rugby and you know you can be.on the field but if you don't score.goals you're not winning and we've got.to score those goals so I think having.that kind of a transparent view I think.it's going to be very very important as.we move forward here what you describe.this for is segmenting the focus of a.research I didn't have time to get into.it this morning but that's exactly what.we want to do with our USDA Agricultural.Research Service is really to identify.the real challenges and problems where.the barriers what are the what are the.limitations here and deal with those.things in various sectors and I know dr..Hutchins will be talking more to our.industry as a whole about that too to do.that as we go forward so we look forward.that's a great strategy and I hope you.don't mind us copying that into that.role I know probably what's on the mind.and in my mind and a man of many people.out there we want you to give us a peek.into the future you you have a front row.seat at some of these types of.industries that are that are burgeoning.out here and just developing where.they're just sprouting out of the ground.or whether they're growing good then.tell us what you see what's what is.what's the future of some of the.exciting things that you think is going.to help us meet some of these goals yeah.I think if you you know I look at in a.couple of ways obviously we're looking.at entrepreneurs and seeing the.technology that they'll have venture.capital is investing into the future and.where is venture capital going and.placing the bets for the future in terms.of technology so when we did the.analysis of where all these dollars are.going in terms of venture capital.obviously Biosciences is going to.continue to drive the way in terms of.you know driving driving driving doing.more with less but I think precision.agriculture I think is going to step up.in a really big way I think investment.in controlled environment agriculture.there's a billion dollars already gone.into this as Academy from the private.sector so companies like plenty and.arrow farms for example they.raised six hundred million dollars you.know they're no longer a little startups.these companies are scaling you know.they're growing leafy greens they're.testing out berries today and I see this.as being a really interesting supplement.to the challenge that we have I don't.see it I don't see controlled.environment and vertical farms as a.competitive force I do see it.supplementing what we're doing but I see.that as a kind of a key key path going.forward i altered see that in terms of.the supply chain itself you know putting.farms in the distribution center or.vertical farms I think is is definitely.going to be taking place in the next few.years.robotics automation has played a major.role in what we're doing today.I think investment into this space again.has not has the same at the same level.as they should be I think this is an.important area where we can drive you.know automated vehicles that are there's.nobody on the vehicle and that they're.actually driving and doing the weeding.and the seeding and and and driving.solutions there and I think that's what.you're going to start seeing there's.companies I think you met in in Silicon.Valley commonly called farm wise and.blue river technologies these are.somebody technologies already exists and.I think they're about yes I didn't.realize that this was one of the.companies that you had helped to.accelerate there but we were in the.Salinas Valley and these two guys showed.me this machine whereas you know they'll.put many I believe it was cabbage.they're many seeds in the row and then.you had labor come through there and.thin out the most unproductive and a.space there to to leave hearty plants.there at a regular space well this.machine autonomously went on the road.it had optics there that would choose.the most healthy-looking seedling that.had come up there inject some nutrients.into that and unfortunately for those.weaklings it put them out of their.misery and so that was what I saw.autonomously saving I think about a crew.of 25 laborers in doing it like the five.or ten.times faster yeah so that was a great.example of us all right there yeah what.innovation sensor technology optic.technology can do autonomously driven.that was pretty amazing I mean one of.the other things is you know Driscoll.Barry's as you probably know are driving.robotics into harvest automation picking.strawberries you know it's going to be.pretty amazing as you kind of see that.kind of scale today I think the other.one is data.I mean data is is one of the issues that.is out there you know data without AI.and analytics is useless at the same.time it's a challenge in terms of the.trust and sharing that information so I.think this is going to play a key role.in terms of the future you know.secretary I would say one thing that you.know when we were in the smartphone.industry you know when Apple announced.they were coming into the iPhone it was.2007 but the technology was around for.10 years beforehand when the internet.started the technology was around for 20.years so I don't think it's something.that's going to be invented in the next.couple of years that's gonna be the big.breakthrough I think it's gonna be.adoption of the technology and I think.again this is where the us day can help.farmers to adopt some of this technology.I also feel like some of the big players.that are sitting on the sidelines at.today Google and Amazon and Microsoft.they are starting to embrace this this.space I think once they come in I think.it'll really kind of put that inflection.point you know in there in terms of this.productivity and entertaining at a.product productivity goal right you.talked about something I want to go back.to for a second because traditional.agriculturalists traditional producers.sometimes hear this gee-whiz futuristic.kind of thing and may feel threatened.you you mentioned very specifically this.will be an evolution there and it's.going to be complementary not replacing.it will it won't disrupt to the point of.through the through the adoption of.these techniques and most people will.move to it's not going to disrupt a.livelihood aside from helping them.become.so it's going to become complementary.rather than desecrating yeah I think I.mean I guess if we if we look at you.know vertical farming I mean why doesn't.any farmer here or have their own.vertical farm why can't they run their.farm in a supply chain as well so I.think you're gonna see this this change.obviously there's a couple of early.players like plenty and air farms.driving this today I think they're going.to really set the bar and show the way.but you know does that become something.that other farmers can deploy themselves.you know in the supply chain I think it.can be yeah with the local sourcing that.consumers want today and knowing where.that came from.I was grown certainly that's part of it.the other thing I mentioned in my.presentation was I love your advice and.counsel on how USDA from a regulatory.perspective can be aligned we don't want.we don't necessarily we we cannot lead.the technological revolution there but.how can we make sure that regulations.don't inhibit or hold it back in that.way it's a challenge here in USDA at DC.to make sure our regulatory environment.the president's been very interested in.fact I think that the D regulatory.environment that he's created has been.almost as much a part of the economic.boom that we're seeing here as tax.policy so people want to know.entrepreneurs want to know that you're.not going to hold me back if I've got a.great invention so how do we do a better.job of lining USDA regulatory issues.with that and I know one of the things.we're dealing with right now is new.breeding techniques how do we how do we.do the in animals in that way yeah I.mean the this is it's a very complicated.and a big challenge I think regulation.will slow down innovation it will slow.down the flow and the rate of what we're.trying to do at the same time you need.regulation you know like there's.significant data out there you know on.people's businesses you know and you.know farmers need to be sure about what.what's going to be done with their.information in terms of privacy so I.think that there's definitely a role.here to make sure that there's.regulation but.same time this data could make us much.more productive if it's actually.interpreted and analyzed the coordinates.so I think that balance I think is very.very important I think one of the areas.that I would say you know moving on in.terms of how we could drive somebody.innovation is why can't we set up super.farms in a couple of key locations.across the United States and start to.lead the world and kind of build.clusters of excellence you know whether.it's in Silicon Valley are on digital.and automation where it could be in.Research Triangle or you know various.different locations I think it's.important for us to identify these key.technologies whether it's robotics.automation control environment you know.on the on a biotechnology side but set.up areas of excellence where we can lead.not just only research but super farms.where we can bring entrepreneurs small.over the world put their technology into.place and demonstrate to us that this is.going to reduce the cost it's going to.increase productivity and also we can.lead the world here so I think there's.an opportunity for us to kind of create.super farms that can really demonstrate.this and obviously with connectivity is.a big issue and a major challenge for.the industry you know it's very hard to.enable technology without connectivity I.think you know a few weeks ago I'd my.kids with power outages in California.with the fires and my kids came to me.didn't realize that the lights were off.didn't realize the power was off or the.only thing they realized was there was.no Wi-Fi so so if you think how.important that is I think in terms of.every rural environment we you know I.think this is to me in terms of mission.this is the biggest mission that we have.if we want to enable and light up the.farms and enable and take one hand from.behind the back of the farmers we have.to drive that you know that that you.know connectivity and also maybe by.having super farms where we can kind of.showcase you know 5g in some of these.areas and show what the best of.innovation can do I think these could be.great areas where we can actually drive.you know drives us forward I think.you've just given us da a good idea here.to create certainly if we can put 5g in.our now NFL stadium.we put in super forearms and that way to.do that but I I know that I did visit in.North Dakota and Governor burgum who was.had a career in Microsoft they were.creating a smart farm environment there.and doing many of the things you're.talking about I love the I love it the.terminology super farm and I'd love for.USDA to be facilitating that going to.Congress and saying let's create some.demonstration plots out here for the.future because those ideas come out of.Silicon Valley need to be proven in the.field in someplace that's right you know.as I said I just came back from.Australia we were in Melbourne and the.Victorian Government are really driving.hard in terms of connectivity you know.in locations there and they've created.an initiative you know like this didn't.call it a super farm but the whole idea.is to have kind of a farm of the future.that you know that has that I think if.you look at Canada today you know.they've kind of come out with these.super clusters whether it's around next.generation foods and protein next.generation in terms of you know data.next generation or you know automation.and robotics so I think we need to you.know we're leading the world already but.I think we need to be careful that we.don't get complacent fertile and I think.you know having this kind of a focus in.terms of having these clusters aligned.with challenges that are going out to.the industry worldwide are out.entrepreneurs to say solve this problem.increased productivity by far you know.40% reduce our footprint by 50% and then.breaking that out putting the challenge.out there every entrepreneur bringing.them over here and putting them on our.super farms and as these super farms.demonstrate the future let's bring that.right across the United States across.the Midwest and across the west coast in.the ecosystem we have in the United.States is very fertile for that we've.got obviously private sector research.public sector research and we're talking.about trying to line we've got.entrepreneurial innovators and.demonstration farms over that but we.also have an extension service that our.land-grant universities that's very good.of getting the best and the best ideas.and.productive ideas out to a wide.cross-section of people so just like we.were talking today we know the things.that can produce soil health over.no-till and cover crops and those kind.of things.but we don't have universal adoption yet.there yeah and that's what we need to.get the best ideas of how soil health I.happen to believe soil health may be one.of those quantum leaps that we see as we.understand more the biology that's going.on in the soil itself from a.Productivity we've gained a lot over.genetics and will continue to do.genetics improvements but I think soil.health is also a huge component.absolutely and again you know some of.the technology is already there you know.there's you know two young girls from.Stanford University set up a company.called trace genomics and you know.they're four years old the company's.growing and scaling and they're really.focused on this area and they're you.know they're they're driving the whole.area on on soil health so how can you.how can a company like that scale and.how can we get that adoption of their.technology into into the fields across.the cost across the u.s. well John.you've you've challenged us we want the.globe to thrive by feeding everyone and.divert doing while we're doing right and.I think your contribution there we're.delighted that you have focused in the.food and agri-food sector and the supply.chain there of helping us to accomplish.some of these go bold goals that we have.and I look forward to a continuing.relationship we want to invite you to.help us hold USDA accountable and as you.see things that could enable and.facilitate the the technological.advances that will help us get there I.hope you'll feel free to help us do.better well thank you very much.secretary it's an honor to be here I.know in my you know last ten years I've.spent much more time in this industry.and I've been humbled by the industry.and I've been very passionate about this.industry because it's it's really.investing in our future and and you.when I look at our children I look at.our families this is the industry that's.gonna make a difference to our world to.our health and also to our families so.there's nothing more important in this.industry and that's why I am really here.and motivated to make it happen well I.think the producers in the audience.today and across their to hear this I.think would be very proud to hear you.say that you've been humble by the.challenges and the complexities of.production agriculture that makes.somebody like you that's on the cutting.edge of innovation and make us feel.better out here it's doing it it's easy.kind of manufacturing a smartphone it's.difficult you know producing food and.bringing it to the most complex supply.chain of the world in fact some people.even think it's easy farming.all right everyone we've got a little.bit of a time for a break right now so.feel free to catch up with your favorite.innovator out over coffee we've got a.great lineup for you coming back at make.sure you're back here at about 10:15.10:15 we've got us we've got speaker.speakers from Iowa Nebraska Indiana and.also from the Food and Drug.Administration so thanks everyone be.back here at 10:15.so Scott you got your.everybody if you could please take your.seat folks in the back could please come.on in and take a seat we're ready to.begin with the next session of the.program so again appreciate hope.everybody enjoyed the break got a refill.on coffee and is ready to go for this.very exciting panel that we have next.again if people in the back could please.have a seat come on in take your seat.once again as we get ready to roll.it gives me great pleasure to introduce.for our next panel our moderator and.facilitator of this next panel and it's.dr. John Newton dr. Newton is chief.economist for the American Farm Bureau.Federation the largest organization of.independent farmers in the United States.in this role dr. Newton is responsible.for the management of Farm Bureau's.Economics Department and coordinates and.conducts analysis used for the.development and advocacy of Farm Bureau.policy on the hill prior to joining Farm.Bureau Newton was an agriculture.economist for USDA and was detailed to.both the Senate Agriculture Committee.and the USDA office of the chief.economist following a service to USDA.and the congressional committee dr..Newton was was an award-winning faculty.member at the University of Illinois.urbana-champaign Newton is a Kentucky.native and holds two masters and a PhD.from the Ohio State University please.welcome dr. John Newton.good morning that was terrible good.morning.that's much better I'm glad that the.deputy secretary put the V in there we.were trying to trademark that at my alma.mater but I don't think that was.successful but I'm John Newton I'm the.chief economist for American Farm Bureau.Federation.we're the largest general farm.organization in the country we have.nearly 6 million farmer and family.farmer members across these United.States and and I have the opportunity in.my role as chief economist to travel the.country and visit with farmers around.the country and see firsthand the.efforts of farmers and ranchers on.innovation and I'll tell you when I.visit with our farmer members across the.country when I visit with other farmers.across the country I'll tell you farmers.are more than folks they're just playing.the dirt farmers are meteorologists.they're entrepreneurs they're risk.takers they're economists they're.scientists.finance ears veterinarians inventors and.innovators those are the farmers that I.engage with on a day-to-day basis.farmers must reinvent themselves every.year reviewing the lessons of the past.and adopting to ensure we never repeat.past mistakes and be better and more.productive than we were the year before.our dairy farmers and livestock.producers innovate to improve efficiency.turn waste products into fuels and to.better care for our animals and I think.one of the places that we see that the.most and one of the most important.conversations that agriculture has been.having for the past year and a half is.one around sustainability and one about.climate change I think it's important to.put in the perspective where US.agriculture is in that conversation.globally agriculture contributes about.24 to 25 percent to greenhouse gas.emissions and co2 equivalent.in the United States because of our.innovative techniques because of our.technology adoption whether you're using.the economic sector measure or the IPP.IPCC measure from the United Nations US.Agriculture contributes about eight to.nine percent of greenhouse gas emissions.in the United States some people talk.about livestock and livestock scon.tribution - greenhouse gas in the United.States maybe if you don't put milk in.your coffee you can reduce our.greenhouse gas exposure but if you look.at dairy farms for example 0.6 percent.is what dairy farms contribute to us.greenhouse gas emissions the beef cattle.sector contributes one point nine five.percent to us greenhouse gas emissions.and the pork sector contributes less.than point zero four percent to us.greenhouse gas emissions collectively.animal agriculture contributes less than.three percent to us greenhouse gas.emissions and that's because of the.productivity the technology and the.innovation of American farmers American.livestock producers and their.agribusiness partners across the country.including the Department of Agriculture.many people call the farm bill the first.green New Deal and it's because of the.efforts in the conservation title that.we're able to achieve a lot of these.goals and if you look at each sector.look at the livestock sector on the beef.side if you measure as an index beefs.contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.per unit since 1990 when the EPA first.started monitoring the greenhouse gas.data beef contributions are down seven.percent swine contributions are down.nineteen percent nearly twenty percent.and the secretary mentioned this morning.the success of the dairy industry.they're down nearly 25 percent in terms.of their contribution on a per unit.basis to greenhouse gas emissions in the.United States over the last thirty years.and that's because of the innovative.techniques technologies increased.productivity of the dairy farms all of.that contribute.to AG successful innovation story and I.think one of the more and most.successful parts of that innovation.story we can find when we look at our.row-crop sector if we look at corn in.2018 81 million acres of corn were.harvested in 1990 we would have needed.121 million acres to produce the same.amount of corn so we were 40 million.acres more efficient in corn production.in 2018 than when we were 30 years prior.on cotton we were four million acres.more efficient soybeans 42 million acres.more efficient and on wheat 8 million.acres more efficient combined nearly a.hundred million acres more efficient in.crop production than where we were 30.years ago.that's because of precision agriculture.that's because of innovation today the.secretary announced the agriculture.innovation agenda which includes a goal.and you got to go big or go home.it includes a goal of increasing US.agricultural productivity by 40 percent.while cutting the environmental.footprint of US agriculture by 50.percent by 2050 to do that we must be.innovative and we've got four excellent.panelists today to share their stories.of innovation we have jeff brewing the.founder and CEO of poet frankie honest.the Deputy Commissioner of food policy.and response at the FDA Bruce Cutler who.I just recently found out as a the Ohio.State University will forgive that was.Purdue and Indiana ties their director.of the Indiana State Department of.Agriculture and then we have sherry ragi.Fidler president of the farm foundation.those are our four panelists today and.they're going to talk about biofuels.climate change rural viability.innovation in agriculture as a solution.and digitation.food safety and traceability our first.speaker today is jeff brewing the.founder and CEO of poet jeff is the.founder and CEO of poet the world's.largest producer of biofuels poet.currently operates 27 by.setting plants with a combined annual.production capacity of two billion.gallons of ethanol reducing carbon.emissions and improving air quality.nationwide for the past three decades.Bruins mission to meet the needs of the.world through agriculture rather than.fossil fuels has grown the biofuels.industry while increasing grain demand.in rural America stimulating.international economic growth and.positioning agriculture to be a leading.solution to the climate crisis please.join me in welcoming Jeff to the stage.thank you I'm excited to be here today.to talk to you a bit about something.really big today we're going to talk.about the planet Earth but you see him.up here on the screen of the timeline of.the history of the planet.it shows the past the present and the.future let's take a look at the past so.how do we sustain ourselves for tens of.thousands perhaps hundreds of thousands.of years on the planet Earth well it's.pretty simple plants grew on the planet.Earth animals consume the plants people.consume the plants and the animals.eventually we even had row crop.agriculture using the animals that till.the land and the waste from the animals.went back to the earth as fertilizer in.the wastes from the plants and the dead.matter went into the earth and became.crude oil.I believe God made the earth to hold.unlimited amounts of carbon unlimited.think about that he made the earth to.hold unlimited amounts of carbon so in.the past everything was in balance on.the surface of the planet Earth then.came the next era the Arab oil and the.timeline of mankind this timeline is.probably as wide as your fingernail it.hasn't been that long a hundred and.fifty years and hundreds of thousands of.years we've had the era of oil so began.taking that dead matter back out of so.well not of the earth extracted about 50.million years of it over 150 years and.blew it up into the environment.anybody think that's just a little bit.out of sync made 50 million years 150.years yeah probably a little bit out of.sync this has caused enormous.environmental damage today more than.20,000 species of plants animals and.bacteria are going extinct every year.there's only nine million on the planet.you a recent University of Arizona study.in fact was in the paper last week.showed that one-third of plant and.animal life will be gone in 50 years.permanently gone you can't get it back.how long before we have catastrophic.consequences from our choice to pull.dead matter out of the earth how long.can we may wait to make a change so what.has to happen in the future to fix this.problem we created well I feel there's.only one choice we need to return to our.roots literally we need to stop.extracting oil from the earth it's going.to take time but it's got to start now.we need to return to agriculture in the.future I believe AG will provide the.food fuel and fiber to sustain all life.on our planet.it's a little-known fact that starch and.cellulose which my company processes are.the building blocks of almost everything.that come from a barrel of oil and the.byproduct is food protein oil and.micronutrients we can use the feed.people all over the planet and the more.we make the lower the price gets for the.food so y'all think it will it cost more.it's gonna cost more to make it out of.agriculture instead of oil well not.necessarily today biofuels are.significantly cheaper than the oil that.they replace and that's what zero.subsidies in fact oil still carries some.subsidies we have none.so why is this happen because oil prices.have increased exponentially in the last.few decades while commodity prices have.stayed pretty much the same due to.increase in yields and I believe that.will continue in the future will.continue to have higher and higher.yields and very competitively priced.commodities while oil which is running.out will get more expensive so the.opportunity is here and the time is now.in my opinion the only way to avoid the.catastrophic consequences of climate.change this return to agriculture now.here's another thing you're not thinking.about biofuels will need to be a.catalyst for profitable sustainable.agriculture what was the most profitable.time in agriculture in the last 50 years.when biofuels saw explosive growth we.tightened up worldwide commodity.supplies and prices went up farmers need.a profit to invest in the technology of.sustainability we can't expect them to.lose money and invest in sustainability.so biofuels will need to grow to bring.worldwide prices up if we do move to eat.from each end e15 seven to eight years.ago what should have happened commodity.prices would not be where they are today.they'd be much higher of course we've.been fighting a lot of battles of course.against our opponents to get there you.would not believe the battles oh I'll.show you a book on the history of it if.you want to see it it's been a tough.tough road and the 30% increase in.biofuels by 2050 announced by Secretary.of Purdue per day today will play a key.role.you see we simply can't eat we can't eat.what we produce and we never could are.you all aware that a recent Stanford.study a few years ago showed that a.billion acres went out of production.while the US and Europe subsidized grain.for 50 years billion acres went out of.production the agricultural capacity of.the world is virtually untapped and.nobody seems to know it virtually.untapped let's look at our other demand.sources exports really haven't changed.in the u.s. in more than 30 years.in addition other countries around the.world are producing more and cheaper.grain so what's the opportunity for us.agriculture how about we process our.crops right here into higher-value.biofuels and bioproducts and export.those around the world in fact that's.what my company does and we can do a lot.more of it and what else can we export.with it.protein oil and micronutrients which.will get cheaper I've been to Africa.numerous times those kids that don't.grow here in Africa it's because they.don't have enough protein let's lower.the price of it and send it to him as a.by-product everyone in this room needs.to tell the story the farmers don't just.produce food they precede fuel and fiber.they've already been doing it for.decades I've been in the business of 32.years of taking starch and turn it into.biofuel and shipping the byproducts all.over the world because - we produced 2.billion gallons of clean burning fuel 10.billion pounds of high protein products.that go around the world and 500 million.pounds of corn oil that becomes.biodiesel.that's biofuels as a byproduct of.biofuels.how's that for cool biofuels is anybody.thinking about that it's exciting it's.very exciting it's very exciting so you.might ask how can agriculture replace.oil I mentioned the AG potential of the.world is virtually untapped I'll give.you an example so we fund a we actually.created a nonprofit that works in Africa.and Kenya specifically we're working 160.thousand farmers in Africa right now we.can increase their yields by 400 to 900.percent on every crop they raise.including their trees for avocados and.and mangos and we can do it in two years.and if for years we can walk away in a.self-sustainable because they all go.from starving and not being able to feed.their own family having a surplus and.being able to sell so if you look just.at the continent of Africa alone we can.bury the world in commodities for 30 to.50 years all we have to do is teach them.how to do it helping with some.infrastructure and create the products.that can replace oil that says nothing.of India South America China and others.who are not using their land of the.fullest and remember there's a billion.acres out there that we set aside that.that hasn't come back into production.while the US and Europe are subsidizing.grain so the agricultural potential the.world is huge and I just don't think the.world understand that but we should tell.the story we all need to tell the story.I believe we need to tap the power of.the earth through agriculture to solve.the climate crisis AG isn't the problem.you just saw some data on that a minute.ago AG is the solution what will it take.to get the message out there it'll take.all of us working together AG isn't.famous for working together in fact.we're pretty bad at it we need farmers.AG companies AG organization biofuel.produces biofuel organizations food.companies the USDA may be our president.sustainability drivers like pan Agana.Culver's and people who are super.interested in agriculture I know them.they're very excited about these agendas.for agriculture and everyone we can.convince to tell the agriculture climate.change story we need to tell the world.we are the only short-term major.solution to climate change because.that's true if you look at the data the.only short-term solution to climate.change will need to fight an oil.industry that's well entrenched and they.spend a lot spend a lot of money to stop.us but I believe we can win it is.critical that we win because failure.isn't an option if we succeed we may.literally save the earth and restore a.healthy planet for future generations.what kind of world do you want to leave.behind for your children and.grandchildren thank you.thank you so much Jeff I think a couple.things you mentioned really stand out.economic sustainability and the fact.that agriculture can be part of the.solution so thank you very much for.those remarks our second speaker is.Frankie Anna's Deputy Commissioner of.food policy and response at the Food and.Drug Administration he's the principal.advisor to the FDA Commissioner on food.safety policies including implementation.of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act.his leadership role covers a broad.spectrum such as outbreak response.traceback investigation product recall.activities and supply chain innovation.mister Yanis came to the FDA from.leadership roles with Walmart and the.Walt Disney Company he has long been.recognized for his role in elevating.food safety standards and building food.safety management systems based on.science and risk please join me in.welcoming Frank to the stage.well good morning it's good to see CH.and every one of you and I'm delighted.to be part of this conversation about.the role of innovation and agriculture.and food production a topic that's near.and dear to my heart as you heard by the.way of the intro fairly new to the.federal government I arrived at FDA in.December of 2018 a little bit over a.year ago and prior to that I spent 30.years in the private sector I spent the.first 20 years of my career working for.the Disney Company where oversaw safety.and health including food issues past 10.years I was at Walmart where I was the.global VP of food safety and now for a.little bit over a year I'm the Deputy.Commissioner of food policy and response.at FDA so I like to joke I went from the.happiest place on earth the Disney.Company to the busiest place on earth.the Walmart company and now I'm at the.and I'll let you fill in the blank I saw.some of those mouths moving I didn't.like what I heard I actually think it's.one of the most prestigious regulatory.agencies on earth and I'm delighted to.be here yeah I'm with FDA not USDA when.I was in the private sector I thought.well USDA and FDA don't work together.but I can tell you having been in that.role and because of the strong.leadership of secretary Purdue and our.Commissioner dr. Steven Hahn and because.the American people expect their.government to work together the USDA and.FDA are working together better than.ever but even before I joined government.one of the things that was really clear.to me sitting atop of the world's.largest retailer was that innovation was.needed for food and in particular the.one that I'm really interested in today.and the one that I'll share with you is.digitalizing or digitizing the food.system and I'll share two use cases just.for illustration to allow you to imagine.I think digitalizing the food system is.critical because I believe we can create.a safer smarter more efficient and.sustainable food system and we have to.so that's what I'm gonna talk to you.about today.now just like the previous speaker that.gave a bit of a history lesson I like to.think of myself as a food safety.futurist and so any good futurist knows.that they have to understand and learn.from the past I love history.and so what I'm gonna try to do if you.permit me I'm gonna give you the history.of food production and food processing.in one slide in about 60 seconds I'm.gonna go through it pretty quickly.at the beginning of time man and I used.the term man affectionately ladies to.refer to both genders men and women.would eat food quickly say here eat it.before it spoils because they were going.out and hunting and gathering food fast.forward over time humans said that food.spoils fast here--let's salted and we.have literally in the literature our.first hint of early preservation.techniques after appeared it's eating.salty food apparently for a long long.time.humans said hey that salt tastes best.here let's put that food on ice another.form of preservation humans unsaid that.ice melts fast here let's place that.food in a refrigerator now they're not.the type of GE refrigerators that you.and I have at home but they were wooden.blocks that contain blocks of ice for.preservation around 1864 the science.begins to evolve with the work of one of.my heroes Louis Pasteur that food still.spoils here let's pasteurize it and food.can last longer and it can be safer 1980.scientists tell us that pasteurized food.doesn't last long enough here let's.irradiate it we can now have.shelf-stable foods for 50 60 70 years.sounds yummy.1997 we start here from some consumer.groups that say that irradiate food is.bad for you here heat this all-natural.fresh strength and at the turn of the.century this is what we're hearing that.all natural fresh stuff goes bad here.eat this food quickly before it spoils.so all you need to know about the.history of food and clearly it's.intended to be a bit humorous and you.laugh but there's a lot of truth to that.it's isn't it the pressure that's being.placed on food producers and farmers are.saying we want naturally processed.minimally processed and forgetting some.of the lessons we've learned from the.past such as consumers renewed interest.in drinking unpasteurized milk and the.lessons forgotten.about pasteurization so you can see in.some ways we've come full-circle.and while the slide is intended to be.humorous I want to pause on a more.serious note I genuinely believe that.the way forward is not going back to.some type of romanticized idea of how.good things used to be but I think it's.this march of continued improvement that.you've heard outlined here this morning.with innovation technology and change.the reality is the food system has.always been changing we talked about.hunter-gatherer you heard earlier today.about domestication of plants and.animals and early farming techniques.generally around rivers of you.fast-forward to the early 1900s what did.you have the industrial farming.revolution with more farmers able to.produce more food than ever before to.feed a growing population and letting.people specialize in other professions a.mere hundred years ago a lot of the.people in society would have been.involved in food production and that's.not so today and so the food system is.changing and it continues to change in.the 1980s the typical grocery store had.about 15,000 food products food SKUs how.many food items do you think your.typical grocery store has today anybody.want to guess I heard 60,000 clothes.50,000 a Supercenter could have up to.75,000 food items I know sometimes I.hear people very critical about the food.system.what a terrible food system I think.today's food system is pretty marvelous.are there opportunities for improvement.yes but imagine being an individual that.was living in the 1500 through the 1600s.and getting in a time machine at.fast-forwarding it to time and walking.into our grocery store today.you'd think they'd say what a terrible.food system they'd be in awe they say.you live better than kings and queens.thousands of different food products.fresh seasonally available foods from.all over the world available to you for.a fraction of your hard-earned dollar.that's the great work that all of you.have done but that doesn't mean that we.can't do better and where are we going.I like to think about at the endless.shelf I've seen the tsunami coming of.online conversion and you no longer.needing brick and mortar in this concept.of omni-channel where you can get online.order anything you want from anywhere at.any time maybe at your fingertips a.million SKUs that's the world that we're.living in research suggests that by the.year 2023 it's right around the corner.one at every five dollars spent on food.in this country will be spent on online.platforms there's a tsunami coming of.how consumers are going to shop that's.the equivalent of thousands of grocery.stores popping up all over their country.because I online conversion and they're.more changes coming.I believe let me see if you believe this.- I believe we're in the midst of a food.revolution how many of you believe we're.in the midst of a food revolution if so.it raise your hands quite a few hands.going up listen - I think there's going.to be more changes personally in the.next 10 years I'll predict this not a.big better but I'd almost bet it I bet.we see more changes in food in the next.10 years than we have in the past 30.anybody want to take me up on that bet.listen to this products will be pre.formulated they're being reformulated.new food sources and production.approaches will be realized they're.being realized and the food system will.increasingly become digitized and I.believe in what you've heard this.morning is that to succeed in these.modern times we're going to need more.modern approaches I don't think anybody.disagrees with that that's why at the.agency FDA we announced in April of last.year that we were going to be embarking.on an initiative called a new era of.smarter food safety will very soon very.soon be releasing a blueprint and will.outline how the agency will plan to.oversee food safety for the next decade.but it will strongly emphasize the use.of new and emerging technologies the.goal is to create a more digital.traceable and smarter food system what.is smart a food safety it's a new.approach.thinking about the problems differently.leveraging all of the technologies that.are existing in society and used by.business sectors all around us to.provoke provide efficiencies and improve.predictive capabilities Dell includes.some of the technologies that you'll.hear today blockchain technology sensors.you've already heard about that the.Internet of Things artificial.intelligence when you look at other.industries or tracking let's say.airplanes for example ride-sharing or.packages that you order online we can do.this with Woude we can create what I.refer to as the equivalent of FedEx.tracking for food and that will be good.for the food system let me tell you why.because the Y really matters why is a.digital and traceable food system.important the Y informs how we act.foodborne illness while by a large I.think the food system today is pretty.safe there's still too much foodborne.illness and we believe that one.foodborne illness outbreak is one too.many one in every six Americans will.experience a foodborne illness every.year about 48 million Americans the cost.is up into the ninety eight billion.dollars annually loss to the US economy.a digital and transparent food system.could allow us to have a safer food.system imagine small reductions in food.safety will achieve or deliver hundreds.of millions of dollars to the US economy.that's a good reason how about.traceability how many you remember.here's a picture of the spinach outbreak.that occurred in 2006 their more recent.outbreaks what happened.bagged spinach associated with e.coli.o157 h7 FDA says we know there's an.association but we don't know what brand.of salad or spinach it was what do we.have to do we have to go out with a.broad consumer advisor and say Americans.avoid bagged spinach basically all bags.of spinach wiped from all grocery store.restaurants across the nation sweeping.measure takes two weeks to trace that to.source when it's all said and done it.was one producer one day's production.one lock member the damage that that did.to farmers that were unnecessarily.implicated is hard to measure and the.damage that that did to consumer trust.is hard to measure it.some reports and studies suggested that.it was years six eight ten years before.the spinach cover industry ever fully.recovered food fraud do you think a.digital transparent food system could.deter food fraud how many of you heard.this there's more organic food sold in.the world that is produced in the world.how many of you buy organic I just by a.show of hands just make sure it's true.just make sure it's true how about the.horse meat scandal in the UK a few years.ago remember that horse meat prices were.down beef prices high they had a glut of.horse meat some unscrupulous suppliers.decided well we'll just substitute horse.meat it's to the beef consumers were.going to the grocery store buying what.they thought was 100 percent beef.lasagna and guess what there was no beef.in it whatsoever do you think a digital.transparent food system that can trace.back to a fraudsters door would be good.absolutely it would be good regulatory.requirements no need to be doing this on.paper food waste you've heard that a.couple times a day I worked in retail so.I like to think of it this way imagine.going into your favorite grocery store.buying three bags of grocery and as you.walk out of the grocery store you take.one of those bags of groceries and you.throw it in the garbage can that sound.ridiculous sounds really ridiculous some.of you say you're crazy but that is in.essence what's happening everyday across.the land and I've seen how these digital.tools and learning by working at a very.large supply chain that had pretty good.supply chain logistics how small tweaks.and improvements commit dramatic.benefits and allow you to flow food and.reduce waste and then lastly the.consumer is asking for this consumer.expectations are changing I worked at a.discount retailer for 10 years I will.tell you consumer expectations at the.beginning of my tenure were drastically.different than at it by the end of my.tenure even in discount retailer.consumers wanted to know more about the.food how it was produced and where did.it come from.and so hopefully I've convinced you the.why we'll be outlining the work that.we're going to be doing to create this.new digital transparent food system.under what we're calling a new era of.smarter food safety and it's time I have.meaning I just want to give you two.examples to illustrate what I mean you.can see those are the four focus areas.Tec enabled traceability smarter tools.prevention new business models as food.system changes in retail modernization.in food safety culture but let me talk.about the two that I want to which is.tech enabled traceability and new tools.for prevention in terms of tech enabled.traceability I'll tell you why here's.another example of why it's important.how many you remember just this past.Thanksgiving and the Thanksgiving before.that the romaine scares in 2018 there.was a scare and the CDC and FDA advised.consumers to avoid romaine regardless of.where it was grown because we couldn't.tell where those illnesses were coming.from again the damage that that trust is.pretty important unfortunately last.Thanksgiving there was another outbreak.there was progress made in that one year.the Advisory in 2019 wasn't to avoid.romaine lettuce from all over the.country it was more an error on the.scope that was based on good work done.by some state health department's the.role that states play an Ag and food is.critical but we had some firms one.retailer and manufacturer particular.starting to adopt tech enable.traceability and that allowed us to.trace it back to Salinas California so.the devisor e was limited but you can.fast forward into the future and say if.these tools become more abundant we.could trace back to source for precision.and identify maybe it came from a.particular ranch or a particular farm.when I was in the private sector a.couple of years ago I'm going to.illustrate how this looks and how it.adds value I did a proof of concept what.I refer to as the life of the mango I'll.go through this pretty quickly but I.wanted to see if this new and emerging.technology called blockchain could play.a role in traceability I'd been pursuing.the holy grail of trust ability for a.long time this is the life of a mango.mango seedlings get planted generally in.small farms in North and Central and.South America takes about six to eight.years for those mango seed links to.produce fruit the mango trees are.bearing fruit and they're ripe farm.crews come out pick the mangoes take.them to a packing house they get washed.treated box shipped by air lands.United States you can see in this.example those mangoes were further.sliced in place than clam shells they.were then sent to 40-plus distribution.centers across the United States and.eventually made their way to 6000 retail.outlets pretty complicated journey I.wanted to know how does traceability.work the world's largest retailer with.very modern supply chains I took a.package of sliced mangoes literally came.in to one of my staff meetings put it in.the center of the conference room table.and I said trace back study starts right.now trace these mangoes back to source.how long do you think it took the.world's largest company to trace those.mangoes back to source anyone I guess.six days 18 hours and 26 minutes seven.days and they're supposed to be good at.it.we then started working to capture that.information and very useful simple.fashion on the blockchain reran the.study scanned the packed and mangos was.able to trace back to source in 2.2.seconds that's food traceability at the.speed of thought now what does that mean.it's what it means it's really important.if there's a food scare you don't have.to pull all those mangoes you can.identify what was the problem the other.thing that we learned was the benefit to.freshness was important because we.started lighting up the supply chain and.having better data than we ever had.before and we found out that there was.two to three days to get across the u.s..customs border for every day of shelf.life or removed from that border.crossing that's a day a shelf life you.give back to the consumer that could.also change how many of you buy these.mangos they're generally not too ripe.because they pick them when they're not.quite ripe because they're concerned.about shelf-life and so you could even.my optimized so that you have a fresher.product I'm persuaded that there's a.strong public health and business case.for better traceability let me close.with another use case but let me go back.and say that example that I gave you.it's not about blockchain I believe in.blockchain technology because if you.understand how it works is it's.decentralized and distributed digital.ledger and the food system is a.decentralized and distributed food.system it's going to be hard to get.everybody in the food system in a.centralized database.it's different but it's not about.blockchain it's about better.traceability and smarter supply chains.the other example I'll give you and then.I'll close is ai ai sounds like it's.like saying people are chasing the shiny.coin we're not imports in the United.States Americans expect their foods to.be safe whether it's imported or.domestically produced what percentage of.the food do you think Americans either.it's imported from abroad smart group of.people here it's not as high as people.think it's 15 percent our estimations.it's much higher in some commodities.seafood we estimate that about 94.percent of seafood consumed in this.country is imported that one's really.high so we did a proof-of-concept using.a technology tool that we've used that's.been pretty good predict that ranks.import lines and then we didn't pull.samples and we analyzed them to see if.they're violative than me at u.s..standards we added on some functionality.of machine learning onto an existing.tool looking back at two years of data.retrospectively to see if it improved.and what do you think happened it.dramatically improved dramatically.improved our capability of finding.violative products not very hard but.your earlier today there's a lot of data.and the human mind just can't comprehend.that neither can old-school traditional.statistical techniques but some of these.new tools can and so imagine all of.these million lines of food shipments.coming into the country those containers.imagine having a tool that lets could.let's say increase your predictive.capabilities by hundreds and hundreds of.percent to say that's the container you.should look at that's the container that.has the violet of food product that's.what we're talking about let me close.with this I hope I persuaded you that.digitizing is really important but what.I want you to think about is not what.about I want you I want you to think.about well what if I want you to close.with just imagining imagine how.different our work and your work could.be if we use some of these tools to make.work and lives better.imagine this imagine knowing the.potential of weather impacts from places.affected let's say by hurricanes or.floods that maybe hundreds of miles away.because we're leveraging big data.analytics imagine sitting here in this.room being concerned about water quality.being used on your farmer and your food.production facility and saying now I.feel good about it.because on your handheld device you're.looking at some type of feed from sensor.technology and saying my water quality.has under control.imagine having greater confidence in the.food that's being provided by you or to.you and your supply chain because.somebody in your organization is using a.tool like AI to dramatically increase.your predictive capabilities or imagine.going into a grocery store buying a bag.of salad and scanning it and knowing.where it came from what certainty what.we're talking about this morning aren't.things that can't be done they're.already being done we just need to use.them we're talking about innovations to.create a safer smarter and more.sustainable food system we can do this.no no we will do this and we will do.this together thank you for listening.thank you so much Frank that was very.very exciting presentation our next.panelist is Bruce Cutler director of.Indiana State Department of Agriculture.Bruce Cutler is the appointed by.governor Eric Holcomb on January 8th.2018 Bruce was appointed to governor.Holcomb's cabinet in December of 2019.he also serves as a director of.agribusiness development for the Indiana.Economic Development Corporation and.reports directly to the Lieutenant.Governor Suzanne crouch.prior to joining Indiana State.Department of Agriculture as I indicated.earlier he was a Buckeye but Bruce.worked as the director of public.relations for Becks hybrids and brings.to the department over 30 years of.agricultural leadership experience and.knowledge that spans from production.agriculture and sales to community and.Industry Relations please join me in.welcoming Bruce so staged thank you John.I appreciate that so I'm here from a.state government and so not only did he.blow my credibility by being a Buckeye I.suppose now I say I'm from state.government try to make that to make that.even better I guess but thank you it's.an honor to be here I certainly look.forward to learning along with all of.you about a lot of things that are.happening and and the theme of the.innovation imperative is just really.intriguing to me not as much the.innovation part but the imperative and I.think that we're hearing a lot of a lot.of work around how imperative and how.important the work that we're going to.be doing is is important and a lot of.people might say why should someone from.a State Department of Agriculture be.part of this conversation aren't you.folks like stifling innovation and real.slow and stodgy and well maybe there is.some of that I think that there is.probably some of that but I think it's.also important for us to understand that.that there's a lot of folks involved and.I want to start with this thought that.no individual sector within.what we do in the industry of.Agriculture operates in this vacuum it.might be the public and private sector.working together it might be that we've.got rural and urban we know that there's.a lot of things changing with the food.system around that I think we need to.understand that farmers the Agri.businesses that support them and then.the rural communities and the consumers.where they are wherever they might be.also are part of this in fact you can.probably take these each of those.individual circles and put circles.within them because it becomes pretty.pretty complex pretty quickly and so no.one operates in a vacuum and there's a.lot of interdependence that happens when.we think about where we are with that.real quickly I just want to start with.our department as a state Department of.Agriculture these are the the five.divisions that we operate in I'm going.to spend just a few minutes on several.of them talking about how we look from.an innovation standpoint and what we do.the reason I throw this up here is is as.a state Department of Agriculture we're.organized quite frankly differently than.most of my counterparts and their.departments across the United States in.that we do not have a significant.regulatory function within our.department with the exception of the.Indiana grain buyers and warehouse.licensing agency the rest of the.regulatory functions within our state.that affect agriculture are within.different departments around there so I.start with that to say that that what we.look to do is to focus on a couple of.areas that we're looking at and really.it's about how we participate in the.process and how we make sure that we're.looking from an innovative standpoint to.be able to make that and improve that I.want to start with that public affairs.piece really it's about advocating or.making sure that we help a lot of people.understand what agriculture is about.what agriculture does and what it's for.it was mentioned earlier this morning I.think my secretary Purdue we really.don't tend to be very good at telling.what we do whether it's on the farm or.even within the AG businesses and and.people that help assist with that so.from a policy standpoint.we look not only federally obviously.from a state perspective within the.department but we also get involved in.local efforts to try to make sure that.we're working on the right things that.that farmers and people involved in that.process want us to work on really it's.about us helping to provide guidance and.awareness to each of those sectors so.we'll work with our our legislators that.are here in Washington DC will help work.on on local policy sometime to make that.happen.really what it amounts to is sometimes.we find ourselves because we don't have.that significant regulatory function we.very often find ourselves as a policy.broker I'll give you an example when.when the folks that are regulated let's.say it can find feeding operation very.often they may have they want to.understand what their what their to.operate under but they may not want to.go to the regulator the regulating.agency to start to talk to have those.conversations well as an agency we can.help with that and do help with that on.a pretty regular basis and sometimes.even between state state agencies like.our Department of Environmental.Management Department of Natural.Resources there are areas that affect.our farmers and we we often play that.policy broker then the other area of.course is simply from a communications.whether it's public relations use of our.social media channels we get involved in.advocating the next area is youth.leadership and work for - Workforce.Development some folks might say is this.really have anything to do with.innovation in agriculture I would argue.that's really really important and we do.get involved in you may have noticed on.that slide the State FFA Association in.Indiana actually is housed within our.department and so we look from an.agriculture education standpoint the.classroom piece if you will to the State.FFA Association and we have the.leadership within our department and it.just presents a lot of really unique.opportunities for example one of our.staff members who focuses on the AG.education piece really is embedded.almost every day with the governor's.workforce cabinet and folks involved in.state education.she's a she really brings a unique.perspective to help them understand what.are the future jobs going to look like.what are the skills that are needed in.the future in the industry of.Agriculture so that as a state we know.and understand what we need to work.toward what do we want to have happen.and and starting in our high schools and.junior high schools and working up.through post-secondary education another.example we had a trade mission.lieutenant governor and I took a trade.mission to outside of the United States.last fall and we took the FFA.organization with us to help talk about.agriculture education youth leadership.development and why that's important not.only to our state but to our country and.it was really interesting the.conversations that were had with people.and other governments outside of the.United States to make that happen you'll.notice in the upper corner I mentioned.Agri Novus Indiana this is an.organization that is focused on the AG.Biosciences John knows them very well.and has been very helpful with a lot of.things Agri Novus Indiana has been.formed to focus on that area but a lot.of what they do besides trying to make.sure that that the AG bioscience sector.within our state is is growing and it's.functional and we have the workforce.there to make it happen one of the.things that they do and they're working.on is trying to help people understand.in what I would call the non-traditional.areas maybe outside for example of our.land-grant universities why there's a.good opportunity in agriculture to be.able to participate in these sciencism.for example rose-hulman is a university.in indiana well-known really worldwide.for its engineering school we probably.aren't doing a lot to talk to Rose.Hulman about the engineering.capabilities in food and Ag and.Biosciences - to those students that.rose homeland and their parents and.they've got a Agri novus is building a.tool called field atlas that is really.going to help students and parents at.the high school and even even younger.age know and understand that next area.soil conservation and water we've heard.a lot this morning all.about how important this will be in.Indiana we we reside really in two major.watersheds of course the Mississippi.River watershed or Basin and the Western.Lake Erie Basin and I'm sure a lot of.you have heard over the last several.years about Lake Erie and the problems.and issues and and things that are going.on a good part of the northeast part of.Indiana resides in that basin as well so.soil conservation clean water is really.important to our farmers and to be able.to make sure that they're doing what.they need to do the approach that we've.taken on this is really a partnership.approach you'll notice that I've got.listed on there a couple of agencies.from USDA at the federal level NRCS Farm.Service Agency then we also work with.the local Soil and Water Conservation.districts so the approach is truly a.partnership we have formalized this.partnership in what we call the Indiana.conservation partnership really it's.trying to look statewide not just within.water basins or within one Basin or the.other but we're looking statewide and.the idea is that a landowner and a.farmer they don't care if it's the.federal government the state government.or even a local Soil and Water.Conservation District that is there to.help them.in fact many off many times and very.often they have to work together to be.able to help them accomplish some of the.practices that they want to put on there.so we have formalized this partnership I.mentioned that it's statewide and more.importantly this confident this.partnership has brought in the commodity.groups on the crop side it's brought in.the livestock groups and we've even.brought in the Nature Conservancy into.this partnership for example and to take.a holistic approach at what needs to be.done and make sure that we're we're.doing the right things and we want to.have that so not only we're doing that I.throw up some information from this.partnership this is 2018 data we don't.have 2019 quite finished yet but you'll.notice that this partnership in 2018.implemented over 22,000 practices on.farms and.in the state of Indiana and you can see.the the information there on the side by.the graphic about what we accomplished.in that one year alone almost 2.8.billion pounds of sediment that did not.flow into the waters in the state of.Indiana so again if we work together and.we we keep in mind that landowners and.farmers really don't care whether it's.its federal state or local that's.working on it but if we're working.together and we align that we make that.happen the other thing we're finding is.this alignment really helps from from a.private sector perspective we hear a lot.about sustainability well we all know.that everybody has their own definition.of sustainability but if we can start to.show data and information about what.we're doing how we're affecting it it.really helps to line those efforts up.from from the private sector and even.nongovernmental organizations the soil.health aspects start to become an.important part of the conversation and.we make sure that it's done so we're.aligning those folks up we're getting.them together and making sure that they.understand that this is just not.something that only farmers or only.landowners are out there on their own.rural economic viability this to me.whether we think about farms AG.businesses rural communities this is a.really important part to me and very.often it gets ignored.I believe so part of what we're trying.to do is as a state Department of.Agriculture is is find ways to look at.how we view our rural communities a.little bit differently and what does.that look like and what we want to do I.believe that we have to get this right.as as businesses transition whether it.be generational transition or the advent.of technology that helps to be able to.make those transitions different we've.got to make sure that we get this right.in my opinion so our department in fact.part of my role as John mentioned in in.the introduction part of my role is to.work with the Indiana Economic.Development Corporation we have an.Economic Development Division as you saw.on the slide and part of my role.specifically says I'm going to work with.these folks to make sure that we have a.focus on Agri.culture that were the folks that can be.sitting at the table when a business.wants to grow or expand in our state or.if we want to recruit them into the.state of Indiana we make that happen so.really what it allows me to do is to.what I refer to as scope the realities.because we're working with these folks.they very often think about jobs wages.and those are the numbers that is kind.of their report card typically from an.economic development standpoint nothing.wrong with that that's good.but in agriculture we have to think.about it maybe a little bit differently.it's it's it's just a little bit.different so Jeff talked about so if.poet wants to wants to bring a plant.into the state of Indiana.very often folks in the economic.development level may say it's I don't.know what 40 50 60 jobs something like.that maybe okay a lot of people would.say well that's not really very many.jobs I would argue in a lot of our rural.areas those are huge that's a huge.number of jobs that affect these and the.jobs and the wages that they have are.important so part of my role is to scope.the realities of what happens when a.business wants to come into our state.one we're a large manufacturing state.Indiana's one of the largest.manufacturing states in the country so.they tend to think about things in terms.of raw materials going into the process.well in agriculture we have to help them.understand what those raw materials are.and what do you do with the raw.materials and do you have the right raw.materials to feed into that that.manufacturing plant if you will from an.agriculture perspective and then try to.help make sure they understand that the.impact of the jobs whether it's ten or.whether it's fifty or a hundred can be.very large in rural areas and that's.what we do one of the one of the ways.that we're doing something a little bit.different is what we call a gas at maps.and that's an example that you see on.the on the side of the screen about 18.months ago we initiated a process and.and develop what we call the rural.economic development model we work with.Purdue Center for regional development.our commodity groups Indiana Economic.Development Association and essentially.what we does we've taken USDA AG census.data.and we've digitized it and put it in a.format that these folks can look at this.map that you see is our hog.concentration or hog numbers so the.larger the bubble the more concentrated.or the more number of hogs that are in.that area so when we can go to a local.economic development group and help them.understand what are the AG assets that.are in place in your area but more.importantly what we're trying to get.them to do is not just think about their.County or maybe their their town or.their small city but to start to think.more regionally about how this impacts.them and by having these maps they start.to see and it we've got this on all the.crops all the commodities even on.hardwoods in our state it starts to.allow these folks to think more.regionally and know and understand that.it's more than just our little town we.have to start thinking about it outside.of our little bubble and making sure.that we have it and it's been very very.effective we've got a lot of excitement.around this and people are figuring it.out and lastly from an economic.viability standpoint in our rural.communities I think the quality of life.and what we can do to affect quality of.life is really important a lot has been.mentioned about rural connectivity we're.working on that as well we have a.position within state government called.the director of broadband opportunities.I've taken it of myself as a personal.mission to help him understand how.agriculture has to be connected and why.it's important he is he admittedly he.knows nothing about agriculture but I've.taking it I'm taking him out to the.farms I've taken him to businesses to.help him understand why the proverbial.Fitbit for cows or whatever is important.and how you make that information flow.so that we get it done our legislature.legislature and governor last year.implemented a grant program called next.level funds it's about a hundred million.dollars they've gone through the first.round we know a hundred million dollars.is it going to fix the complete problem.but it is an effort to start to say okay.the areas that are unserved with good.connectivity or underserved we've got to.start to work on them and make that.happen and we get involved in that.process on a regular.the last example down there is Indiana.grown this is a membership program that.was started five years ago in our state.I know probably almost every state has.this but basically it's a way to say.that products whether it's food products.or whatever it might be that are grown.raised process in our state have a.certain level of professionalism if you.will in a certain level of activity and.we're working hard on this it's it what.we're finding is the diversification on.the farm whether it's livestock crops.even food happening on the farm level is.growing the Indian of grown for schools.is a fairly new program where any and of.grown members we're connecting them to.their local school cafeterias and their.food service folks to again I think was.mentioned this whole local food movement.trying to help members plug into their.schools where they can supply food to.those schools and we've had some great.efforts around healthcare a lot of.health care facilities are looking to.find ways to take food as medicine if.you will and we've got several examples.where this has happened where Indiana.grown members are supplying locally.raised locally based foods into.healthcare facilities to be able to be.able to make that a reality for what.they want to do and so I think those are.ways that we can help try to make sure.that our quality of life in our rural.areas is improved really what it comes.down to if you think about it is.collaboration collaboration is key in.this whole effort to be able to make.this work so we as a department are.really trying to find ways to think.about how we are innovative in our work.we're innovative in our policies that.maybe we work through and more.importantly innovative in the.relationships that we have as a.department to making sure that we.collaborate effectively and I I love.this quote because great vision without.great people is irrelevant and it still.comes back to the people and we firmly.believe that we have to make that happen.to make it successful thank you for your.time I appreciate it I look forward to.meeting more of it.thank you so much Bruce our fourth and.final speaker of the panel is sherry.Wragge fiddler president of the farm.foundation sherry is a fifth-generation.farm owner and operator from Nebraska.who began her career in London and.finance and then with the Boston.Consulting Group recently she led a.sustainability focused AG tech firm was.then CEO for a group of a thousand farms.before recently joining Farm Foundation.as their new CEO and after visiting with.her yesterday I also learned that sherry.is a graduate of Harvard University so.please take an opportunity to welcome.sherry to the stage or should we say the.Harvard University sorry couldn't resist.that so I am delighted to be here today.and even though farm foundation is a.multi-stakeholder organization I've.chosen to take a farm level perspective.for my remarks today because I thought.it would be complimentary to what the.other folks have been talking about.today so if you could help me out I.would like to take the pulse of the room.to see how many other farmers are in the.room today can you raise your hand let.me see awesome.that makes me feel good well thank you.for all that you do as innovators and.leaders and I hope that you'll share.your insights with everyone else in the.various sessions over the next few days.so in terms of what I would like to.cover today I'm gonna start with the.brief in tow.and I'm gonna be wearing two hats I'm.going to wear my personal farmer hat and.I'm gonna be wearing my farm foundation.hat so we'll cover that a little bit and.then at the risk of being a bit of a.debbie downer I'm gonna talk about some.of the challenges of being a farmer the.innovation is a solution and then try to.share three examples across the u.s. of.how innovation is being used across.different.types of farming systems then maybe turn.the innovation as a solution on its head.for a little bit so hopefully you'll.engage with me there and then close out.with ways that you can collaborate to.help with this so I want to start with.my why it's why I'm here I'm very.passionate and hopefully you'll pick up.some of that from me today I'm basically.sharing my photo album with you here I'm.a fifth generation farmer we celebrated.our hundred and fiftieth year of farming.in Nebraska and as you just even see.from the collection of photos there we.are a family business just like most of.the farming operations across the u.s..so I've shared my family there with you.I also thought it might be good to show.literally some of our photo albums so.what you see there is what farmers are.often proud of is what we photograph so.we photograph our families just like all.of you do and we've photographed the.things that we're proud of or that we've.invested in so you see the first awesome.barn that we built when we landed in.Nebraska from Germany there that little.pinstripe barn you also see some of the.equipment that we as a family are proud.of that we've invested in in terms of.our heavy equipment our irrigation that.came late to our farm in the big scheme.of things what I wanted to show was.really our technology and.forward-looking.aspects of our farm so I was going to.show a photo of all the apps that I have.on my phone that we can run our farm.with but I didn't want to show you the.brands that were using it and and biased.you all but I will just say that I've.shared that that has been a huge.transformation on our farming operation.I was able to check on our irrigation.equipment when I was in Ethiopia and see.if it was on or offline and I only.somewhat jokingly said I do have.challenges using that same technology in.parts of the US to check on my.irrigation equipment so that is.something we have to fix together the.last picture there over the last few.years in our farming operation we text.each other photos photos of what's going.on so we text each other are awesome.cover crops we've been doubling our.cover crops so we share photos of that.last year we shared no photos of.innovations.cause of that photo you see down there.in Nebraska we had probably the worst.year in our hundred and fifty years of.farming so we shared lots and lots of.flooding photos believe it or not that's.our inputs driver that's going to drive.across that body of water to deliver our.inputs he has a tower on the other side.that he's using to spot to stay on the.road to deliver our inputs that's just.one of many of the photos of that.challenging year there's about three.slides in here that I could spend the.whole time on and this is one that I.could just keep talking about my family.farming operation but I'm going to move.on and talk about farm foundation.because I imagine some of you aren't.familiar with it and that is a.perspective that I'll be taking now too.our mission is to build trust and.understanding at the intersections of.agriculture and society that's a.challenge today and we need to do that.through collaboration we are we believe.we are uniquely positioned to do that.because of our multi stakeholder view.one of our signature events and programs.is our roundtable which you may have.heard of which is exactly that multi.stakeholders coming together to talk.respectfully with each other about the.challenges and opportunities and how we.can navigate it together we were we.believe the first AG think tank in the.US but we have just repositioned.ourselves as a new breed of an.accelerator trying to catalyze ideas.into action and one way one example of.that is we helped stand up the soil.health institute it's sprung out of some.of the work that we were doing and.that's just one example.over time we saw ourselves creating more.action and that's where we want to play.is really catalyzing those ideas into.action I do want to take a moment to.highlight our next-generation programs.and again we're trying to build them out.in a suite of next-generation programs.to mirror our multi-stakeholder approach.and our cultivators is our undergraduate.program AG scholars is our postgraduate.program and I'm going to embarrass them.also and have them raise their hands.where you are in the audience right now.over there in that corner this is our.partnership as the secretary mentioned.with yes.ers there graduate students please take.the opportunity to get to know them.they're an awesome group of students.we're happy to have them as our first.ever AG Scholar class but as I said.we're building out a suite we have.congressional fellow programs where we.bring them on farm help them understand.the different types of farming.operations we're just launching our.young farmers program and a young.agri-food leaders program so later I'll.talk about if you have ideas of people.you'd like to nominate for those we'd.like to let you know how you can do that.so we're really proud of that this is.the future and why we have innovation is.for the next generation on our farm and.for the leaders in Ag so now I'd like to.change gears and talk about if.innovation is the solution what are the.problems we're trying to fix on farm and.to share with you what some of those.challenges are as I see them as a farmer.and I came up with this because in our.farming operation and others there's.problems we talk about and there's.problems we don't talk about and that's.probably like any other family that.there are things you just don't talk.about and I thought I'd differentiate.those here and I tried to do them all so.by the size of the bubbles so in our.family every day we talk about the.weather in fact last night at dinner.someone remarked that I talked about the.weather five times during dinner I can't.help it I'm a farmer so that bubble as.you see is very big we talk about the.weather we talk about our production and.how it's going and what we're doing and.the cool techniques were using we talk.about the markets a lot so those three.bubbles are the dominant bubbles there.we also talk about the challenges with.labor shortage of Labor or the cost of.labor the economics and financials is.also big that one probably should have.been dominant to and increasingly we're.talking about consumers and what.consumers are wanting and how that.affects us and what we're growing the.demand side of our business but what we.think about and don't as often talked.about is our family and our legacy and.concerns about is the next generation.going to take over the farm 70% of farms.in America couldn't change hands in the.next 10 to 20 years and there's a lot of.concern because there's not clarity on.whether there will be a next generation.in every operation to take over so that.is a key issue even though we're not.talking.about it as much we need to also solve.for that health healthcare mental health.that one's a big deal.and we don't talk about that as much.rural communities and increasingly some.concern about lawsuits from the.regulatory and legal environment we live.in so as I think about that and tried to.convert it over to this innovation model.I tried to lay them out in the circle of.all these challenges that we as farmers.are facing and I have to say I believe.there's no better time to be a farmer.and I need to say that even though I'm.talking about the challenges I truly.believe there's no better time to be a.farmer than right now because of.innovation but as you lay out these.problems here and you see them and I'll.be talking a little bit more about how.innovation is really focusing on only.about three of those in a big way we can.debate this back and forth there is some.innovation going on and the others but.we have to acknowledge that that's.actually part of the reason why adoption.isn't happening as fast as a B C's in.Silicon Valley and the startup companies.might like because we're trying to solve.for all these other problems at the same.time so if we want to increase adoption.we have to address the suite of.challenges that farmers are facing so.I'm going to be talking about what I.consider innovation explosion because.that's how it feels from the farmer.perspective is this explosion of.innovation and first talk about the.capital that is really fueling that.innovation on the chart on the left is.one that I think is important and it's.talking about how flat in fact I often.talk about this chart just by going like.that that public spending in the US is.has been flat and China's has.skyrocketed and is in fact 2x what the.u.s. is right now and VC capital and.private capital has really stepped in to.fill the gap and there's very different.you know they're very different types of.funding but what you'll see especially.on the technology explosion is that that.has really been driven by the private.capital and in fact private capital VC.capital just in 2018 was about 17.billion dollars so we're looking at 5.billion 10 billion for the public.spending 17 billion just for the venture.capital in about 1,500 deals so.it's an explosion and we're feeling that.on the farm and this map even though you.can't read it is to make that impact.this is the explosion this group.actually if you don't know these maps I.encourage you to check them out they.have a full suite of them this is just.on one element of digitization but they.do them for animal protein they don't.for indoor technology but you know from.a farmer perspective we are getting.pitched all of these different.technologies all the time and I've just.circled the one box there in terms of.data management systems because from our.farm for example we adopted one of those.technologies early on we are early.adopters on our farm and then the.challenges as that technology continues.to evolve and there may be better.systems out there it's really difficult.for us first to find the time to.benchmark them and see is it really time.to switch the switching costs are huge.for us to switch over all of our data.over there and I think it's really.important as we talk about wanting to.accelerate adoption to really understand.that suite of challenges and how the.farmer is trying to you know sort.through all of these different.innovations it's exciting and it's it's.wonderful and that is part of our future.but it is a challenge to sift through.all of that so in terms of adoption.rates I mentioned everybody wants to any.of you see in any startup wants to scale.quickly the hockey stick curve is what.is known for that in terms of scaling.quickly and often they're concerned or.frustrated that the adoption isn't going.as fast as they might like having said.that adoption rates are going fairly.well it varies from the different type.of technology but the point of these.graphs is to show that that adoption is.going rapidly in some areas adoption.data is really difficult to get good.adoption data so it really varies but.you'll see that for like the GPS.technology that's probably leading and.some estimates go up to that 80% for.some of them but as you saw secretary.Purdue mentioned maybe more in that 60.percent range if you look at the full.suite but the headline is it's.increasing.at a rapid rate so what I'd like to do.now is take three case examples from.different types of farming operations to.share the type of technology and the.problem that is trying to solve on row.crops we've talked a little bit more.about that already so I'll do a little.lighter touch there but precision AG is.clearly the key thing that's happening.in real crops being adopted well and.really focusing on the problem of.efficiency and effectiveness.so that and digitisation is going on.well the newer ones with biologicals I.think that's going to be a growth area.where we see that adoption curve.increasing as well as some really.important breeding going on for drought.and flight I'm exciting to hear.especially in Nebraska that there's some.seeds that can survive longer under.water those are the kinds of things that.are needed for adapting to climate.change I was going to do a separate.section on organic and conventional but.what I decided to do was integrate it.here in the row crop section with one of.farm foundations board members who's an.organic producer who's adopting some of.the same technology that we're adopting.on our farm and to show that different.farming systems can adopt that same.technology I won't read the entire quote.but I in general I think it's important.to hear directly from farmers and not.speak on their behalf which is why I put.the full quote up there but I'll try to.focus on the second half he's a New York.organic producer that's basically.dealing with sloped land having a lot of.erosion and so if we just read that last.portion together he says we use our TK.GPS to keep strip boundaries exact the.near perfect spacing allows us to manage.crops without weed issues our camera.guidance systems work precisely so that.we can use finger readers to remove weed.seedlings from within the narrow rows.these technologies enable us to work.much faster and effectively so overall I.think in real crops that's the core.problem that has been the primary focus.of innovation is that effectiveness and.efficiency apart if we turn our.attention to California and look at the.issues there some of them are similar.but some are a little different.a different priority that being for.example labor and resource management.and water issues and so similarly I went.to one of our board members who's a.producer in California and I think I'm.actually going to read this whole quote.because there's lots of important stuff.here I think to unpack so he says in.California the rapidly rising minimum.wage rates and work our limitations.create a non competitive disadvantage.for producers in a marketplace that is.not adjusting upward for the added labor.costs we are replaceable suppliers of.fruits and vegetables regardless of our.locally grown promotions so we are.looking to mechanized harvest as the.only remaining option to remain.competitive due to our labor costs so.this is something that is a challenge in.terms of the lag and what consumers say.they value and what they're willing to.pay for and that is again a challenge.that we have to face in terms of the.innovation is it costs us as farmers and.producers and our whole value chain to.integrate some of these things and if.the consumers don't pay for it who's.gonna pay for it so that is something we.also need to keep keep striving towards.but this California producer said you.know he's been looking at robotics and.mechanization but really was trying to.employ people but he's at the tipping.point now where he's getting ready to.move over towards rapid integration of.mechanization and potentially robotics.because of the labor situation there the.last case I want to share is indoor.agriculture and it was hard to choose.which examples to share the reason why I.wanted to share this one is this notion.of is it a threat or an opportunity and.if you look at it in the most broadest.sense of indoor agriculture taking.animal production indoors it's all about.controlled environments but what we see.is some innovative options with.aquaculture and with some new.regenerative indoor models that are.being positioned as opportunities for.rural America and potentially the next.generation farmers of if a farming.operation needs to make space for their.next generation.there may not be economic space in the.current business model for the next.generation of kids and they need to.think of something additional that the.kids can do in their business model and.I think it's intriguing to think if some.of these can be that for the next.generation.so I share that for that purpose so into.the section of is innovation the.solution or one of the challenges I.think it's both from the farm level and.as a sector and like from a business and.economic standpoint I think innovation.is the disrupter actually and McKenzie.in about 2015 did a study where they.ranked about 40 different industries and.had agriculture at the bottom for its.digitization and so it was ripe for.disruption and I think what we've seen.from a lot of the private capital.flowing in there is that disruption I.think we we hit those five variables.there in terms of that disruptive nature.that's going on across agriculture and I.think I've shared with you we're feeling.that on the farm I think it's an.important disruption for us to get to.the next generation of agriculture but I.also think it's important to acknowledge.that it's a disruption as well as an.opportunity so this slide is also.hopefully will engage us in some.conversation after this presentation.what I see from my perspective is that.we've had we're shifting into a new era.of agriculture you know the first photo.I showed in my family's farming.operation that was like the labor area.era and for decades and decades and.centuries it was the labor era as.secretary Perdue shared this morning.we've gone through a big revolution.already with the industrialization of a.guerrilla getting to scale economies and.efficiencies to be able to feed the.world in a very efficient and low-cost.way but partly because of digital.digitization and the innovation and.partly because of the consolidation that.I think is going to be happening and.already is from the farm perspective and.a business model perspective I think the.opportunity is to shift to a value based.business model for farms farms in.general capture only about 10%.ten cents on the dollar I think the.opportunity and I'm already seeing it is.for farmers to either do some of the.value-added aspects in the value chain.on their farming operation to capture.more of that value or to monetize some.of the other aspects of their farming.operation whether that be the data the.carbon maybe in the future I just see.this as a shift that's going on right.now to think about what other business.models because can we as farmers have to.capture more of that value I think it's.bumpy this transformation always is.bumpy whether it's from the disruption.of digitization or this this transfer.that I see going on in business models.and I think we collectively because all.of this matters to us as a society we.need to think about how can we help.navigate this transformation through.collaboration to solve some of those.other problems or to ease that.transformation and what is each of our.role in doing that this has already been.mentioned several times so I won't.belabor it but I do believe that for.centuries farmers have been innovators.and co-creators if you don't know these.New York Times articles about the DNA.and the discoveries they're making there.I encourage you to check out that.article so I have a couple slides just.to close out and if we want to deal with.these in the Q&A section or offline.happy to do that but I'd encourage us to.think through how we can collaborate for.this transformation so what role do we.see for farmers and rural communities in.our future I've said in a provocative.way we have the technology to eliminate.farmers maybe fifty a hundred years from.now is that what we want or not and I.think we have to be thoughtful about.that second can we partner with farmers.to navigate to this era of disruption.and transformation and how and third how.can we innovate to solve some of those.other challenges in the wheel of.challenges that I shared with you and.how can we collaborate to do that last.I'd close by inviting you to collaborate.with us at farm foundation there's so.many ways that we can collaborate and.I've just named a few here we have forms.at the National Press Club monthly our.upcoming one in March is on gene editing.so you're welcome to join us for any of.our forums there.also audio cats so you don't have to be.present we have two upcoming workshops.that tap into this innovation concept we.have a digital AG one and a beginning.farmers workshop in the fall would love.to have you join us there I already.mentioned on the next-gen programs would.love to get your submissions for who you.think would be great to help us build.out a diverse set of candidates there we.are in the midst of repositioning and.looking ahead to our 90th and hundredth.anniversary as a farm foundation and.really crafting those big bold ideas so.if you have ideas that we could.collaborate and now is the time for that.type of input to Farm Foundation and.last please say hello to our AG scholars.throughout the couple of days here and.see what you can learn from each other.our vision is building a future for.farmers our communities and our world.and I think innovation is a core part of.that so I encourage you to continue the.conversation with us through our social.media venues and look forward to the Q&A.next thank you.well thank you very much to all of our.panelists that was an excellent.discussion and we do have an opportunity.here to take questions from the audience.we've received quite a few questions so.very very exciting talks from all of you.all and generated a lot of conversation.here the first question that we have.comes from the audience can we expect.the explosive growth of precision.agriculture in the past decade to.continue at the same rate and when does.this growth level off I'll put it up to.maybe you Jeff well maybe not exactly.Mary of expertise but we we've learned a.lot about a we've you know I grew up on.a farm so I'm watching farming for my.entire 54 years on the planet but I have.seen tremendous progress in agriculture.I've seen very steady trends in.agriculture if you look at yields they.have been very very consistent over all.the way back to 1900 when we started.keeping track and if I were a bed at.betting man I like to look at past to.look to go to the future I think that we.can continue to see significant.innovation.I mean people said we would stop seeing.yield increases years ago and I remember.about 25 years ago when the yield.contest was 300 bushel per acre and.everybody said there's no way we'll hit.300 bushel per acre and there's probably.people whose room that hit 300 bushel.per acre I don't you know and that's.certainly a peak but if people are.getting there so last year's yield.contest on yield was 534 bushels per.acre so you can see that we're.continuing to trend upward yields.they're not going to kind of stop and.that's going to take innovation but I.think it will continue.I would I would add that I I think it.will continue one of the concerns I have.about the importance of rural.connectivity in in all of our rural.areas is are we stifling the innovation.that may be occurring whether it's for.sensors or you know facility livestock.facilities and integrating technology.into those those areas I worry that.because we don't have the the ubiquitous.kind of accessibility and connectivity.are we you know the.the folks like John talked about this.morning that want to innovate they want.to find ways to develop new technology.are we stifling that for agriculture.because of that and I think I think.sherry you know made a point toward the.end they're looking for value one of the.things that in my mind technology can do.is help farmers it's it's great to be.able to produce but if we know and.understand our inputs and and take the.technology to help us understand how to.be more not only more productive but.maybe more importantly how to be more.profitable that will allow us then to.continue to make sure that our rural.communities and our farms are.sustainable I was just gonna add I think.the rate of adoption depends partly on.the changing of generations on farms as.I mentioned the 70% of farms changing.hand so I think how quickly that changes.will potentially affect the adoption.curve well that dovetails right into the.to the next question that we had here.and that talks about are we getting the.the cart before the horse somewhat on.the innovation front when we think about.the the inability for many farmers and.ranchers across the country to not be.able to access the broadband speeds that.they need to fully adopt some of these.innovative new technologies.Bruce you covered it but anyone else.feel a weigh in on that particular.question do you just have to have.broadband to continue so the faster we.can get that out there the faster that.adoption curve well it's a must have.it's a good question I think it's a.function of identifying what are some.foundational things that have to happen.to allow technology to scale one of the.things I've seen over the course of my.career is you can do these proof of.concepts of pilots and they work and I.tell people these days I'm less.interested in doing a proof-of-concept.or pilot I'm interested in working on.what are the.we have to take or the levers we have to.pull for these technologies to scale.having broadband access is one I would.say in some regards for things that we.want to do it's about adopting a.universal standard common language so we.can speak to each other.digitally based on a common set of.standards and so I think we have to take.a step back and say there's probably a.sequence of how we approach these.technologies of the thickened scale I.would add you know I mentioned in the.beginning of my remarks the word.imperative for the dis conferences is.really I think pretty critical to go.back to that quality of life you know.we've got young people that if we don't.figure out how to have the technology.have Wi-Fi John mentioned this morning.about kids didn't care about the.electricity being off the Wi-Fi goes.away and you know the world stops but.that's also important to be able to.bring those young people back not only.to the farm but to be able to bring them.back to our rural communities and have.that vitality because if we if we don't.have the communities and the businesses.that are there to support our farmers.then again we stifle their their.productivity and the ability for them to.be able to be sustainable I think we.hear that time and time again access to.broadband access to health care is also.pretty cool pretty critically important.the next question we have from the.audience really follows up from the.Secretary's remarks this morning.we have 30 years to achieve our 2050.goals what innovations make the most.sense to prioritize and collaborate.towards what practices create impact.quickly I the example I gave was digits.as a nation I think being able to.actually analyze these large sums of.data that's collected and figure out.what are the questions we need to ask.questions we didn't know and make.connections that we didn't previously.know where possible are important I'd.like to use the example how many of you.have heard of the UPS know left hand.turn strategy honey you know what they.did is they started digitizing their.fleet of trucks and as they started to.digitize that they were collecting it.from.and winter trucks standing hiding what.are the routes that they take how much.gas are they burning how much time does.it take to make to the final destination.and by having digital data they analyzed.information that they always had they.just couldn't ever consume and they've.realized that when their trucks were.making left-hand turns that tend to be.idling a little bit longer it took them.a little bit longer and they came up.with this no left-hand turn policy don't.make a left-hand turn would rather you.make three right-hand turns to get to.your final destination saved it a ton of.time and it's saved in the tum a ton of.money I share that because I think there.are a lot of left-hand turns in our food.production systems and what are the.left-hand turns that we simply just.don't know once we start digitizing and.analyzing data will we be able to.eliminate those left-hand turns.innovative practices because I think.often we think of innovation as.technology but I think innovative.practices business models and.collaborations are also important so.take cover crops and no-till as.innovative practices they're the.adoption is pretty low even though.they're doubling each year so I think we.need to keep figuring out how to improve.that adoption curve because I think as.the secretary said soil health is.fundamental for our future so that would.be on practices on collaboration I think.unlikely partnerships are a key to.getting to our future of trying to be.able to collaborate with people that you.wouldn't normally collaborate with.especially in our polarized society.right now and then in terms of.innovative business models I think.that's another one I've mentioned a.little bit in my talk that that we need.to think about that for farming.operations and help them see alternative.innovative business models.I agree completely Jim innovation and.sustainability I believe are gonna take.investment obviously it takes it takes.money right and all these technologies.take money so I think we need to.remember the farmer needs to be.profitable I was at an interesting deal.laughter we did we did some strategic.planning for agriculture with a whole.bunch of CEOs from all over all over.agriculture and everybody knew had great.ideas I got to remember the farmers got.to be profitable to move this stuff.forward and so I think we need that once.again remember that this probably sounds.self-serving but we need to make sure.there's enough demand for the farmer so.he can be profitable my father built an.ethanol plant on his farm when I was a.teenager because there wasn't enough to.man for his corn and he was storing five.years of corn and Qantas and big grain.bins there was nowhere to go with it so.we continued to grow more and more and.more we've got to you we've got to make.sure we have biofuels policies bio.products being invented other things we.make from grain so that we can keep the.farmer profitable as those yields.continue to go up so we can finance.sustainability I think that hits exactly.on what Sherry's talking about economic.profitability is very important but we.need to find other partners other.collaborators down the supply chain and.I think communicate how important.economic sustainability is for the.farmers to drive this this innovation we.can make biofuels out of $2 corn but but.we want the family farmer healthy we.believe the family farmer is critical to.America appreciate that collaboration.because it's been mentioned a few times.and I'm a strong believer that it needs.to happen but often times collaborations.don't take off people don't want to work.together and one of the things that we.need to think about when we talk about.collaboration is we need to collaborate.in a way that creates shared value i've.actually participated in some of these.digital networks where you try to get.people to get get in but you know one.entity benefits more than the other.sometimes it's a large retailer for.example you have to create shared value.for all the participants in that network.so as we think about collaboration think.about well everybody needs to get a win.out of participation well I think the.average US consumer spends about 5% of.their income on food here in the United.States and you talk about other partners.along the supply chain to get this.jump-started who's going to bear the.cost of tracing.issues for example Frank yeah well.oftentimes people think there's going to.be a cost to traceability.one of the things I worked for a large.discount retailer I would tell you that.large discount retailers aren't looking.at these type of digital supply chains.that they think they're adding cost of.the food system we believe that long.term by digitizing the food system you.run a more efficient sustainable food.system you subtract costs from the food.system and I think you can create.economic models for people to get in.that are little to no cost you think.about all the social media networks that.you participate in you're probably on.Twitter you're probably on LinkedIn.you're probably on Facebook how many of.you pay a cent to be in it you don't pay.a cent they figured out models economic.models to incentivize creation of those.networks of people to get in so we have.to be creative and how we think about.this oftentimes people think I just want.to sell you a subscription service and.try to make money I'm convinced that we.can digitize the food system with new.economic models that are a little more.no cost in the long run and in the short.run that's what the challenge is is all.of this digitization on our farm we're.at our capacity right now we can't do.anything more right now unless we hire.more people in terms of managing our.data and so I think we have to be.thoughtful about how can we get over.this short term costs on farm and in the.supply chain to get to that in the long.run it will be better.fantastic anyone else well the next.question we have here the the focus on.innovation initiatives are clearly.critical however we haven't heard too.much about economic sustainability.profitability growth we talked about it.a little bit but from each of your.perspectives how important is that for.the u.s. farmer other agribusiness is.along the supply chain to make sure that.we've got economic sustainability how.much of a component of your messaging is.that it's I think it's critical I lived.through the farm crisis of the 1980s I.watched my several my neighbors go.bankrupt and lose their farms and the.families that are kids.I knew and we don't want to see that.again and I worry we're on the we're on.the verge of something like that you.know certainly there have been some some.government payouts but if they ever.stopped its we're not in a good position.and again we've got to build demand we.all got to fight together for a demand.so we're fighting all the time against.the oil industry to get more of the gas.tank sometimes we feel a bit like the.lone soldier when it impacts all of.Agriculture and we would we would like.to have more help in that and that venue.they if you look at these the smaller.finer exemptions that were really hard.on egg demand that would we'd have.different prices today we'd have a.different world today so anything we can.do to work together to make sure that.the opponent gives us part of the gas.tank cuz they don't want to give any of.that up guys not even one gallon they.don't want to give up in fact they want.to go the other direction and take.market away from them farmers so egg and.oil are in this battle and I don't think.that AG knows are in it but oil is well.aware they're battling all of you I'm.not sure all of you know you're battling.oil to try to get your prices up.sustainability to me it really comes.down if farmers if farmers aren't.profitable and aren't able to be.profitable nothing's gonna be.sustainable we have all these.definitions I kind of referred to it.earlier and I know you know we have.corporate corporations that have their.sustainability efforts I get that one of.the things we're doing in our department.is we've actually had some conversations.with some of these companies that want.to talk about sustainability because.they've looked at some of that soil.conservation data from the partnership.and and have started to realize there.there is some value there and so is.there a way to be able to to help with.that we I continually emphasize anytime.we have those conversations if farmers.aren't able to be profitable they're not.going to be sustainable and your.sustainability efforts aren't going to.have and aren't going to accomplish what.you want to accomplish so we've got to.remember it starts at the farm in terms.of being able to make them profitable.and allow them to have markets to be.able to make that work and if we don't.have that then ultimately the corporate.or a sustainability goal is.not going to work it's not going to have.any value I'm certain there's a.willingness to pay for consumers for.these things it's it's likely a matter.of making sure that we get our voice out.there so they understand how important.economic sustainability is for the.farmer today the the secretary announced.the AG innovation agenda which includes.the goal of increasing agricultural.productivity by 40% and reducing our.environmental footprint by 50% by 2050.what's your reaction to this challenge.and the framing by the secretary today I.thought it was great very encouraged by.the vision you know I think people get.inspired by visions more than they do.policies and regulations and standards.and so it's imperative it's needed and I.think it's achievable.it's a daunting goal but we should be.ambitious and I think there's.technologies on the horizon that if we.work together we can do this more.importantly we have to do this agreed I.as he was talking about that I was.thinking of an example we have in our.state we've got a group called the.Wabash heartland innovation network it's.about an 8 or 10 County area centered.around Lafayette West Lafayette so.they've involved Purdue University.College of Ag engineering and what.they're really what it is is a large.testbed so they're trying to gather.technology from all kinds of providers.they're working at it on the farm.they're working at it in the.manufacturing sector they're looking at.from a research perspective and that's.what what it's going to take is those.all of those sectors working together to.be able to achieve the kind of goal that.the USDA's laid out I again it's it's.it's huge its large we probably can't.exactly see how we're going to get there.today but that's part of what you have.to do to be able to to think forward and.move the industry forward exactly I.thought it was exciting to have part of.the vision beyond the environment in the.plan.my hope is that we can talk more openly.about it I felt like in my role I've had.to have my cheat sheet of which.terminology I had to use where is it.changing changing extreme weather or is.it climate change and I'm hoping we can.just get over that and move to these.metrics and the scorecard and just work.together to get there so I thought that.was exciting the next question we have.here one thing the secretary spent a lot.of time talking about this morning is.the past success of American agriculture.most folks who work in US Agriculture.agree that we need to do a much better.job telling our story what are your.thoughts on how we in both the private.and public sector can better tell this.story to consumers volunteers I think we.need to unite I think that I mentioned.this when I was speaking that egg does.not get done a great job of uniting but.if we can get egg companies biofuel.producers farmers commodity.organizations and probably also about.some environmental organizations have.not been our friends AG supporters I.mentioned pantego Nia Culver is their.really excited about a sustainable AG.agenda they are they will invest money.that they'll help us to tell the story.we got to get everybody singing from the.same song sheet it's amazing what.happens when nobody cares who gets.credit and everybody does their best to.tell the same message so that's what I.think this in agriculture has got to do.I've never in my lifetime seen that.happen where agriculture came together.on United message if they did this is.the largest industry in America and.largest industry in the world they'd.have tremendous power if we ever did.that I think it's important you know one.of the things I've often thought about.the farming community if you rewind a.hundred years ago.a lot of people would have been in some.way shape or form involved in food.production and you fast forward a.hundred years and just about nobody's.involved in food production and it's.farmers so you have a smaller amount of.people producing more food to feed more.folks than ever before that a very far.removed from farming and while they're.very far removed from farming they all.have an opinion about how you do your.work and so I think storytelling is.really important not only in terms.success and great you know innovations.that have happened but I think also.continue to educate consumers I think.consumer education about AG is really.really critical it's a big missing part.of the food conversation a little more.broadly I think telling our story is.part of it but not all of it we already.see this going on where you know we say.it's all about science and then you know.if we're at my cross purposes of what.matters to each other and just telling.our stories I don't think is enough I.think we have to spend time building.trust and understanding as our mission.statement says listening to each other.to understand the perspectives before we.can actually achieve change it's more.than just telling our stories that's.part of it though one one organization.that's really working hard on this is us.farmers and ranchers alliance we did.that treaty planning last year 180 CEOs.from all over agriculture including.aggrevation all the people I just listed.here were there and we did Steve's plan.for two days and came to unified.approach for Ag which I've never seen in.my lifetime as well and that's somebody.you should all consider joining getting.to know them we're known that we're.joined their board because we think they.have a really great mission to tell this.story someone's got to take the lead.right and then and then we got to get a.unified vision which they have already.and then we all have to start seeing.that same song sheet so that is one.organization I think is doing a.fantastic job of trying to do what needs.to be done I think Frank Frank said oh.well we know that there aren't very many.people really when you look at it.especially in this country that are.involved directly in production.agriculture so it is incumbent upon all.of the rest of us that are involved in.being able to help tell the story and.and show that I know for myself I try to.do that when I'm out in fact I just had.a conversation earlier this week with my.communications folks and said we're.going to start to change a little bit of.what we do and the events we go to and.the events we attend and what that.really the gist of what I was trying to.get to is we've got to be able to tell.this story and and help people.understand so that may mean I've got to.maybe get out of my comfort zone and get.some of the the groups that that may not.be real comfortable or I'm not.comfortable getting in front of but I.think it is imperative upon all of us to.take our little part and try to do that.and I know my counterparts in all the.states across the country they're.willing to do it and and they like doing.it and we know that we have to help let.me just say it's so critical and I.agreed your comment about it's not only.telling the story it's about engaging in.a larger food conversation with all.stakeholders we've talked about the.promise of innovation and technologies.but we got to have the social licence to.use them and so that's why this.conversation is so critical one story I.had dinner with one of our egg scholars.last night and she attended our.roundtable event and it's off the record.multi-stakeholders and she said that it.just exceeded her expectations to see.very differing views that respectfully.engaged to try to understand each.other's perspectives in order to try to.craft some solutions and that's what I.think we need more of which is why I'm.saying it's beyond storytelling it's.partly storytelling but that really.having these candid off-the-record.conversations to try to craft these shit.to your point shared value propositions.together we can't get there without that.kind of dialogue I think back to Jeff's.point what USF ra has tried to do with.creating the hive and bringing all the.the supply chain partners together to.talk and share a story is a key.component of that they're also raising.real money I mean it's not free and and.they've got people there that have money.and so you won't tell this story free.it's gonna take investment but look how.big AG is if we all give a little we can.tell the story that's exactly right.switching gears a little bit and I think.maybe this one.sherry might be right along your lines.since you're a farmer how do you view.the the right to repair movement.effecting innovation on the farm and in.Ag technology.again I think we have to engage in.dialogue on that as well I have to be.careful with my my farm foundation hat.in my personal hat so I probably may be.able op the ball back to someone else.here I agree I think I think we've got.to figure out where the balance is on.that you know as younger people come.into into farming in particular they're.gonna have a very different view on that.they want to be able to use the.technology and have access to it and so.I think I understand wanting to be able.to own the data and the information and.figure out you know am I able to touch.that or do something with it so it.really continues to be it goes back.where is the shared I think sure she.mentioned it well it's shared value.there's a value on both sides of that so.somewhere we can try to figure out how.to come together in the middle to make.it work we've got about 15 more minutes.or so here of questions I think here we.have one for you on on Franklin what.would you estimate is the value to.digitizing the food system well I don't.know that I come up with the statistic.or of proposition I've seen some.cost-benefit analysis about digitizing.food and there being a return on.investment certainly just on.traceability alone because some it's.certainly with some commodities you've.seen these large food scares that has.resulted in you know the livelihoods of.all farmers that commodity being damaged.and if you were able to pinpoint it and.trace back that contamination to just a.grower it would have saved in literally.hundreds and millions of dollars if not.more but we'll have to do those I think.we have to do the cost-benefit analysis.and figure out you know are these.technologies scalable I think for a lot.of the use cases they're important I.always start off with what not the.technology but what's the business.problem or the public health challenge.that we're trying to solve and then do.the math to see if adopting these.technologies has a return on.that's been in many cases I think it.will anyone else I think this is a.fantastic question how can we ensure.that we're innovating responsibly.specifically being sensitive to job.changes due to automation and the.expense of new technology to small farms.I think I'll go back to my example I.used to the importance of Ag education.at starting at the school level and.being able to help those folks those.young people one understand the.opportunity that this industry has it's.it's phenomenal it's tremendous.there's just unjust can't imagine the.amount of opportunity that there is but.being able to help them understand that.they can't just necessarily train for a.specific role and job that they'll have.forever in their career they have to.learn the skills that it will allow them.to adapt and to be able to change it may.have to change numerous times but if you.understand that early on and I think.again I'll go back to what Agri Novus.Indiana is doing they're trying to help.people understand there's a lot of.opportunity here and you may be you know.you may be an have to have some skills.and engineering you may have to have.some some skills and agronomy but be.able to be flexible and and not just.pigeonhole yourself into one area is.important that's that's gonna be so.critical for the future because we all.know it's going to it's going to change.very rapidly I'm often concerned about.that I was concerned about it then my.prior employer I'm concerned about it it.might in my current role with the.federal government we just number one.have to be mindful we cannot do this in.a way that creates what I refer to as a.digital divide the big players can do.this and the small farmers cannot I'm.absolutely persuaded that if we do this.the right way it actually provides.incentives for small growers and they.can participate what we're talking about.is digitally connected ecosystem the.food system that I at the end of the day.I'm convinced will result in some.disintermediation.gets people nervous disintermediation.but I actually think that might be good.for small growers if you look at what's.happened in developing economies around.the world and when farmers get access to.some of these tools you know you've seen.some of these reports when farmers got.access to a mobile phone what happened.sales increased and I think they will.potentially be able to be linked with.buyers they can compete with some of the.larger brick-and-mortar entities and so.I think if we do this in a way and it.helps level the playing field I think we.need to kind of months ago for your.comments anybody think we need to teach.more morals and ethics than our school.systems both both probably elementary.high school and even college education.it's and not just in agriculture I know.I think there's an awful there's a lot.of lack of morals and ethics sometimes.and a lot of different areas of society.that I see and I think some people just.don't understand that it's a human.responsibility to do the right thing I.really believe in doing the right thing.and dedicated my life to that but I meet.a lot of people that don't so I think if.we could teach more of in our school.systems than why it's the right thing.and why it's a good thing and and how it.helps the next generation I think you.could maybe gain on it comment about.about smaller farms again there's.tremendous opportunity one of the things.that Frank talked about when we think.about the Food Safety Modernization Act.when that came out a lot of people and I.think Frank knows is a lot of people in.that in that part of the the production.change they were very very worried they.were very scared that again the big big.arm of government was going to come down.upon them we've got a person in our.department through our State Department.of Health through work with funds.through FDA we're starting to go to the.small and medium sized we don't have a.lot of the huge produce farms that say.the West does or whatever but we're.specifically going through education.with these folks about looking at what.the Food Safety Modernization Act could.do to benefit them and the conversations.that that are the person that's working.on this is having with some of these.folks.I just had a conversation about two.weeks ago with her she said it's been.great because a lot of these folks have.understood that this does not need to be.onerous and it but it can in fact be.very beneficial to their business and.and Frank and I were talking earlier you.know it doesn't matter what size.business you make somebody's sick with.their food and that's not a good day and.I think even small farms understand.whether it's at farmer's markets or if.they're selling from their farm you've.got to be able to produce a safe product.that people are going to enjoy well I.think you all have brought very.interesting and unique perspectives on.AG innovation certainly helped inform my.my thinking I appreciate the opportunity.to visit with all of you today on stage.and I'm sure our audience does as well.so please join me and given the.panelists a round of applause.you.

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How do I fill out a CLAT 2019 application form?

How do I fill out the college preference form of the CLAT 2019? If you are AIR 1 and eligible for admission to all 21 NLUs, which one would you prefer? That is your first choice. Your first choice is not available. Out of the remaining 20, you are eligible for all 20. Which one will you prefer? That is your second choice. Your second choice is not available. Out of the remaining 19, you are eligible for all 19. Which one will you prefer? That is your third choice. Repeat the process till you have ranked all 21 NLUs. All the best.

How do I fill out the NEET 2019 application form?

Though the procedure is same as last earlier only the dates has been changed (tentative) yet to be announced by cbse u can fill form in October for the exam of February and in March for the exam of may if u r not satisfied with ur previous performance. All the best

How can I fill out the BITSAT Application Form 2019?

Hi dear First You have To sign Up Registration On BITSAT official website, and then fill up all of requirement they have to Know after registration successfully you have to fill login detail on the official website to process application form for different course you have to become eligible , for more detail all about you can Click Here

How can I fill out the COMEDK 2019 application form?

Go to homepage of COMEDK go to www. Comedk. org. in. then go register and after getting registered u will get a application number then u can proceed in the application form.

How do I fill out the Rai Publication Scholarship Form 2019?

Rai Publication Scholarship Exam 2019- Rai Publication Scholarship Form 5th, 8th, 10th & 12th. Rai Publication Scholarship Examination 2019 is going to held in 2019 for various standards 5th, 8th, 10th & 12th in which interested candidates can apply for the following scholarship examination going to held in 2019. This scholarship exam is organized by the Rai Publication which will held only in Rajasthan in the year 2019. Students can apply for the following scholarship examination 2019 before the last date of application that is 15 January 2019. The exam will be conducted district wise in Rajasthan State by the Rai Publication before June 2019. Students of class 5th, 8th, 10th and 12th can fill online registration for Rai Publication scholarship exam 2019. Exam is held in February in all districts of Rajasthan. Open registration form using link given below. In the scholarship examination, the scholarship will be given to the 20 topper students from each standard of 5th, 8th, 10th & 12th on the basis of lottery which will be equally distributed among all 20 students. The declaration of the prize will be announced by July 2019. राय पब्लिकेशन छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा का आयोजन सत्र 2019 में किया जाएगा कक्षा 5वी , 8वी , 10वी एवं 12वी के लिए, इच्छुक अभ्यार्थी आवेदन कर सकते है इस छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा 2019 के लिए | यह छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा राजस्थान में राइ पब्लिकेशन के दवारा की जयगी सत्र 2019 में | इच्छुक अभ्यार्थी एक परीक्षा कर सकते है आखरी तारीख 15 जनवरी 2019 से पहले | यह परिखा राजस्थान छेत्र में जिला स्तर पर कराई जाएगी राइ पब्लिकेशन के दवारा जून 2019 से पहले | इस छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा में, छात्रव्रत्ति 20 विजेता छात्र छात्राओं दो दी जयेगी जिसमे हर कक्षा के 20 छात्र होंगे जिन्हे बराबरी में बाटा जयेगा। पुरस्कार की घोसणा जुलाई 2019 में की जयेगी | Rai Publication Scholarship Exam 2019 information : This scholarship examination is conducted for 5th, 8th, 10th & 12th standard for which interested candidates can apply which a great opportunity for the students. The exam syllabus will be based according to the standards of their exam which might help them in scoring in the Rai Publication Scholarship Examination 2019. The question in the exam will be multiple choice questions (MCQ’s) and there will be 100 multiple choice questions. To apply for the above scholarship students must have to fill the application form but the 15 January 2019. यह छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा कक्षा कक्षा 5वी , 8वी , 10वी एवं 12वी के लिए आयोजित है जिसमे इच्छुक अभ्यार्थी पंजीकरण करा सकते है जोकि छात्र छात्राओं के लिए एक बड़ा अवसर होगा | राय पब्लिकेशन छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा 2019 परीक्षा का पाठ्यक्रम कक्षा अनुसार ही होगा जोकि उन्हें प्राथम आने में सहयोग प्रदान करेगा | परीक्षा के प्रश्न-पत्र में सारे प्रश्न बहुविकल्पीय प्रश्न होंगे एवं प्रश्न-पत्र में कुल 100 प्रश्न दिए जायेंगे | इस छात्रव्रत्ति परीक्षा को देने क लिए अभयार्थियो को पहले पंजीकरण करना अनिवार्य होगा जोकि ऑनलाइन होगा जिसकी आखरी तारीख 15 जनवरी 2019 है | Distribution of Rai Publication Deskwork Scholarship Exam 2019: 5th Class Topper Prize Money:- 4 Lakh Rupees 8th Class Topper Prize Money:- 11 Lakh Rupees 10th Class Topper Prize Money:- 51 Lakh Rupees 12thClass Topper Prize Money:- 39 Lakh Rupees How to fill Rai Publication Scholarship Form 2019 : Follow the above steps to register for the for Rai Publication Scholarship Examination 2019: Candidates can follow these below given instructions to apply for the scholarship exam of Rai Publication. The Rai Publication Scholarship application form is available in the news paper (Rajasthan Patrika.) You can also download it from this page. It also can be downloaded from the last page of your desk work. Application form is also given on the official website of Rai Publication: Rai Publication - Online Book Store for REET RPSC RAS SSC Constable Patwar 1st 2nd Grade Teacher Now fill the details correctly in the application form. Now send the application form to the head office of Rai Publication. Rai Publication Website Link Click Here Head Office Address of Rai Publication Shop No: -24 & 25, Bhagwan Das Market, Chaura Rasta, Jaipur, Rajasthan PIN Code:- 302003 Contact No.- 0141 232 1136 Source : Rai Publication Scholarship Exam 2019

How do I apply for a USDA job?

There may be other alternatives, however, if you’re looking for a job with the Federal Government, go to ‘USAJobs.’ They should have what your looking for. Best of luck to you.

How much does a USDA food inspector make?

Wow! This is a huge question. As I’ve stated in previous posts, you have to know the food truck business model you’re working. Then within the model there are many variables that will affect your profit: location business model type of food weather available clients how well you did food cost amount of employees to staff cost of event or rent if you’re still recouping initial investment So… all of that said, some events can be great. I’ve heard of clients consistently pulling $4–6,000 a big event with the right promoter. I’ve heard of clients making $100 and having a lot of extra food. The trick is the Continue Reading

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